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					                           HOLT

                           World History
                           THE HUMAN JOURNEY
CHAPTER 15

  The Renaissance and Reformation
  Section 1: The Italian Renaissance
  Section 2: The Northern Renaissance
  Section 3: The Protestant Reformation
  Section 4: The Catholic Reformation
  Section 5: Culture and Daily Life

                              HOLT, RINEHART   AND   WINSTON
                              HOLT

                              World History
Section 1:                    THE HUMAN JOURNEY

The Italian Renaissance
    Objectives:
    l Identify the factors that led to the Italian
      Renaissance and describe the characteristics of
      Renaissance thought.
    l Explain how Renaissance writers combined
      classical teachings and Christian doctrine.
    l Describe how Renaissance art differed from art of
      the Middle Ages.
2                                HOLT, RINEHART   AND   WINSTON
                            HOLT

                            World History
Section 1:                  THE HUMAN JOURNEY

The Italian Renaissance
    An Era of Awakening
    l Causes – ruins of Roman Empire, Byzantines had
      preserved Greek and Roman learning, trade with
      Asia and Africa
    l The humanities – crucial approach to learning,
      studied classics, admired human achievement



3                              HOLT, RINEHART   AND   WINSTON
                                HOLT

                                World History
Section 1:                      THE HUMAN JOURNEY

The Italian Renaissance
    Italian Renaissance Writers
    l Petrarch – studied classical writers, believed it is
      important to lead a full and active life here on
      earth
    l Machiavelli – lack of concern for conventional
      morality



4                                  HOLT, RINEHART   AND   WINSTON
                              HOLT

                              World History
Section 1:                    THE HUMAN JOURNEY

The Italian Renaissance
    Italian Renaissance Artists
    l Realistic scenes and images instead of religious
      concerns
    l Leonardo da Vinci – The Last Supper and Mona
      Lisa
    l Michelangelo – Sistine Chapel ceiling


5                                HOLT, RINEHART   AND   WINSTON
                              HOLT

                              World History
Section 2:                    THE HUMAN JOURNEY

The Northern Renaissance
    Objectives:
    l Explain how the ideas of the Italian Renaissance
      spread to other parts of Europe.
    l Describe how northern Renaissance writers
      differed from Italian humanists.
    l List the principal characteristics of northern
      Renaissance art.

6                                HOLT, RINEHART   AND   WINSTON
                             HOLT

                             World History
Section 2:                   THE HUMAN JOURNEY

The Northern Renaissance
    The Spread of Ideas
    l Johannes Gutenberg – used movable type to print
      books, copies of Bible




7                               HOLT, RINEHART   AND   WINSTON
                             HOLT

                             World History
Section 2:                   THE HUMAN JOURNEY

The Northern Renaissance
    Northern Renaissance Writers
    l Desiderius Erasmus – studied early Christian as
      well as classical culture
    l Thomas More – Utopia
    l William Shakespeare – transformed well-known
      stories into dramatic masterpieces


8                                HOLT, RINEHART   AND   WINSTON
                               HOLT

                               World History
Section 2:                     THE HUMAN JOURNEY

The Northern Renaissance
    Northern Renaissance Artists
    l Great attention to detail, facial expressions
    l Realistic human figures and subject matter




9                                  HOLT, RINEHART     AND   WINSTON
                               HOLT

                               World History
Section 3:                     THE HUMAN JOURNEY

The Protestant Reformation
     Objectives:
     l Discuss the developments that led to the Reformation.
     l Describe how Martin Luther protested against the
       Roman Catholic Church and began a new church.
     l Identify the factors that caused the spread of
       Protestantism.
     l Explain the role that Calvinism played in the
       Reformation.
10                                HOLT, RINEHART   AND   WINSTON
                              HOLT

                              World History
Section 3:                    THE HUMAN JOURNEY

The Protestant Reformation
     An Era of Reform
     l Causes – humanists urged believers who were
       unhappy with traditional religion to withdraw
       from the church and meet with like-minded people
     l The beginning – popes sold indulgences to raise
       money



