task 1: web architecture
Internet service providers
“An ISP (Internet Service Provider) is a company that collects a
monthly or yearly fee in exchange for providing the subscriber with Internet
An ISP might provide dial-up service, cable, DSL, or other types of Internet
access. Some ISPs are local while others are national. A national ISP will
provide access throughout most of the nation, while a local ISP will only serve
subscribers in a limited geographical region.
When looking for an ISP the initial consideration is the type of access desired.
Some ISPs only offer dial-up access which is the slowest type of connection.
If you want cable service, you'll be checking with your local cable TV provider
to see if cable access is offered. For DSL service, you may have multiple
choices - or it could be that DSL is not yet available in your area. Often this
can be remedied with a call to the phone company to upgrade local telephone
“An Internet service provider (ISP) is an organization that provides access
to the Internet.
Internet service providers can be either community-owned and non-profit,
orprivately owned and for-profit.
Access ISPs directly connect clients to the Internet using copper
wires,wireless or fiber-optic connections. Hosting ISPs lease server space
for smaller businesses and other people (colocation). Transit ISPs provide
large amounts of bandwidth for connecting hosting ISPs to access ISPs”
“ISP in simple words is an Internet Service Provider. An ISP provides internet access
to homes and companies. An ISP may operate at the national or local (regional) level.
A national ISP will cater to the entire nation and a local ISP will provide internet
access to a limited geographic area.Examples of ISP's operating at the national level
are AOL, CompuServe, MSN etc. and those playing at the local or regional level are
Ameritech, Soltec etc.
Depending on your requirement and your budget ISPs can provide internet
connectivity through different types. An ISP can provide dial-up access, broadband,
cable, DSL and other types of access. In addition to internet access, ISPs may provide
other services as well like web hosting, data centre services and email solutions.
Different ISPs offer different deals. Individuals and companies should do a little
research of the ISPs around the locality before choosing one, especially the terms and
conditions they offer. Some of the important points to be considered while choosing
an ISP are call connection cost, whether cost is based on downloads and uploads,
reliability of the service, whether there is an online usage check facility, technical
support facilities, security of the network and safety of the information.”
in my own words:
In my own words:
In my words:
An ISP is a company that provides people with internet usually in return for a
monthly fee. ISP’s can operate at a national level meaning that they will provide
internet for the entire nation or on a local smaller scale level.
Web hosting services
“Web hosting is the service that makes your website available to be viewed
by others on the Internet. A web host provides space on its server, so that
other computers around the world can access your website by means of a
network or modem. There are literally thousands of web hosting services
available today, ranging from free services with limited options to expensive,
specialized business web hosting services. Which option you choose depends
primarily on how you plan to use your website and how much you want to
“A web hosting service is a type of Internet hosting service that allows
individuals and organizations to make their website accessible via the World
Wide Web. Web hosts are companies that provide space on a server owned
or leased for use by clients, as well as providing Internet connectivity”
Web hosting is a method by which a person or company rents a server to
store data used to display a website, which is accessible through the Internet.
Every website that can be found and accessed online is hosted on some type
of server or similar machine, and various companies offer a number of
different methods for this hosting. These can include free hosting for
individuals who do not need many options, as well as dedicated systems that
are more expensive but provide greater control.
In my own words:
A web hosting service allows individuals and organizations to create their own
website on the World Wide Web. To do this a web host provides space on its server,
this allows other users on the World Wide Web to access your website.
“An often-used analogy to explain the Domain Name System is that it serves
as the phone book for the Internet by translating human-friendly
computer hostnames into IP addresses. For example, the domain
name www.example.com translates to the addresses 126.96.36.199 (IPv4)
and 2620:0:2d0:200::10 (IPv6). Unlike a phone book, however, DNS can
be quickly updated and these updates distributed, allowing a service's location
on the network to change without affecting the end users, who continue to use
the same hostname. Users take advantage of this when they recite
meaningful Uniform Resource Locators (URLs) and e-mail addresses without
having to know how the computer actually locates the services”
“A domain name is used to identify a Website in the same way as your house
address identifies your house.
