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Chap4

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									 Chapter 4
Socialization
        Socialization
n The process by which people
  learn their culture.
n They do so by entering and

  disengaging from a succession of
  roles and becoming aware of
  themselves as they interact with
  others.
       Social Interaction
n   The view that social interaction
    unleashes human potential is
    supported by studies showing
    that children raised in isolation
    do not develop normal language
    and other social skills
          Social Interaction
n   Harlow Study of Rhesus Monkeys
    n Harry and Margaret Harlow
    n Conclusion: emotional development
      requires affection
n   Spitz Study
    n Rene Spitz
    n Conclusion: childhood socialization
      seems to be a necessary ingredient to
      making us fully human.
    Theories of Childhood
        Socialization
n Sigmund Freud
n Charles Horton Cooley

n George Herbert Mead

n Jean Piaget

n Lawrence Kohlberg

n Lev Vygotsky

n Carol Gilligan
        Theories of Childhood
            Socialization
Sigmund Freud
n

    n Psychoanalysis/Psychodynamic
      Theory
    n Id, Ego, Superego

    n Conscious and Unconscious
     Theories of Childhood
         Socialization
n   Charles Horton Cooley
    n Looking Glass Self
     n   How we see ourselves
         evaluated by others
     n   Symbolic Interactionism
         n Face-to-face communication
        Theories of Childhood
            Socialization
n   George Herbert Mead
    n The I and the Me
    n Four Stages: Role-taking

      n Imitation
      n Pretend to Be another person

      n Simultaneously take role of Several

        other people
      n Generalized other
        Theories of Childhood
            Socialization
n   Jean Piaget
    n   Cognitive Development
        nSensorimotor Stage
        nPreoperational Stage

        nConcrete Operational Stage

        nFormal Operational Stage
     Theories of Childhood
         Socialization
n   Lawrence Kohlberg
    n Moral Reasoning
     nPreconventional Stage
     nConventional

     nPostconventional
     Theories of Childhood
         Socialization
n   Lev Vygotsky
    n Sociocognitive Development

      nWays of thinking determined as
       much by social institutions as
       innate characteristics
      nZone of Proximal Development
        Theories of Childhood
            Socialization
n   Carol Gilligan
    n   Sociological foundations of moral
        development in American boys
        and girls
Agents of Socialization
n Families
n Schools

n Peer Groups

n Mass Media

n Professional Socialization

n Resocialization and Total Institutions
Agents of Socialization
n   Families
    n Primary Socialization
    n Primary Socialization is the
      process of acquiring the basic
      skills needed to function in
      society during childhood.
    n Usually takes place in families
    Agents of Socialization
Schools
n

n   Secondary Socialization
    n Socialization outside the family
    n Help prepare students for job market

    n 1918 every state in US required

      children to attend school until age 16
      or completion of the 8th grade.
        Agents of Socialization
n   Peer Groups
    n Consist of individuals who are not
      necessarily friends, but are about the
      same age and of similar status
    n Help children & adolescents separate
      from families and develop
      independent sources of identity
    n Teach young people how to adapt to
      the ways of the larger society
Agents of Socialization
n   Mass Media
    n   Allows more self-socialization
        n   Choosing socialization influences from
            the wide variety of mass media offerings
    n   Tend to choose influences that are
        more pervasive, fit existing cultural
        standards, and are made especially
        appealing by those who control the
        mass media
Agents of Socialization
n   Professional Socialization
    n Compatible socialization
    n Non-compatible socialization

    n Conflict with family/community

    n The more a student is at odds with

      a professional identity, the more
      likely he/she is to drop out
    Agents of Socialization
n   Resocialization and Total Institutions
    n Occurs when powerful socializing

