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					    Abuse images of children:
     identifying gaps in our
           knowledge.

                    Dr. Ethel Quayle,
                   COPINE Research,
                 University of Edinburgh.




                   G8 Symposium, UNC, April 6-7, 2009
COPINE Project
Semantics?
• Child pornography?
  – Definition used in most legal and policy
    documents
• Abusive images?
  – used by those who advocate for children’s rights
    in relation to sexual abuse through photography
    (Jones and Skogrand, 2005; Jones, 2003)
• Text
  – Abusive materials?
                  G8 Symposium, UNC, April 6-7, 2009
COPINE Project
Harm
• Against the child/children depicted in the
  images?
• Against all children?
  – Pseudo images
  – Digital images
  – Child pornography not only harms its immediate
    victims, the children whose abuse is at its centre,
    but also harms other children through the actions
    and attitudes of its consumers (King, 2008).
                  G8 Symposium, UNC, April 6-7, 2009
COPINE Project
Numbers of offenders
• Samples drawn from:
  – Criminal justice populations (prison and
    community)
  – Hotlines or tiplines from civil society
  – Blocking of attempts by ISPs
  – Accessing of legal but inappropriately used
    material
  – Self-help sites
  – Self-report agencies
                  G8 Symposium, UNC, April 6-7, 2009
COPINE Project
Hotlines?
• 2006, CyberTipline (a US congressionally mandated
  system for reporting child crimes) received 62,365 reports
  of child pornography (NCMEC, 2006).
• The 2007 Global Internet Trend Report of INHOPE (the
  International Association of Internet Hotlines) indicated
  that during the last quarter of 2006 the hotline network
  processed an average of 91,000 reports per month.
  Approximately 35,000 of these reports were received from
  the public and 19,000 were determined to refer to either
  illegal or harmful content . INHOPE determined that 9,600
  reports related to child pornography and that this number
  was increasing at an average of 120 reports per month.


                     G8 Symposium, UNC, April 6-7, 2009
COPINE Project
Failure to launch (Jenkins, 2009).
• Jenkins (2009) has argued, ‘no genre of films depicts heroic
  investigators hunting down child-porn rings or criminal
  overlords while rescuing pathetic victims. While I hesitate to
  suggest that nobody cares, at least we see nothing constituting
  moral panic’ (p 38).
• It may be that while we have seen increasing anxiety about
  children’s agency online, which may result in displays of
  sexual behaviour or the establishment of sexual relationships,
  we show much greater ambivalence towards child
  pornography.



                       G8 Symposium, UNC, April 6-7, 2009
 COPINE Project
Failure to launch?
• Action of law enforcement
• Ambivalence towards abusive and exploitative images of
  children lies in our lack of knowledge on the one hand of what
  these images are, and an overexposure on the other to
  sexualised visual materials.
• Images clearly not defined in law as child pornography, are
  often found in contexts such as advertising which
  controversially have been argued by the Australia Institute to
  be examples of ‘corporate paedophilia’ (Rush and La Nauze,
  2006)


                      G8 Symposium, UNC, April 6-7, 2009
 COPINE Project
Illegal images?




          Sentencing Advisory Panel Guidelines

                   G8 Symposium, UNC, April 6-7, 2009
 COPINE Project
Typology of pictures (Taylor et al
2001)
    10 levels

    •   Indicative             5. Erotic posing
    •   Nudist                 6. Explicit erotic posing
    •   Erotica                7. Explicit sexual activity
    •   Posing                 8. Assault
        Legal/illegal?         9. Gross assault
                               10. Sadistic/bestiality.


                   G8 Symposium, UNC, April 6-7, 2009
COPINE Project
Risk
• Of becoming an Internet sex offender?
• The future commission of a similar, Internet-
  related sex offence?
• Escalation to a further category of Internet sex
  offending?
• The likelihood of an Internet sex offender
  committing a contact sexual offence against a
  child?

                 G8 Symposium, UNC, April 6-7, 2009
COPINE Project
Risk of what?




                 G8 Symposium, UNC, April 6-7, 2009
COPINE Project
Deviancy
• Do the content of the images relate to sexual
  deviancy?
• ‘Downloading pornographic files involves a
  dynamic relationship between available
  stimulus materials and sexual interest,
  mediated by sexual and masturbatory fantasy’
  (Glasgow, 2007).


