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Introduction to Computer Engineering

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									  Introduction to Computer
         Engineering
  ECE 379 Special Topics in ECE, Spring 2006
               Prof. Mikko Lipasti
Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering
       University of Wisconsin – Madison
               Introductions
• Instructor
   – Mikko Lipasti: mikko@engr.wisc.edu, 265-2639,
     4613 EH, Office Hours: M 1-2, W 1-2:30
• Teaching Assistant
   – Payam Karbassi, pkarbassi@wisc.edu, B555 EH,
     Office Hours: T 6-7, R 3-4
• Please don’t hesitate to contact us at any
  time
             Introductions
• Academic Background
• Professional Background
• Current Interests and Activities
    Have You Ever Wondered?
•   What engineering tool enabled the Allies to crack the
    Axis cryptographic codes in World War II?
•   What’s the most complex man-made product ever
    designed?
•   Which engineering discipline employs thousands of
    engineers and generates several hundred billion
    dollars in revenue every year?
•   Which engineered product has improved in
    performance and cost by more than 10,000x over the
    last 30 years?
•   What engineering tool enabled the U.S. to win the Cold
    War in the 1980s?
•   What engineering tool enables modern weather
    forecasting and climate modeling and countless other
    previously-unimaginable applications?
 Answer: Computers, of course!
• Engineers and scientists of all disciplines rely on
  computers for many aspects of their work
   – Not just word processing, spreadsheets, CAD, etc.
   – Computational methods, data mining, analysis/synthesis are
     fundamental to advances in many fields
• Many of the advanced techniques used in today’s
  microprocessors were invented right here at UW
• Some of the most renowned computer design
  researchers in the world are on our faculty
• There is a near-100% likelihood that a Wisconsin
  graduate helped design the computer or processor that
  you own
                  This Course
This course will:
• Help you understand the significance and pervasiveness
  of computers in today’s society and economy
• Teach you how computers really operate and how they
  are designed
• Introduce you to concepts that students in the Computer
  Engineering degree program learn in depth over four
  years
• Prepare and motivate you for study in this degree
  program
• Will count towards GCR introduction to engineering
  requirement
         Performance Growth
  Unmatched by any other industry !
  [John Crawford, Intel]
• Doubling every 18 months (1982-1996): 800x
  – Cars travel at 44,000 mph and get 16,000 mpg
  – Air travel: LA to NY in 22 seconds (MACH 800)
  – Wheat yield: 80,000 bushels per acre

• Doubling every 24 months (1971-1996): 9,000x
  – Cars travel at 600,000 mph, get 150,000 mpg
  – Air travel: LA to NY in 2 seconds (MACH 9,000)
  – Wheat yield: 900,000 bushels per acre
                Technology
• Technology advances at astounding rate
  – 19th century: attempts to build mechanical
    computers
  – Early 20th century: mechanical counting systems
    (cash registers, etc.)
  – Mid 20th century: vacuum tubes as switches
  – Since: transistors, integrated circuits
• 1965: Moore’s law [Gordon Moore]
  – Predicted doubling of capacity every 18 months
  – Has held and will continue to hold
• Drives functionality, performance, cost
  – Exponential improvement for 40 years
                   Applications
• Corollary to Moore’s Law:
  Cost halves every two years
      In a decade you can buy a computer for less than its
      sales tax today. –Jim Gray
• Computers cost-effective for
  –   National security – weapons design
  –   Enterprise computing – banking
  –   Departmental computing – computer-aided design
  –   Personal computer – spreadsheets, email, web
  –   Pervasive computing – prescription drug labels
• Countless industries revolutionized
               Some History
Date Event                  Comments
1947 1st transistor         Bell Labs
1958 1st IC                 Jack Kilby (MSEE ’50) @TI
                            Winner of 2000 Nobel prize
1971   1st microprocessor   Intel (calculator market)
1974   Intel 4004           2300 transistors
1978   Intel 8086           29K transistors
1989   Intel 80486          1M transistors
1995   Intel Pentium Pro    5.5M transistors
2006   Intel Montecito      1.7B transistors
     Abstraction and Complexity
• Abstraction helps us             Application Program
  manage complexity                      CS302

• Complex interfaces                    Operating System
     – Specify what to do         Compiler
                                                CS537
     – Hide details of how         CS536
                                  Machine Language (ISA)
                                         ECE354
 l   Goal: Use abstractions yet    Computer Architecture
     still understand details             ECE552
                     Scope of         Digital Design
                                          ECE352
                    this course      Electronic circuits
                                          ECE340
        Computer As a Tool
• Many computers today are embedded
  – Fixed functionality
  – Appliance-like
  – Not really programmable by end user
• Not the focus of this course!
  – Instead, programmable computers
  – Learn to think of computer as a tool
• Program?
  – Algorithm or set of steps that computer follows
  – Human brains wired to work this way
          Course Syllabus

