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Parallelization of Stochastic Evolution for Cell Placement Committee Members: Khawar S. Khan Computer Engineering MS Thesis Presentation Dr. Sadiq M. Sait Dr. Aiman El-Maleh Dr. Mohammed Al-Suwaiyel 1 Outline Problem Focus Brief Overview of Related Concepts Motivation & Literature Review Parallelization Aspects Parallel strategies: Design and Implementation Experiments and results Comparisons Contributions Conclusion & Future work 2 Problem Focus Real-World combinatorial optimization problems are complex, difficult-to-navigate and have multi-modal, vast search-spaces. Iterative Heuristics work well for such problems but incur heavy runtimes. E.g., Stochastic Evolution 3 Problem Focus Accelerating Performance – Reducing runtime with consistent quality and/or achieve higher quality solutions within comparable runtime. HOW? Parallel Computing in a Distributed Environment 4 VLSI Design Steps CAD subproblem level Behavioral/Architectural Register transfer/logic Cell/mask Generic CAD tools Behavioral Modeling and Simulation tool Functional and logic minimization, logic fitting and simulation tools Tools for partitioning, placement, routing, etc. 5 Placement Problem The problem under investigation is the VLSI standard cell placement problem Given a collection of cells or modules, the process of placement consists of finding suitable physical locations for each cell on the entire layout Finding locations that optimize given objective functions (Wire- length, Power, Area, Delay etc), subject to certain constraints imposed by the designer, the implementation process, layout strategy or the design style 6 Iterative heuristics The computational complexity increases as the module count on chip increases. For example, Alpha 21464 (EV8) "Arana" 64-bit SMT microprocessor has a transistor count of 250 million. Considering brute force solutions, a combinatorial problem having just 250 modules require 250 factorial (3.23e492) combinations to be evaluated. This is where the iterative heuristics come into the play. 7 Iterative heuristics Iterative heuristics have proven remarkably effective for many complex NP-hard optimization problems in industrial applications Placement Partitioning Network optimization Non-linear systems’ simulation 8 Iterative heuristics Characteristics Conceptually simple Robust towards real-life complexities Well suited for complex decision-support applications May be interrupted virtually at any time Storage of generated solutions 9 Iterative heuristics Following are the five dominant algorithms that are instance of general iterative non-deterministic algorithms, Genetic Algorithm (GA), Tabu Search (TS), Simulated Annealing (SA), Simulated Evolution (SimE), and Stochastic Evolution (StocE). In our research, Stochastic Evolution is used for VLSI standard cell placement. 10 Stochastic Evolution (StocE) (Historical Background) Stochastic Evolution (StocE) is a powerful general and randomized iterative heuristic for solving combinatorial optimization problems. The first paper describing Stochastic Evolution appeared in 1989 by Youssef Saab. 11 Stochastic Evolution (Characterstics) It is stochastic because the decision to accept a move is a probabilistic decision Good moves are accepted with probability one and bad moves may also get accepted with a non-zero probability. Hill-climbing property. Searches for solutions within the constraints while optimizing the objective function. 12 Stochastic Evolution (Algorithm) Inputs to the algorithm: Initial valid solution, Initial Range variable po, and Termination parameter R. 13 Stochastic Evolution (Algorithm) 14 Stochastic Evolution (Application) Applied on VLSI placement problem. Cost Function A multi-objective function that calculates the wire-length, power and delay. The three objectives are combined and represented as one objective through fuzzy calculations. 15 Stochastic Evolution (Cost Functions) Wire-length Calculation 16 Stochastic Evolution (Cost Functions) Power Calculation Delay Calculation 17 Stochastic Evolution (Cost Functions) Fuzzy Cost Calculation is the membership of solution x in fuzzy set of acceptable solutions. for j = p,d,l are the membership values in the fuzzy sets within acceptable power length, delay and wire-length respectively. is a constant in the range [0,1]. 18 Motivation & Literature Review With the proliferation of parallel computers, powerful workstations, and fast communication networks, parallel implementations of meta-heuristics appear quite naturally as an alternative to modifications in algorithm itself for speedup. Parallel implementations do allow solving large problem instances and finding improved solutions in lesser times, with respect to their sequential counterparts. 