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					Green Infrastructure Concepts
              for Urban Areas
                                May 2012

                               Chris Kloss
                   US EPA Office of Water
         2012 Annual 507 Program Training




                                             1
Natural Conditions




                     2
3
Stormwater Impacts

Combined sewer systems
 in 746 municipalities in
 31 states and the District
 of Columbia.
An estimated 850 billion
 gallons of CSO discharges
 each year.
In 2010, stormwater
 caused more than 8,700
 beach closing and
 advisory days; sewage
 spills and overflows
 caused more than 1,800.      Sources:
                               Natural Resources Defense Council, Testing the Waters, June 2011.
                               U.S. EPA, Clean Watersheds Needs Survey 2004 Report to Congress, January
                               2008.
Stormwater Impacts
   Why the Interest in Green Infrastructure?
 ASCE assessment of U.S. water
  infrastructure:
  ◦ Grade of D-
  ◦ Identified investment needs
    of $255 billion.
 EPA analysis of wastewater
  and stormwater infrastructure
  needs:
    ◦ Nearly $300 billion of required
      investment
          $60 billion for CSO control
          $40 billion for stormwater
           management

American Society of Civil Engineers, (2010), Report Card for America’s
Infrastructure.
U.S. EPA, (2010), Clean Watersheds Need Survey: 2008 Report to Congress,
Office of Wastewater Management, EPA 832-F-10-010.
                                                                           Street flooding after ½” rainfall in Ocean City, NJ, August 9, 2011




                                                                                                                                                 8
Greatest Civil Engineering Feat
& Advance in Public Health




                                  9
Greener Infrastructure




                                                 Bioretention Cell in El Monte, CA. Photo courtesy
                                                                    of Bill DePoto.




   Seattle bioswale. Photo courtesy of Seattle Public Utilities.
Green Infrastructure Practices
 Bioretention
  ◦ Rain gardens
  ◦ Bioswales
  ◦ Planter boxes
 Green roofs
 Permeable pavement
  ◦ Green streets/alleys
 Trees
 Compost amendments
 Rainwater harvesting
                           Rain garden in parking lot island.




                                                                11
Making the Landscaping Hydrologically Functional




          Permeable pavement and bioretention in Albuquerque, NM. Photo courtesy of
                                        AridLID.org.
                                                                                      12
Southern California Bioretention




                                       Bioretention used to treat roadway runoff in Downey, CA.
                                                     Photo courtesy of Bill DePoto.


      Photo courtesy of Bill DePoto.
Parking Lot Retrofits




Infiltration Planter in Denver, CO. Photo courtesy of
                        Bill Wenk.



                                                        Pervious Paver Parking Stalls, Redlands, CA.
                                                               Photo courtesy of Jeff Endicott.




                                                                                                       14
Downspout Disconnection Programs

  Portland’s subsidized downspout
   disconnection program disconnected
   downspouts for free or pays
   homeowners $26/downspout.
   ◦ 60,000 downspouts disconnected =
      1.5 billion gallons eliminated out of
      CSS each year.
  Toronto disconnects downspouts for
   free.




                                              Vegetated Planter and disconnected downspouts
                                               at Portland State University. Photo courtesy of
                                                                Martina Frey.
                                                                                                 15
Portland, Oregon

 Vegetated Curb Extensions
  Flow testing demonstrated
   88% reduction in peak flow
   and 85% reduction in CSS
   inflow for 25-year storm
   event.
  Sufficient to protect local
   basements from flooding.
  Project cost $15,000 and
   required two weeks to install.

                                    Vegetated Curb Extensions. Photo courtesy of the
                                      Portland Bureau of Environmental Services.



                                                                                   16
   Portland Green Streets Program
§ Citywide priority – included in all
  development, redevelopment
§ 40% cost savings compared to
  conventional design
§ 80-85% CSO peak flow reduction;
§ Establishes 1% fee on street
  construction projects to establish Green
  Streets fund




                                        Slide courtesy of the Center for Neighborhood Technology.
                                                                                              17
Vancouver, British Columbia




        Infiltration bulge. Photo courtesy of City of Vancouver Greenways Program.
                                                                                     18
 Chicago Green Alleys
 13,000 alleys (more than
  1,900 miles) create 3,500
  acres of impervious surface.
 Alleys not connected to storm
  sewers, cause of flooding.
 Projects address stormwater,
  urban heat island, recycled
  materials, energy efficiency
  and light pollution.
 Early pilot alley retains the
  volume of a 3-inch, 1-hour
  event.
 Created a market for
  permeable concrete -
  $145/yd to $45/yd one year      High albedo concrete and permeable concrete trench in
                                  Chicago Alley. Photo courtesy of Abby Hall, U.S. EPA.
  later (regular concrete
  $50/yd).
                                                                                          19
EPA GI Cost-Effectiveness Study




 a The Central Park Commercial Redesigns, Crown Street, Poplar Street Apartments, Prairie Crossing, Portland Downspout
    Disconnection, and Toronto Green Roofs study results do not lend themselves to display in the format of this table.
 b Negative values denote increased cost for the LID design over conventional development costs.
 c Mill Creek costs are reported on a per-lot basis.

