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					    INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL Technology (IJCIET), ISSN 0976 – 6308 (Print),
International Journal of Civil Engineering andOF CIVIL ENGINEERING AND
ISSN 0976 – 6316(Online) Volume 4, Issue 6, November – December (2013), © IAEME
                               TECHNOLOGY (IJCIET)

ISSN 0976 – 6308 (Print)
ISSN 0976 – 6316(Online)                                                       IJCIET
Volume 4, Issue 6, November – December, pp. 89-100
© IAEME: www.iaeme.com/ijciet.asp
Journal Impact Factor (2013): 5.3277 (Calculated by GISI)                   ©IAEME
www.jifactor.com




     SCOPE FOR REUSE OF COPPER SLAG IN CONCRETE – A REVIEW

        M.Chockalingam*,        D.Jayganesh**,      J.Vijayaraghavan**,      Dr.J.Jegan****

                 *Assistant Engineer, Highways Department, Natham, TN, India,
    **Assistant Professor, Department of Civil Engineering, University College of Engineering,
                                  Ramanathapuram-TN, India,
    ****Professor & Head, Department of Civil Engineering, University College of Engineering,
                                  Ramanathapuram-TN, India




ABSTRACT

        Industries produce things with by-product. Proper handling of waste material resulting from the
industries has recently become environmental concern besides resource management. The effluent
from the copper making manufacturing industry is termed as slag. Numerous research works have been
done to evaluate the suitability of copper slag for reuse. In lieu of its physical and mechanical
properties, slag is reusable in the applications viz: Cement Clinker Production, Blended Cement,
Concrete, Fine aggregate, Replacement for cement, Replacement for both sand and cement, Corrosion
resistant and Reduce seismic force and earth pressure A comprehensive review of studies on the
reuse of copper slag is presented.

Key Word: Copper Slag, Review, Fine Aggregate, Admixture.

PREAMBLE

       Day to day activities of human kind involve production of many things required for
consumption and other purposes. Industries form very important units in manufacturing essentials
goods. By product, which results from the process of making, invites care in the safe disposal. “Mass
can neither be created nor destroyed” is the law of conservation of mass. According to the above law,
total mass on the universe remains constant. As the water present in various forms (sea water, clouds,
rainwater, ice, water vapour, surface water and groundwater) in the hydrological cycle, raw material
used in the manufacturing process appears into product and by-product. The concept of reuse of
waste/by-product has now-a-days become both environmental concern and resources management.
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ISSN 0976 – 6316(Online) Volume 4, Issue 6, November – December (2013), © IAEME

Here an attempt has been made to compile the various studies done on the reuse of copper slag in
concrete.
        The by-product discharged from the copper manufacturing industry is called as slag. About 2.2
tonnes of copper slag result in every ton of copper production. Approximately 24.6 million tons of
slag are generated from the world copper industry (Gorai et al, 2003). The copper slag is a by-product
of operation of reverberatory furnaces. Impurities form a less dense liquid floating on top of the copper
melt. These impurities include iron, lime, silica, and form the slag. The slag is skimmed off the top, while
the melted material which has up to 50 percent copper, is called matte. The copper matte goes through
a converter to blow forced air into it. The air forces silica back into the copper matte to collect the
impurities and make more slag. The slag is skimmed off and air cooled.
        By virtue of Copper slag’s mechanical and chemical characteristics, it becomes usable material
in concrete as a partial replacement for Portland cement or as a substitute for aggregates. Copper slag
has a number of interesting mechanical properties such as excellent soundness characteristics, good
abrasion resistance and good stability for using as aggregate (Gorai et al 2003).