If we examine a fully qualified domain name (FQDN) i.e. www.juice.com in
more detail then
www = name of server (physical machine)
juice.com = domain name (note: doesn't include the server name)
and juice = sub domain of com and com= Top level domain name
The domain name structure is a hierarchical structure just like the house address. The
top of the structure however is not the Country name but a dot (.). When entering a
domain name into a browser it is normal to omit the dot(.). In which case it is inserted
automatically by the web browser. Underneath the dot are what are known as the top
level domains (TLDs) which are strictly controlled (com, net, UK) . Underneath the
top level domains are second level domains like IBM, Microsoft and Juice in our
example. This second level name is typically the name of an organisation and control
over this name is given to that organisation, which can then divide it into third level
domains etc as it wishes.”
In my own words:
A DNS (domain name structure) is a system used to identify a website similar
to the way that our house address identifies your house. A DNS typically has a
hierarchical structure, with the most important part of it being said first.
Domain name registrar
“Simply put, a domain name registrar is a service that allows you to officially
register your desired website domain name so that it is unique to you, and no
one else can own it. Originally, there was just one company that could register
your domain name for you, but now there are literally hundreds. A "top-level
domain" is the suffix that a domain name ends with, such as .com or .org.
ICANN currently accredits domain name registrars for the following top-level
Within any of these top-level domains, especially the popular .com and .net
domains, many domain names have already been registered. Your domain
name registrar will only allow you to register a domain name that has not yet
been registered to someone else.”
“A domain name registrar is an organization or commercial entity that
manages the reservation of Internet domain names. A domain name registrar
must be accredited by a generic top-level domain (gTLD) registry and/or
a country code top-level domain (ccTLD) registry”
A Registrar (or Domain Name Registrar) is an organization like TUCOWS or
Network Solutions that has control over the granting of domains within certain
Top Level Domains or “TLDs” (such as the generic .COM/.ORG/.NET or
country-specific ones such as .CA/.US/.MX etc.).
In my own words:
A domain name registrar is an organisation that allows you to officially register
you website. the domain name that you choose has to be completely unique,
meaning that a website can sometimes be tricky to register.
World Wide Web
“The world wide web is a system of interlinked hypertext documents
accessed via the Internet. With a web browser, one can view web pages that
may contain text, images, videos, and other multimedia,
and navigate between them via hyperlinks.
“Many people use the terms Internet and World Wide Web (aka. the Web)
interchangeably, but in fact the two terms are not synonymous. The Internet and
the Web are two separate but related things.
What is The Internet?
The Internet is a massive network of networks, a networking infrastructure. It
connects millions of computers together globally, forming a network in which any
computer can communicate with any other computer as long as they are both
connected to the Internet. Information that travels over the Internet does so via a
variety of languages known as protocols.
What is The Web (World Wide Web)?
The World Wide Web, or simply Web, is a way of accessing information over the
medium of the Internet. It is an information-sharing model that is built on top of the
Internet. The Web uses the HTTP protocol, only one of the languages spoken over
the Internet, to transmit data. Web services, which use HTTP to allow applications to
communicate in order to exchange business logic, use the the Web to share
information. The Web also utilizes browsers, such as Internet Explorer or Firefox, to
access Web documents called Web pages that are linked to each other
viahyperlinks. Web documents also contain graphics, sounds, text and video.”
“Let's start with a cliche' one line description of what the World Wide Web is. It's
basically a lot of different files (all over the world) that are linked to each other, so
that you can look at a file that has a link to another file and then follow that link to
read the next file. (These days, it's not just files but useful programs, too.)
What makes this so powerful is that these files can contain graphics, or snippets of
animation or music, and they can contain information that you normally would have
to find with special programs like ftp or gopher (which is fine for nerds, but is a real
pain otherwise). Or they can let you use statistical programs, user surveys, games, and
In my own words:
The World Wide Web is a system of linked hypertext documents. What makes
this so useful is the fact that graphics, music and animation can be held on
them. The difference between the internet and the World Wide Web is that the
World Wide Web is a way of accessing information over the internet. The web
utilizes browsers such as Google chrome, safari to access web pages.