 U.S. EPA, Reducing Stormwater Costs through LID Strategies and Practices, 2007.

                                                                                                                          20
  Climate Impacts on Water Resources
 Decrease in the duration and extent of
  snow cover in most of North America
 Increase in the frequency of heavy
  precipitation events across the U.S.
 Increase in streamflow in the eastern U.S.
 Decrease in annual precipitation in the
  Central Rockies and Southwest
 Decrease in mountain snow water
  equivalent in Western North America
 Decrease in runoff and streamflow in the
  Colorado and Columbia River basins
 Decrease in the proportion of
  precipitation falling as snow in the West
 Increase in the periods of drought in the
  West
 Decrease of 25-40% by 2050 and                   Prettyboy Reservoir, Maryland during 2002 drought. Photo
  potentially 70-90% 2100 of the Sierra                      courtesy of National Weather Service.
  snowpack
                                               Bryson B. Bates, Z.W. Kundzewicz, S. Wu, and J.P. Palutikof, Eds., Climate Change and Water, Technical
                                               Paper of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, IPCC Secretariat, Geneva, 2008.

                                               David S. Beckman, N. Garrison, R.C. Wilkinson, and R. Horner, A Clear Blue Future: How Greening California
                                               Cities Can Address Water Resources and Climate Challenges in the 21st Century, Natural Resources Defense
                                               Council, August 2009.
                                                                                                                                                        21
Population Projections




New Water Demand: 3.2 billion gal/day


                                        22
Water Supply Sustainability




                              Source: NRDC, 201023
Water Supply Sustainability




                              Source: NRDC, 201024
U.S. Water Supply

 Universal access to
  potable water
  supplies.
 World’s 2nd
  highest per capita
  use: ~ twice that
  of Europe.
 Average 165
  gal/day per capita.

                        A.Y. Hoekstra and A.K. Chapagain, Water Footprints of Nations: Water Use by
                        People as a Function of Their Consumption Pattern, Water Resources Management
                        (2007) 21:35-48.
                                                                                                  25
Water Use




            26
Los Angeles Water Supply

 Demand of 600
  MGD.
 4.5 million kWh are
  used daily to deliver
  water.
 2,150 tons of CO2
  emitted each day for
  water delivery.
 775,000 tons of CO2
  a year – equivalent
  to 125,000 cars          California Aqueduct.




                                                  27
Houston Rainwater Harvesting




               Rainwater cisterns used to capture rainwater at the
                Texas Medical Center School of Nursing. Photo
                          courtesy of Suzanna Perea.
 King Street Center – Seattle

Rainwater harvesting
 ◦ Over 16,000 gallons of
   storage at 327,000 ft2
   King Street Center used
   for toilets and irrigation.
   Provides 60% (1.4 million
   gallons) of toilet flushing
   water annually.


                                 Cisterns at King Street Center.




                                                                   29
Additional Benefits of Green
Infrastructure
 Reduces heat island effect
 Improves air quality
 Provides wildlife habitat
  and recreational space
 Improves energy
  efficiency
 Improves urban
  aesthetics
 Increases property values
 Often less expensive than
  conventional approaches
                               Lincoln Mercury Headquarters Green Roof, Irvine,
                               CA. Photo courtesy of Roofscapes, Inc.

                                                                                  30
Chicago Green Roofs
 2 million sf built, 4
  million planned




                          § Estimated annual particulate
                            capture equivalent to 74,000 cars.
                                   Slide courtesy of the Center for Neighborhood Technology.
                                                                                               31
Urban Heat Island




The temperature above Chicago’s City Hall green roof averages 10 -15°F
lower than the black tar roof. Difference can be 50°F or greater during the
summer.
                                       Energy savings of $3,600 per year.
                                        Slide courtesy of the Center for Neighborhood Technology.
                                                                                                    32
Urban Heat Island (cont.)


 Portland Central Eastside
  Industrial District green
  roof study.
 Full implementation for 670
  acres.
 Cooling of 0.5 – 0.9°F in
  District
 Downwind cooling of 0.4°F
  up to one mile.

                                Photo courtesy of the Portland Bureau of Environmental
                                                       Services.


                                                                                         33
Real Estate Value: A Philadelphia Story

  ◦ Vacant land improvements
    increased surrounding
    housing values by as much
    as 30%.
  ◦ New tree plantings
    increased surrounding
    housing values by
    approximately 10%.
                                   Before and after conditions of a lot in
    (University of PA data)     Philadelphia treated under the Vacant Land
                                           Stabilization program.
                                Photo: Cooperative Conservation America.

                                Slide courtesy of the Center for Neighborhood
                                                                           34
                                                                  Technology.
Triple Bottom Line




                     35
             Thank you.

US EPA Green Infrastructure Program:
 www.epa.gov/greeninfrastructure




                                       36

				
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