11                               HOLT, RINEHART   AND   WINSTON
                                HOLT

                                World History
Section 3:                      THE HUMAN JOURNEY

The Protestant Reformation
     Martin Luther
     l Luther’s protest – publicly challenged the selling
       of indulgences in 95 theses
     l Break with the church – Pope Leo X ex-
       communicated Luther, Diet of Worms
     l Protestantism – the princes supporting Luther
       protested the emperor’s treatment of him

12                                 HOLT, RINEHART   AND   WINSTON
                                HOLT

                                World History
Section 3:                      THE HUMAN JOURNEY

The Protestant Reformation
     The Spread of Protestantism
     l The rise of sects – societies of a few people led by
       a preacher
     l The Anglican Church – Henry VIII’s desire for a
       divorce caused him to create the Church of
       England which did grant the divorce



13                                 HOLT, RINEHART   AND   WINSTON
                                HOLT

                                World History
Section 3:                      THE HUMAN JOURNEY

The Protestant Reformation
     Calvinism
     l Calvin’s church – The Institutes of the Christian
       Religion emphasized predestination, righteous
       living
     l Calvinism spreads – Huguenots in France,
       minorities in Poland, Hungary, Scotland,
       Netherlands, England, North American colonies


14                                 HOLT, RINEHART   AND   WINSTON
                              HOLT

                              World History
Section 4:                    THE HUMAN JOURNEY

The Catholic Reformation
     Objectives:
     l Describe how the Catholic Church responded to
       the Reformation.
     l Discuss the results of the Reformation and the
       Counter-Reformation.




15                               HOLT, RINEHART   AND   WINSTON
                               HOLT

                               World History
Section 4:                     THE HUMAN JOURNEY

The Catholic Reformation
     The Counter-Reformation
     l Counter-Reformation tactics – inquisition, Index
       of Forbidden Books
     l The Council of Trent – clarified doctrines,
       emphasized ceremonies
     l Soldiers of the Counter-Reformation – Jesuits
       founded by Ignatius de Loyola

16                                HOLT, RINEHART   AND   WINSTON
                             HOLT

                             World History
Section 4:                   THE HUMAN JOURNEY

The Catholic Reformation
     Results of the Religious Upheaval
     l Diversity of churches appeared
     l Education grew
     l National governments gained more power




17                              HOLT, RINEHART   AND   WINSTON
                                HOLT

                                World History
Section 5:                      THE HUMAN JOURNEY

Culture and Daily Life
     Objectives:
     l Explain why Europeans believed in superstitions.
     l Describe the characteristics of daily life that were
       typical in Europe during the Reformation.
     l Explain how knowledge spread to European
       villages.
     l Identify the factors that caused changes in the
       daily lives of Europeans.
18                                  HOLT, RINEHART   AND   WINSTON
                               HOLT

                               World History
Section 5:                     THE HUMAN JOURNEY

Culture and Daily Life
     Superstitions
     l The world of spirits – believed God was a distant,
       unknowable force; people looked for explanations
       of and control over daily life
     l Belief in witchcraft – wise people who gave
       explanations were witches



19                                HOLT, RINEHART   AND   WINSTON
                                HOLT

                                World History
Section 5:                      THE HUMAN JOURNEY

Culture and Daily Life
     Daily Life
     l Forms of recreation – people came together to
       drink, sew, do simple chores, or tell stories
     l Violence and protest in the village – close-knit
       communities; quarrels were common




20                                 HOLT, RINEHART   AND   WINSTON
                              HOLT

                              World History
Section 5:                    THE HUMAN JOURNEY

Culture and Daily Life
     The Spread of Knowledge
     l Books for the masses – broadsides, almanacs
     l Religious ideas and education – printed books
       became available, primary schools were founded




21                               HOLT, RINEHART   AND   WINSTON
                                HOLT

                                World History
Section 5:                      THE HUMAN JOURNEY

Culture and Daily Life
     Changes in Daily Life
     l The economy – standard of living rose for some
     l Diet – new spices and vegetables
     l Housing – people moved from country to cities;
       had only necessities
     l Decline of traditional culture – rational thinking
       more widespread

22                                  HOLT, RINEHART   AND   WINSTON

				
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