PRODUCTION OF COPPER SLAG

        In the separation of copper, slag is a by-product obtained during the matte smelting and
refining of copper has been reported by Biswas and Davenport (2002). The major constituent of a
smelting charge are sulphides and oxides of iron and copper. The charge also contains oxides such as
SiO2, Al2O3 CaO and MgO, which are either present in original concentrate or added as flux. It is Iron,
Copper, Sulphur, Oxygen and their oxides which largely control the chemistry and physical
constitution of smelting system. A further important factor is the oxidation/reduction potential of the
gases which are used to heat and melt the charge stated by Gorai et al (2002). As a result of this process
copper- rich matte (sulphides) and copper slag (oxides) are formed as two separate liquid phases. The
addition of silica during smelting process forms strongly bonded silicate anions by combining with the
oxides.
        This reaction produces copper slag phase, whereas sulphide from matte phase, due to low
tendency to form the anion complexes. Silica is added directly for the most complete isolation of
copper in matte which occurs at near saturation concentration with SiO2. The slag structure is
stabilized with the addition of lime and alumina. The molten slag is discharged from the furnace at
1000-1300ºC.When liquid is cooled slowly; it forms a dense, hard crystalline product, while a
granulated amorphous slag is formed through quick solidification by pouring molten slag.

Physical and Chemical composition

       The physical and chemical properties of copper slag, reported elsewhere, are presented in table
1 and 2 respectively.




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                                 Table 1. Physical properties of copper slag
                                    Brinda et al, (2010),
                                                                          Arino and           Chavan and
    Physical Properties           Brinda and Nagan,(2010)
                                                                        Mobasher(2010)       Kulkarni, (2013)
                                  Brinda and Nagan(2011)

 Particle shape                             Irregular                         ----                    ----
 Appearance                             Black & glassy                        ----
 Type                                       Air cooled                        ----
 pecific gravity                            3.91,3.68                         3.5                     ----
 Percentage of voids                         43.20%                           ----                    -----
 Bulk density                     2.08 g/cc, 1.70 to 1.90 g/cc                ----               2.8 to 3.8 g/cc
 Fineness modulus of copper
                                              3.47                            ----                    -----
 slag
 Angle of internal friction                  51° 20’                          ----                    -----

 Particle size                       0.075 mm to 4.75 mm                Less than 50 mm           -----
 Hardness                               Between 6and 7                      (<50%)
                                                                              -----          Between 6and 7
 Chloride                                   11 mg/l                           ----                     -----

      The specific gravity varies from 3.5 to 3.91. Bulk density is in the order of 1.70 to 3.8 g/cc.
The Fe2O3 content in the slag fluctuates between 53 % to 68.29%. While the SiO2 content varying in
between 25.84% to 35%, the Al2O3 concentration is in the order of 0.22% to 5 %.

                        Table 2 Chemical composition of copper slag (% composition)
                             Brinda et al, (2010),
                                 Brinda and
           Chemical                                        Arino and      Meenakshi Sudarvizhi       Alnuaimi
 Sl. No                         Nagan,(2010)
          Compounds                                      Mobasher, (2010) and Elangovan (2011)        (2012)
                                 Brinda and
                                Nagan,(2011)

    1            Fe2O3              68.29                       53                    55               53.45

    2            SiO2               25.84                       35                    27                 33

    3            Al2O3               0.22                       5.00                 <3.0               2.79
    4            CaO                 0.15                       3.30                 1-3.5              6.06
    5            MgO                 0.2                        ----                 ----               1.56
    6            Na2O                0.58                       -----                -----              0.28
    7            K2O                 0.23                       ----                 ----               0.61
    8        Mn2O3                   0.22                       -----                -----              0.06
    9            TiO2                0.41                       ----                 ----                0
   10            CuO                 1.2                        -----                 <1                 ---
   11          LOI                   6.59                       ----                 ----               ----
            Insoluble
   12                               14.88                       -----                -----              ----
             residue

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         CaO content is in the order of 0.15% to 3.30%. It indicates that has low lime content. Slag also
exhibits pozzolanic properties since it contains low CaO. Under activation with NaOH, it can exhibit
cementitious property and can be used as partial or full replacement for Portland cement. The
utilization of copper slag for applications such as Portland cement replacement in concrete, or as raw
material has the dual benefit of eliminating the cost of disposal and lowering the cost of the concrete.
The use of copper slag in the concrete industry as a replacement for cement can have the benefit of
reducing the costs of disposal and help in protecting the environment. Despite the fact that several
studies have been reported on the effect of copper slag replacement on the properties of Concrete,
further investigations are necessary in order to obtain a comprehensive understanding that would
provide an engineering base to allow the use of copper slag in concrete. This slag is currently being
used for many purposes. It is a glassy granular material with high specific gravity particle sizes.