      agents deliberately cause rapid
      change in one’s values, roles, and
      self-conception, sometimes against
      one’s will
    n Fraternity, Marines, religious order
    Agents of Socialization
n   Resocialization and Total Institutions
    n   Three stages
        n Separation from one’s old status
          and identity (ritual rejection)
        n Degradation, disorientation, and
          stress (ritual death)
        n Acceptance of the new group
          culture and status (ritual rebirth)
    Agents of Socialization
n   Resocialization and Total Institutions
    n Total institutions are settings where
      people are isolated from the larger
      society and under the strict control
      and constant supervision of a
      specialized staff.
      n Asylums and Prisons
      n Zimbardo Experiment
Socialization Across the Life Course
n   Adult socialization is necessary
    for four main reasons:
    n Adult roles are often discontinuous
    n Some adult roles are largely invisible

    n Some adult roles are unpredictable

    n Adult roles change as we mature
Socialization Across the Life Course
n   Adult socialization is necessary for
    four main reasons:
    n   Adult roles are often discontinuous –
        socialize children to be unresponsible,
        submissive and asexual
    n Some adult roles are largely invisible
    n Some adult roles are unpredictable

    n Adult roles change as we mature
Socialization Across the Life Course
n   Adult socialization is necessary for
    four main reasons:
    n   Adult roles are often discontinuous
    n   Some adult roles are largely invisible –
        hidden to people to young to perform
        them (marriage, occupational roles)
    n Some adult roles are unpredictable
    n Adult roles change as we mature
Socialization Across the Life Course
n Adult socialization is necessary for
  four main reasons:
   n   Adult roles are often discontinuous
   n   Some adult roles are largely invisible
   n   Some adult roles are unpredictable –
       marrying someone from a different ethnic
       or religious group; separation & divorce;
       sudden death of a spouse; job loss & long-
       term unemployment; forced migration;
       transition from peace to war
   n   Adult roles change as we mature
Socialization Across the Life Course
n Adult socialization is necessary
  for four main reasons:
   n Adult roles are often discontinuous
   n Some adult roles are largely invisible

   n Some adult roles are unpredictable

   n   Adult roles change as we mature –
       inner change processes: as children
       grow older, family roles change; with
       middle age comes awareness of death
       and questions about our way of life
          Identity and the Internet
n   Virtual communities shape our identity
    n   An association of people, scattered across
        the country, continent, or planet, who
        communicate via computer.
            Dilemmas of Childhood and
             Adolescent Socialization
n   Preindustrial:
    n   Until late 1600’s
    n   children seen as small adults
    n   Chores by age 5
    n   Working full time by age 10-12
    n   Marriage and achievement of full adulthood by 15-16
    n   People did not live long enough to afford the luxury of
        childhood
    n   Most children died before age 5
    n   Children a financial asset
    n   No social need for period of extended training and
        development
            Dilemmas of Childhood and
             Adolescent Socialization
n   Industrial:
    n   Until late 1700’s
    n   children began to be seen as children
    n   Still had chores by age 5
    n   Many still put to work full time by age 10-12
    n   Marriage and achievement of full adulthood by 15-16
    n   More children survived to adulthood
    n   Children a financial liability
    n   The need began to immerge for educated population
            Dilemmas of Childhood and
             Adolescent Socialization
n   Industrial:
    n   Until late 1700’s
    n   children began to be seen as children
    n   Still had chores by age 5
    n   Many still put to work full time by age 10-12
    n   Marriage and achievement of full adulthood by 15-16
    n   More children survived to adulthood
    n   Children a financial liability
    n   The need began to emerge for educated population
             Dilemmas of Childhood and
              Adolescent Socialization
n   Post Industrial:
    n   Childhood as a separate developmental stage
    n   Education became mandatory to age 16 or 8th grade
    n   Child labor laws passed
    n   Marriage and achievement of full adulthood by 30
    n   Because most children survive infancy, parents invest
        much more emotionally into their children
    n   Children a financial liability so families limit number
        of children. Birth control makes this possible
    n   A technological and service oriented society must
        have a highly educated population
             Dilemmas of Childhood and
              Adolescent Socialization
n   Post Industrial:
    n   Problems –
         n Declining adult supervision
         n Increasing media influence

         n Declining extracurricular activities

         n The Vanishing Adolescent p.121
          Dilemmas of Childhood and
           Adolescent Socialization
n   The Case for the End of Adolescence

								
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