19 Motivation & Literature Review Advantages of Parallelization Faster Runtimes, Solving Large Problem Sizes, Better quality, and Cost Effective Technology. 20 Motivation & Literature Review Efforts have been made in parallelization of certain heuristics for cell placement which produced good results but as far as we know no attempts have been made for Stochastic Evolution Parallelization of Simulated Annealing 1. E.H.L. Aarts and J. Korst. Simulated annealing and Boltzmann machines. Wiley, 1989. 2. R. Azencott. Simulated annealing: Parallelization techniques. Wiley, 1992. 3. D.R. Greening. Parallel simulated annealing techniques, Physica. 21 Motivation & Literature Review Parallelization of Simulated Evolution 1. 2. 3. Erick Cant-Paz. Markov chain models of parallel genetic algorithms. IEEE Transactions On Evolutionary Computation, 2000. Johan Berntsson and Maolin Tang. A convergence model for asynchronous parallel genetic algorithms. IEEE, 2003. Lucas A. Wilson, Michelle D. Moore, Jason P. Picarazzi, and Simon D. San Miquel. Parallel genetic algorithm for search and constrained multi-objective optimization, 2004. Parallelization of Tabu Search 1. 2. 3. S. M. Sait, M. R. Minhas, and J. A. Khan. Performance and lowpower driven VLSI standard cell placement using tabu search, 2002. Hiroyuki Mori. Application of parallel tabu search to distribution network expansion planning with distributed generation, 2003. Michael Ng. A parallel tabu search heuristic for clustering data sets, 2003. 22 Motivation & Literature Review Literature survey of parallel Stochastic Evolution reveals the absence of any research efforts in this direction. This lack of research at a time presented a challenging task of implementing any parallelization scheme for Stochastic Evolution as well as a vast room for experimentation and evaluation. Parallel models adopted for other iterative heuristics were also studied and analyzed. 23 Sequential Flow Analysis To proceed with StocE parallelization, the sequential implementation of Stochastic Evolution was first analyzed. Analysis was carried out using the Linux gprof by profiling the sequential results. 24 Sequential Flow Analysis The result of sequential code analysis 25 Sequential Flow Analysis Sequential Code Analysis 100 Percentage of Total Execution Time 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 Cost Calculation Other Functions Time Intensive Modules s3330 s5378 s9234 s15850 s35932 s38417 26 Parallelization Issues The three possible domain for any heuristic parallelization are as follows Low level parallelization The operations within an iteration can be parallelized. The search space (problem domain) is divided and assigned to different processors. Multiple concurrent exploration of the solution space using search threads with various degrees of synchronization or information exchange. Domain Decomposition Parallel Search 27 Parallelization Issues Based on profiling results a simple approach would thus be to parallelize the cost functions, i.e., Parallel Search strategy. In distributed computation environment, communication carries a high cost. 28 Parallelization Issues For Simulated Annealing, low-level parallelization gave poor speedups, i.e., maximum speedup of three with eight processors. StocE also invokes the cost function calculations after each swap in PERTURB function which makes it computationally intensive like Simulated Annealing. Thus the approach may prove well for StocE in shared memory architectures but is not at all well suited in distributed environment. 29 Parallelization Issues For StocE parallelization, all the following parallelization categories were evaluated while designing the parallel strategies Low-Level Parallelization, Domain Decomposition, and Multithreaded or Parallel Search. 30 Parallelization Issues Thorough analysis of StocE's sequential flow combined with the profiling results led to the following conclusions. Any strategy designed to parallelize StocE in a distributed computing environment should address the following issues: Workload division, while keeping the Algorithm's sequential flow intact, Communication overhead should be minimal, Remedy continuously the errors introduced due to parallelization Avoid low-level or fine grained parallelization 31 Parallel strategies: Design and Implementation Broadly classifying the designed parallel models Asynchronous Multiple Markov Chains (AMMC) Row Division Fixed Pattern Row Division Random Row Division 32 Asynchronous Markov Chain (AMC) A randomized local search technique that operates on a state space. The search proceeds step by step, by moving from a certain configuration (state) Si to its neighbor Sj, with a certain probability Prob(Si,Sj) denoted by pij. AMC approach is an example of Parallel Search strategy. 