USES OF COPPER SLAG

        In order to proper disposal and the management of copper slag, suitability for reuse as a
resource management and environmental protection has been evaluated extensively. The copper slag
has the following applications

         Cement Clinker Production
         Blended Cement
         Concrete
         Fine aggregate
         Replacement for cement,
         Replacement for both sand and cement
         Corrosion resistant, and
         Reduce seismic force and earth pressure

        Numerous studies have been carried out on the possibilities of reusing the copper slag in the said
applications. The findings of the earlier researches with the findings are summarized in tabular form for
the quick understanding (Table 3).

         Table 3. Research studies on copper slag with the experimental parameter and findings
 Sl.No         Authors              Experiment                               Observations

   1      Chavan abd           Investigation on the       Maximum Compressive strength of concrete increased
          Kulkarni (2013)      effect of using copper     by 55% at 40% replacement of fine aggregate by copper
                               slag as a replacement of   slag, and up to 75% replacement, concrete gain more
                               fine aggregate on the      strength than control mix concrete strength.
                               strength properties        For all percentage replacement of fine aggregate by
                                                          Copper slag the flexural strength of concrete is more
                                                          than control mix.
                                                          The flexural strength of concrete at 28 days is higher
                                                          than design mix (Without replacement) for 20%
                                                          replacement of fine aggregate by Copper slag, the
                                                          flexural strength of concrete is increased by 14%.
                                                          This also indicates flexural strength is more for all
                                                          percentage replacements than design mix.
                                                          Compressive strength and flexural Strength is increased
                                                          due to high toughness of Copper slag.



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   2    Alnuaimi (2012)       Use of copper slag (CS)      Replacement of up to 40% of FA with CS caused
                              as a replacement for         no major changes in column failure load increasing
                              fine aggregate (FA) in       the ratio of CS to FA reduced the concrete strength
                              RC slender columns           and column failure load, and increased concrete
                                                           slump and lateral and vertical deflections.

   3    Brindha, and          Durability of copper         The strength of concrete increases with respect to
        Nagan (2011)          slag admixed concrete        the percentage of slag added by weight of fine
                                                           aggregate up to 40% of additions and 15% of
                                                           cement..

   4    Meenakshi           Performance of Copper          Up to 80% of CS&FS can be used as replacement
        Sudarvizhi.S,       slag and ferrous slag as       of sand. The studies show that total replacement of
        Ilangovan. R (2011) partial replacement of         sand by CS&FS is not advisable.
                            sand in Concrete

   5    Brindha, and          The effect of replacing      The percentage replacement of sand by granulated
        Nagan (2010)          fine aggregate by            copper slag were 0%,5%,10%,15%,20%,30%,40%
                              copper slag on the           and 50%. The compressive strength was observed
                              compressive strength         to increase by about 35-40% and split tensile
                              and split tensile strength   strength by 30-35%. The experimental
                                                           investigation showed that percentage replacement
                                                           of sand by copper slag shall be upto 40%.

   6    Brindha, Baskarn      Experimental study on        Compressive strength and split tensile strength
        and Nagan (2010)      various corrosion and        have shown that copper slag is superior to
                              durability tests on          corresponding control concrete the corrosion rate
                              concrete containing          of copper slag admixed uncoated rebar is
                              copper slag as partial       somewhat higher when compared to controlled
                              replacement of sand and      specimens. But when the rebar is coated with zinc
                              cement                       phosphate paint the corrosion rate had become
                                                           zero.