                 G8 Symposium, UNC, April 6-7, 2009
COPINE Project
Deviancy
• Does deviancy relate to the increasing sexual
  aggression in the image or the congruence
  with everyday life?
  – ‘Even if a larger sample was able to demonstrate a
    stronger link, one must wonder whether type of image is a
    particularly strong indicator of deviant sexual interest. For
    example if an individual is able to obtain strong arousal to
    images of children, clothed, or partially clothes which may
    not even fall into Level One this may suggest a greater
    problem of deviant arousal, and therefore risk to children,
    than an individual who requires images depicting sexual
    penetration’ (Middleton, 2008).
                     G8 Symposium, UNC, April 6-7, 2009
 COPINE Project
Similarity or difference to contact
offenders.
• Problems with intimacy, sexual self-regulation (Webb et al,
  2007).
• Greater phallometric response to images (Seto et al., 2006).
• Emotional loneliness (Bates and Metcalf, 2007), intimacy
  deficits and emotional dysregulation (Middleton, 2009)
• High levels of paedophile fantasies (Sheldon and Howitt,
  2007)
• Higher identification with fictional characters, increased
  fantasy and motor impulsivity (Elliott et al., 2009).



                      G8 Symposium, UNC, April 6-7, 2009
COPINE Project
Demographic consistencies?
• Offenders
  – Gender
  – Ethnicity
• Victims
  – Little data drawn from seized collections (e.g.
    Baartz, 2008) and identified children (e.g. Lee,
    2008).



                   G8 Symposium, UNC, April 6-7, 2009
COPINE Project
                                   450



                 121
                 0


      Children identified through distributed and
      non-distributed images (NCMEC, Lee, 2008)
                  G8 Symposium, UNC, April 6-7, 2009
COPINE Project
                        6%




            45
            %                 49
                              %


     Percentage of identified series (NCMEC, Lee, 2008)

                  G8 Symposium, UNC, April 6-7, 2009
COPINE Project
                     1186



  Ethnicity of known series (incl. all identified and of-
  interest unidentified series) (NCMEC, Lee, 2008)
                    G8 Symposium, UNC, April 6-7, 2009
COPINE Project
    NCMEC, Lee (2008)
                 G8 Symposium, UNC, April 6-7, 2009
COPINE Project
                 G8 Symposium, UNC, April 6-7, 2009
COPINE Project
                 G8 Symposium, UNC, April 6-7, 2009
COPINE Project
Will this change?
• Report from South African hotline (very low
  base rate of reports) of six new sites
  dedicated to images of African children
  (INHOPE, 2009).
• Reports of children exploited through the
  production of child pornography in Mexico
  (Azaola, 2000), South Asia (Huda, 2006) and
  India (Kacker, Varadan and Kumar, 2007).

                 G8 Symposium, UNC, April 6-7, 2009
COPINE Project
Focus for intervention?

• The offender?
• Children?
• The situation?




                   G8 Symposium, UNC, April 6-7, 2009
 COPINE Project
The offender
• Proactive:
  – STOP IT NOW (and CROGA)
  – Dunkelfeld Project in Germany (Beier, 2008)
  – Media campaigns
• Reactive:
  – E.g. iSOTP (Middleton, 2009)
  – Incarceration


                 G8 Symposium, UNC, April 6-7, 2009
COPINE Project
Children?
• Education campaigns
  – Seem to have had some impact e.g. Grooming but
    little evaluation
• Report buttons
• Filtering software
  – May work best with younger children
• BUT unclear how this might prevent abusive
  images, especially ‘stolen’ images or abuse of
  very young children.
                  G8 Symposium, UNC, April 6-7, 2009
 COPINE Project
Rational choice theory?
• Rational Choice Theory emphasises the
  importance of the situational context
  facing the offender in the period
  immediately before and at the time of
  offending, in terms of the factors that
  might influence decision processes
  (Taylor and Quayle, 2006; 2009).




                    G8 Symposium, UNC, April 6-7, 2009
 COPINE Project
So what about situation factors?
• The nature of the situational context in which criminal
  opportunities arise, especially the ecological significance of
  high affordance cues giving access to images
• Immediate and highly salient reinforcement on access to
  images
• Perceived (if not necessarily real) absence of capable
  guardianship and surveillance
• Insensitivity to immediate negative qualities resulting from
  both motivational factors and the strong affordance qualities of
  screen based cues.



                       G8 Symposium, UNC, April 6-7, 2009
 COPINE Project
        COPINE Research
       Clinical Psychology,
    The University of Edinburgh


                 Tel: 00 44 131 651 3972
                 Ethel.Quayle@ed.ac.uk



                    G8 Symposium, UNC, April 6-7, 2009
COPINE Project

				
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posted:12/7/2013
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