33 Asynchronous Markov Chain (Working) A managing node or server maintains the best cost and placement. At periodic intervals, processors query the server and if their current placement is better than that of the server, they export their solution to it, otherwise they import the server's placement. This removes the need for expensive synchronization across all processors. The managing node can either be involved in sharing computing load with its own searching process or can be restricted to serving queries. For a very small number of processors, the server may also be involved with clients in searching process, but in a scalable design, the server is better off servicing queries only. 34 Asynchronous Markov Chain (AMC) Master Process 35 Asynchronous Markov Chain (AMC) Slave Process 36 Fixed Pattern Row Division A randomized search technique that operates the search process by work division among the candidate processors. Row-Division is an example of Domain Decomposition strategy. 37 Fixed Pattern Row Division More promising when compared to AMC since it ensures the reduction in effective load on each working node. Fair distribution of rows among processors. Each processor is assigned with two sets of rows and is responsible for swapping cells among them. Set of rows keeps alternating in every iteration. Not much communication overhead, since the processors do not need to exchange information or synchronize during iterations. 38 Fixed Pattern Row Division Iteration - i Iteration - i+1 39 Fixed Pattern Row Division R1 P1 R2 R3 R4 R5 P2 R6 R7 R8 R9 R10 R11 R12 P3 Iteration ‘i’ 40 Fixed Pattern Row Division R1 P1 R2 R3 R4 R5 P2 R6 R7 R8 R9 R10 P3 R11 R12 Iteration ‘i+1’ 41 Fixed Pattern Row Division R1 R4 P1 R7 R10 R2 P2 R5 R8 R11 R3 P3 R6 R9 R12 Iteration ‘i+1’ 42 Fixed Pattern Row Division Master Process 43 Fixed Pattern Row Division Slave Process 44 Random Row Division Variation of Fixed Pattern Row Division. Instead of having fixed two sets of non-overlapping rows, the master processor generates the non-overlapping rows randomly. Set of rows broadcasted to the slaves in each iteration. The apparent advantage of this scheme over the previous is the randomness in rows which ensures that none of the rows remains with any specific processor throughout the search process. 45 Random Row Division Master Process 46 Random Row Division Slave Process 47 Experiments and Results The parallel implementation was tested on different ranges of ISCAS-89 benchmarks circuits. These benchmark circuits cover set of circuits with varying sizes, in terms of number of gates and paths. Cluster Specs: Eight node generic workstations, Intel x86 3.20 GHz; 512 MB DDR RAM, Cisco 3550 switch for cluster interconnect, Linux kernel 2.6.9, and MPICH ver 1.7 (MPI implementation from Argonne laboratories). 48 Experiments and Results 49 Experiments and Results • Parallel Asynchronous Markov Chain Strategy 50 Experiments and Results • Parallel Asynchronous Markov Chain Strategy 51 Discussion The AMC approach worked well with Simulated Annealing but its results with StocE are very limited Reasons: For Simulated Annealing: The acceptance rate is decided by a predictable varying value of temperature. The sequential algorithm itself is not intelligent enough to focus the search in neighborhoods of best solutions. 52 Discussion For Stochastic Evolution The acceptance probability for solutions is dependent on the parameter po, which varies unpredictably. The sequential algorithm itself is intelligent enough to focus the search in neighborhoods of best solutions and thus it does not gain much through collaborative search efforts. 53 Experiments and Results • Fixed Row Division Strategy 54 Experiments and Results • Fixed Row Division Strategy 55 StocE - Fixed Row Division (s38417) 56 StocE - Fixed Row Division (s35932) 57 Discussion The direct workload distribution was the primary reason behind the favourable speedup trends seen with this strategy. Very good speedups achieved for large circuits with large number of rows. The strategy however does not perform well for smaller circuits, as the runtime gains achieved by dividing computation quickly saturate due to less number of rows. 58 Experiments and Results • Random Row Division Strategy 59 Experiments and Results • Random Row Division Strategy 60 Discussion The random row-division further improved the speedup when compared to Fixed Pattern row-division. Speedup is increased in case of random-row division since the probability of a cell movement to any location in the solution becomes non-zero in the first iteration unlike the case of fixed row-division where two iterations were needed to achieve this non-zero probability. Thus, reducing the overall runtime. 