   7    Al-Jabri et al (2009) Performance of high          A slight increase in the HPC density of nearly 5%
                              strength concrete with       with increase of copper slag content, whereas the
                              slag as fine aggregate       workability increased rapidly with increase in
                              and studied the effect of    copper slag percentage. Addition of upto 50% of
                              super plasticizer            copper slag as sand replacement yielded
                              addition on the              comparable strength with that of the control mix.
                              properties of HSC made       However, further additions of copper slag caused
                              with copper slag             reduction in the strength due to an increase of the
                                                           free water content in the mix

   8    Ishimaru et al        The fundamental              Up to 20% (in volume) of copper slag or class II fly
        (2005)                properties of concrete       ash as fine aggregates substitution can be used in
                              using copper slag and        the production of concrete
                              class II fly ash as fine
                              aggregates




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   9    Wu et al (2010)       Dynamic compressive          Dynamic compressive strength of copper slag
                              strength of copper slag      reinforced concrete generally improved with the
                              reinforced concrete          increase in amounts of copper slag used as a sand
                                                           replacement upto 20%, compared with the control
                                                           concrete, beyond which the strength was reduced

  10    Mobasher et al       Effect of copper slag on      A significant increase in the compressive strength
        (1996) and Tixier et the hydration of              for up to 90 days of hydration. Also, a decrease in
        al (1997)            cement-based materials        capillary porosity and an increase in gel porosity

  11    Al-Jabri et al (2002) Effect of copper slag        The mixture containing 5% CBPD + 95% cement
                              (CS) and cement              yielded the highest 90 days compressive strength
                              by-pass dust (CBPD)          of 42 MPa in comparison with 40 MPa for the
                              replacements on the          mixture containing 1.5% CBPD + 13.5 CS + 85%
                              strength of cement           cement. The optimum CS and CBPD used was 5%.
                              mortars.                     In addition, it was determined that using CBPD as
                                                           an activating material would operate better than
                                                           using lime.

  12    Ayano et al (2000)    The effects of using         The strength, setting time and durability of
                              several types of slag on     concrete mixtures made with copper slag
                              mortar and concrete
                              reactions, reinforcing
                              steel corrosion,
                              abrasion, workability
                              and slump, shrinkage,
                              and freezing and
                              thawing characteristics

  13    Washington            Investigated the             Addition of copper slag to concrete results in an
        Almeida Moura et      strength                     increase on the concrete’s axial compressive,
        al (2007)                                          splitting tensile strength and decrease in the
                                                           absorption rate by capillary suction, carbonation
                                                           depth and hence improved its durability

  14    Madhavi et al         Stabilize the slope in       The wall constructed with copper slag backfill
        (2007)                retaining walls against      showed lesser faces deformations compared with
                              seismic forces using         sand.
                              copper slag as backfill
                              material
  15    Al-Jabri et al (2011) Effect of using copper       All mixtures with different copper slag proportions
                              slag as a fine aggregate     yielded comparable or higher compressive strength
                              on the properties of         than that of the control mixture. More than 70%
                              cement mortars and           improvement in the compressive strength of
                              concrete                     mortars with 50% copper slag substitution

  16    Isa Yuksel            The possible usage of        Compression strength was decreased slightly,
        and                   bottom ash (BA) and          durability characteristics such as resistance of
        Turhan Bilir (2007)   granulated blast furnace     freeze–thaw and abrasion were improved. The
                              slag (GBFS) in               results showed that usage of partially fine
                              production of plain          aggregate of these industrial by-products have
                              concrete elements.           more beneficial effects on durability characteristics
                                                           of plain concrete elements

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  17    Ramazan Demirbog      The use of Blast furnace    Compressive strength of BFSA concretes were
        and                   slag aggregates (BFSA)      approximately 60–80% higher than traditional
        Rustem Gul (2007)     to produce                  (control) concretes for different w/c ratios. These
                              high-strength concretes     concretes also had low absorption and high
                              (HSC).                      splitting tensile strength values. Therefore, it was
                                                          concluded that BFSA, in combination with other
                                                          supplementary cementitious materials, can be
                                                          utilized in making high strength concretes.
  18    Caroline              Ferro-silicate slag from    The replacement of sand in concrete mixes with
        Morrison et al        the Imperial Smelting       Ferro silicate slag from the ISF production of zinc
        (2003)                Furnace (ISF)               (ISF slag) caused a retardation of concrete set.
                              production of zinc can      The leaching of lead and zinc ions was increased in
                              be used as a                high pH solutions. However, the combination of
                              replacement for sand in     ISF slag and PFA or GGBS reduced leaching, even
                              cementitious mixes          in highly alkaline solutions containing PFA.