• Course description
• Contact information
  – Instructor: Prof. Mikko Lipasti:
    mikko@engr.wisc.edu
  – Office Hours: 4613 EH, M 1-2, W 1-2:30
  – Teaching Assistant
     • Payam Karbassi, pkarbassi@wisc.edu
     • Office Hours: B555 EH, T 6-7, R 3-4
              Course Outline
• Prerequisite – none
• Major topics in course
  –   Introduction to computers and computing
  –   Information representation and manipulation
  –   Logic elements and combinational Logic
  –   Sequential Logic and Memory
  –   Simple computer organization, design and operation
  –   Machine language and instruction set architecture
  –   Assembly language
  –   Programming constructs
          Course Information
• Textbook – Introduction to Computing Systems:
  From Bits and Gates to C and Beyond, Y. Patt
  and S. Patel, McGraw-Hill, 2nd Edition
• Homework – completed in study groups
  – Will reinforce in-class coverage
  – Will help you prepare for quizzes, exams
• Study Groups
  – Groups of 2-3, should meet weekly, learn from each
    other
  – Review material, complete homework assignments
  – Each submitted homework should include consensus-
    based statement of work
      Course Information cont’d
• Programming projects
  –   Later in the semester
  –   Will use textbook LC (little computer)
  –   Machine and assembly programming
  –   Will require documentation
• Quizzes
  – Unannounced, in-class
  – Approximately once each week
  – Keep up with readings!
• Exams
  – Midterm 1: Week of 2/20
  – Midterm 2: Week of 4/3
  – Final exam: Tues, 5/3, 10:05-12:05am
    Lecture and Discussion
• Lecture: MWF 12:05-12:55
  – Attendance required
  – Lecture notes on web page
    • Hardcopy distributed
    • Not comprehensive; take notes
• Discussion
  – Evening meeting time/place TBD
  – Homework, additional material, tutorials
                        Course Schedule
Week   Dates             Assignments           Topics                            Readings
1      1/18, 1/20                              Welcome Aboard                    Ch 1
2      1/23,1/25,1/27    HW #1 out             Bits, Data Types, and             Ch 2
                                                    Operations
3      1/30,2/1,2/3      HW #1 due             Digital Logic Structures          Ch 3
4      2/6,2/8,2/10      HW#2 out              Digital Logic Structures cont’d   Ch 3
5      2/13,2/15,2/17    HW#2 due              The von Neumann Model             Ch 4
6      2/20,2/22,2/24    Midterm 1             Review and Midterm                Ch 1, 2, 3, 4
7      2/27,3/1,3/3      HW#3 out              The LC-3                          Ch 5
8      3/6,3/8,3/10      HW#3 due, Prog#1      Programming                       Ch 6
                           out
                                       Spring Break
9      3/20,3/22,3/24    HW#4 out, Prog#1      Assembly Language                 Ch 7
                           due
10     3/27,3/29,3/31    HW#4 due, Prog#2      Input/Output                      Ch 8
                           out
11     4/3,4/5,4/7       Prog#2 due, Midterm   Review and Midterm                Ch 5, 6, 7, 8
                             2
12     4/10,4/12,4/14    HW#5 out              TRAP Routines and Subroutines     Ch 9
13     4/17,4/19,4/21    HW#5 due, Prog#3      The Stack                         Ch 10
    Tutorials and Projects
• Later in the semester
  – Unix tutorial: get comfortable with
    command line
  – Programming tools tutorial
     • “Little Computer” assembler, simulator
     • Version control
     • Etc.
• Keep an eye out for announcements
           Course Grading
•   Homework               20%
•   Programming Projects   15%
•   In-class Quizzes       15%
•   Midterm 1              15%
•   Midterm 2              15%
•   Final Exam             20%
       Additional Information
• Resources for Special Help
  – McBurney Center – alternative testing or other
    arrangements
  – Course problem consultation: Prof. Lipasti
  – Broader problem consultation: advisor or counselor
• Academic Misconduct
  – We really don’t expect it to happen
  – Please don’t disappoint us
                Wrapping Up
• Readings
  – Chapter 1: Welcome Aboard
• Homework 1
  – Distributed early next week

								
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