61 Comparisons Compared parallel implementations of StocE with SA and SimE. Comparison is made For fitness values best achieved by StocE, Among the best strategies that were implemented for individual heuristics, and Among the same parallel strategies implemented. Results are respective to the parallel environment and problem instances. 62 Comparisons Comparisons have been made across Contd… StocE - Random Row Division StocE - Fixed Row Division Simulated Annealing - AMMC Approach Simulated Annealing - Fixed Row Division Simulated Evolution - Random Row Division 63 Comparisons • Simulated Annealing - AMC Strategy Contd… 64 Comparisons • Simulated Annealing - AMC Strategy Speedup Vs NumberOfProcessors 18 16 14 12 Contd… s1494 s3330 s5378 s9234 s15850 Speedup 10 8 6 4 2 0 3 4 5 Number Of Processors 6 7 65 Comparisons • Contd… Simulated Annealing – Fixed Row-Division Strategy 66 Comparisons Speedup Vs Number Of Processors 9 8 7 6 Speedup Contd… • Simulated Annealing – Fixed Row Division Strategy 5 4 3 2 1 0 2 3 4 Number Of Processors 5 6 s5378 s9234 s15850 67 Comparisons Contd… • Simulated Evolution – Random Row Division Strategy 68 Comparisons Speedup Vs NumberOfProcessors 8 7 6 5 Speedup Contd… • Simulated Evolution – Random Row Division Strategy s1494 s3330 s5378 s9234 4 3 2 1 0 2 3 4 5 Number Of Processors 69 Comparisons (s15850) Contd… 70 Comparisons (s9234) Contd… 71 Comparisons (s5378) Contd… 72 Comparisons (s3330) Contd… 73 Comparisons (s1494) Contd… 74 Discussion StocE - Random Row Division was found to be best among all the strategies in terms of run-time reduction and useful speedups. StocE - Fixed Row Division performs better on increasing the circuit size. For smaller circuits, it hits the saturation point much earlier. SA - AMC outperforms SA - Fixed row division as the circuit size increases. SimE-Random Row Division failed to perform for multi-objective optimization. Though, the same algorithm has been reported to work well for single objective optimizations. 75 Contributions 1. Studied and analyzed all the three possible parallelization models for StocE. Low-Level parallelization of StocE appeared as an ineffective approach given the distributed computation environment. Parallel search model was designed and implemented for StocE as AMC approach, found to give very limited speedups Domain Decomposition: Designed and implemented two strategies. Both the strategies are giving excellent performance when compared to the parallel implementation of other heuristics 76 Contributions 2. StocE-AMC approach reported runtime gains for very few processors where as the same parallelization scheme reported to work well with Simulated Annealing. Results were analyzed and justified. 3. Row-based division method distributed the workload effectively, allowing very good speedups for large circuits with large number of rows. 77 Contributions 4. Row-based division however does not perform well for smaller circuits, as the runtime gains achieved by dividing computation, quickly saturate. Row-based division was further enhanced by modifying the row distribution method which further reduced the run-times. Run-times achieved were compared against the run-times of Simulated Annealing and Simulated Evolution and were found the lowest among the three heuristics. 5. 6. 78 Conclusion & Future Work This research work was focused on Improving the run-times of Stochastic Evolution applied for VLSI cell placement Comparing the results with the minimum run-times achieved with other iterative heuristics. Applied three different parallelization schemes to Stochastic Evolution Asynchronous Markov Chains (AMC), Fixed Row-Division, and Random Row-Division. 79 Conclusion & Future Work The following class of strategies can be focused as the future work Variants of the ones reported, New strategies, and Hybrid models. Combining the characteristics of StocE with Tabu Search’s memory components may very well lead to even further runtime reduction and speedup. 80 Thank You 81 Stochastic Evolution (Algorithm) 82 Stochastic Evolution (Algorithm) 83 ISCAS89 Benchmark Circuits 84

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posted: | 11/16/2009 |

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