  19    Byung Sik Chun et     Evaluated the               The strength of composite ground was compared
        al (2005)             applicability of copper     and analyzed by monitoring the stress and ground
                              slag as a substitute for    settlement of clay, sand compaction pile and
                              sand of sand                copper slag compaction pile
                              compaction pile method

  20    Teik-Thye Lim         Feasibility of using        The spent copper slag was a good fill material and
        and Chu (2006)        spent copper slag as fill   it can be used as a fill material for land reclamation
                              material in land
                              reclamation

  21    Mobasher et al        The effect of copper        Fracture properties such as critical stress intensity
        (1996                 slag on the hydration of    factor and fracture toughness showed a constant or
                              cement based materials      decreasing trend with the addition slag.

  22    Tixier et al (1997)   The effect of copper        A decrease in capillary porosity was observed
                              slag on the hydration of    while the gel porosity decreased. A significant
                              cement based materials      increase in the compressive strength was observed.

  23    Caijun Shi            Review                      Copper slag such as blast furnace slag, steel slag,
        and Jueshi Qian                                   alkali-activated slag and phosphorus slag exhibit
        (1999)                                            not only higher early and later strength, but also
                                                          better corrosion resistance than normal Portland
                                                          cement.The production of Portland cement is an
                                                          energy-intensive process, while the grinding of
                                                          metallurgical slags needs only approximately 10%
                                                          of the energy required for the production of
                                                          Portland cement.
                                                          Activation of latent pozzolanic or cementitious
                                                          properties of metallurgical Slags should be a prime
                                                          topic for construction materials researchers.

  24    Arino and             The effect of ground        GCS concrete was stronger but more brittle than
        Mobasher (1999)       copper slag on the          ordinary Portland cement concrete. Fracture test
                              strength and fracture of    results confirmed the increased brittleness of
                              cement-based materials      concrete due to the use of GCS. Long-term results
                                                          showed equal or higher strengths for the GCS
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                                                         specimens without concern for degradation of
                                                         other properties

  25    Sioulas and           Use of slag-blended        The peak and net temperature rise encountered at
        Sanjayan (2000)       cements in the             the center of the columns are substantially reduced
                              production of HSC          with the inclusion of slag into the binder. A
                                                         progressive reduction in maximum net temperature
                                                         rise was obtained with increasing slag content. The
                                                         inclusion of slag into the concrete binder results in
                                                         a delay in time required to attain peak temperature.
                                                         The maximum thermal gradients exhibited by the
                                                         general purpose columns were significantly
                                                         reduced when slag was incorporated into the
                                                         concrete. The removal of the formwork at 24 h
                                                         exacerbated the temperature difference between
                                                         the center and surface of the columns containing a
                                                         slag replacement equal to or greater than 50%.

  26    Washington            Use of copper slag as      The addition of copper slag to concrete results in
        Almeida Moura et      pozzolanic                 an increase on the concrete’s axial compressive
        al 2007               supplementary              and splitting tensile strengths.
                              cementing material for     It was observed that a decrease in the absorption
                              use in concrete            rate by capillary suction, absorption and
                                                         carbonation depth in the copper slag concrete
                                                         tested improved its durability.

  27    Ayano Toshiki et al   Problems in using       The delay of setting time does not have a negative
        (2000)                copper slag as a        influence on durability.
                              concrete aggregate. One
                              of them is excess
                              bleeding attributed to
                              the glassy surface of
                              copper slag

  28    Ke Ru Wu et al        The effect of copper       High-strength concrete with lower brittleness can
        (2001)                slag in coarse aggregate   be made by selecting high-strength aggregate with
                              type on mechanical         low brittleness.
                              properties of
                              high-performance
                              concrete.

  29    Alpa and Deveci       Potential use of         The mechanical performance of the standard
        (2008)                flotation waste of a     mortars prepared from the FWCS clinkers was
                              copper slag as iron      found to be similar to those of the iron ore clinkers
                              source in the production
                              of Portland cement
                              clinker

  30    Mostafa Khanzadi      The feasibility of using   Copper slag as coarse aggregate in high-strength
        and Ali Behnood       copper slag as coarse      concrete is technically possible and useful
        (2009)                aggregates in
                              high-strength concrete



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  31     Najimi et al (2011)   The performance of       The effectiveness of copper slag replacement in
                               copper slag contained    improving the concrete resistance against sulphate
                               concrete in sulphate     attack
                               solution

  32     Jack et al (2003)     The effect of            Carbonation may compensate some concrete
                               carbonation on           properties such as compressive strength, splitting
                               mechanical properties    strength, electrical resistivity and chloride ion
                               and durability of        penetration. However, corrosion test results
                               concrete                 showed that carbonation increases corrosion rate of
                                                        reinforcing steel.



CONCLUSION

       Copper slag has harness in the range 6 to 7. The specific gravity varies from 3.5 to 3.91. Bulk
density is in the order of 1.70 to 3.8 g/cc. The Fe2O3 content in the slag fluctuates between 53 % to
68.29%. While the SiO2 content varying in between 25.84% to 35%, the Al2O3 concentration is in the
order of 0.22% to 5 %. Due to the physical and mechanical property, slag enjoys various reuse
applications. Reuse of copper slag has the dual benefit of safe disposal and judicial resource
management. Application in concrete as an admixture, replacement of cement and as a fine aggregate
has very good scope in the future. Further research is warranted to analyze the scope for reuse
extensively.

REFERENCES

  1.   Akihiko, Y. and Takashi, Y. “Study of utilisation of copper slag as fine aggregate for
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  56. D.Jayganesh, Dr. J.Jegan and Dr.P.Mariappan, “Impact of Staging Height of Service Reservoir
      on the Installation Cost of Water Supply Scheme - A Case Study”, International Journal of
      Civil Engineering & Technology (IJCIET), Volume 4, Issue 5, 2013, pp. 181 - 190, ISSN Print:
      0976 – 6308, ISSN Online: 0976 – 6316.
  57. A.Raja Jeya Chandra Bose, Dr.T.R.Neelakantan and Dr.P.Mariappan, “Peak Factor in the
      Design of Water Distribution- An Analysis”, International Journal of Civil Engineering &
      Technology (IJCIET), Volume 3, Issue 2, 2012, pp. 123 - 129, ISSN Print: 0976 – 6308,
      ISSN Online: 0976 – 6316.
  58. Dr. P. Mariappan, “Wastewater Management in a Dwelling House- A Case Study”,
      International Journal of Civil Engineering & Technology (IJCIET), Volume 3, Issue 2, 2012,
      pp. 16 - 24, ISSN Print: 0976 – 6308, ISSN Online: 0976 – 6316.
  59. Amena.I.Tamboli and Dr. S.B. Shinde, “Partial Replacement of Cement with Unprocessed
      Steel Slag in Concrete”, International Journal of Civil Engineering & Technology (IJCIET),
      Volume 4, Issue 5, 2013, pp. 55 - 60, ISSN Print: 0976 – 6308, ISSN Online: 0976 – 6316.
  60. Riyaz Khan and Prof.S.B.Shinde, “Effect of Unprocessed Steel Slag on the Strength of
      Concrete When used as Fine Aggregate”, International Journal of Civil Engineering &
      Technology (IJCIET), Volume 4, Issue 2, 2013, pp. 231 - 239, ISSN Print: 0976 – 6308,
      ISSN Online: 0976 – 6316.




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