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task 1: web architecture Internet service providers “An ISP (Internet Service Provider) is a company that collects a monthly or yearly fee in exchange for providing the subscriber with Internet access. An ISP might provide dial-up service, cable, DSL, or other types of Internet access. Some ISPs are local while others are national. A national ISP will provide access throughout most of the nation, while a local ISP will only serve subscribers in a limited geographical region. When looking for an ISP the initial consideration is the type of access desired. Some ISPs only offer dial-up access which is the slowest type of connection. If you want cable service, you'll be checking with your local cable TV provider to see if cable access is offered. For DSL service, you may have multiple choices - or it could be that DSL is not yet available in your area. Often this can be remedied with a call to the phone company to upgrade local telephone lines. http://www.wisegeek.com/what-is-an-isp.htm “An Internet service provider (ISP) is an organization that provides access to the Internet. Internet service providers can be either community-owned and non-profit, orprivately owned and for-profit. Access ISPs directly connect clients to the Internet using copper wires,wireless or fiber-optic connections. Hosting ISPs lease server space for smaller businesses and other people (colocation). Transit ISPs provide large amounts of bandwidth for connecting hosting ISPs to access ISPs” http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Internet_service_provider “ISP in simple words is an Internet Service Provider. An ISP provides internet access to homes and companies. An ISP may operate at the national or local (regional) level. A national ISP will cater to the entire nation and a local ISP will provide internet access to a limited geographic area.Examples of ISP's operating at the national level are AOL, CompuServe, MSN etc. and those playing at the local or regional level are Ameritech, Soltec etc. Depending on your requirement and your budget ISPs can provide internet connectivity through different types. An ISP can provide dial-up access, broadband, cable, DSL and other types of access. In addition to internet access, ISPs may provide other services as well like web hosting, data centre services and email solutions. Different ISPs offer different deals. Individuals and companies should do a little research of the ISPs around the locality before choosing one, especially the terms and conditions they offer. Some of the important points to be considered while choosing an ISP are call connection cost, whether cost is based on downloads and uploads, reliability of the service, whether there is an online usage check facility, technical support facilities, security of the network and safety of the information.” http://www.blurtit.com/q428678.html in my own words: In my own words: In my words: An ISP is a company that provides people with internet usually in return for a monthly fee. ISP’s can operate at a national level meaning that they will provide internet for the entire nation or on a local smaller scale level. Web hosting services “Web hosting is the service that makes your website available to be viewed by others on the Internet. A web host provides space on its server, so that other computers around the world can access your website by means of a network or modem. There are literally thousands of web hosting services available today, ranging from free services with limited options to expensive, specialized business web hosting services. Which option you choose depends primarily on how you plan to use your website and how much you want to spend.” http://www.freeservers.com/WebHosting101/WhatIsWebHosting.html “A web hosting service is a type of Internet hosting service that allows individuals and organizations to make their website accessible via the World Wide Web. Web hosts are companies that provide space on a server owned or leased for use by clients, as well as providing Internet connectivity” http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Web_hosting_service Web hosting is a method by which a person or company rents a server to store data used to display a website, which is accessible through the Internet. Every website that can be found and accessed online is hosted on some type of server or similar machine, and various companies offer a number of different methods for this hosting. These can include free hosting for individuals who do not need many options, as well as dedicated systems that are more expensive but provide greater control. http://www.wisegeek.com/what-is-web-hosting.htm# In my own words: A web hosting service allows individuals and organizations to create their own website on the World Wide Web. To do this a web host provides space on its server, this allows other users on the World Wide Web to access your website. Domain structure “An often-used analogy to explain the Domain Name System is that it serves as the phone book for the Internet by translating human-friendly computer hostnames into IP addresses. For example, the domain name www.example.com translates to the addresses 220.127.116.11 (IPv4) and 2620:0:2d0:200::10 (IPv6). Unlike a phone book, however, DNS can be quickly updated and these updates distributed, allowing a service's location on the network to change without affecting the end users, who continue to use the same hostname. Users take advantage of this when they recite meaningful Uniform Resource Locators (URLs) and e-mail addresses without having to know how the computer actually locates the services” http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Domain_Name_System “A domain name is used to identify a Website in the same way as your house address identifies your house. If we examine a fully qualified domain name (FQDN) i.e. www.juice.com in more detail then www = name of server (physical machine) juice.com = domain name (note: doesn't include the server name) and juice = sub domain of com and com= Top level domain name The domain name structure is a hierarchical structure just like the house address. The top of the structure however is not the Country name but a dot (.). When entering a domain name into a browser it is normal to omit the dot(.). In which case it is inserted automatically by the web browser. Underneath the dot are what are known as the top level domains (TLDs) which are strictly controlled (com, net, UK) . Underneath the top level domains are second level domains like IBM, Microsoft and Juice in our example. This second level name is typically the name of an organisation and control over this name is given to that organisation, which can then divide it into third level domains etc as it wishes.” http://www.build-your-website.co.uk/understanding-domain-names.htm In my own words: A DNS (domain name structure) is a system used to identify a website similar to the way that our house address identifies your house. A DNS typically has a hierarchical structure, with the most important part of it being said first. Domain name registrar “Simply put, a domain name registrar is a service that allows you to officially register your desired website domain name so that it is unique to you, and no one else can own it. Originally, there was just one company that could register your domain name for you, but now there are literally hundreds. A "top-level domain" is the suffix that a domain name ends with, such as .com or .org. ICANN currently accredits domain name registrars for the following top-level domains: Within any of these top-level domains, especially the popular .com and .net domains, many domain names have already been registered. Your domain name registrar will only allow you to register a domain name that has not yet been registered to someone else.” http://www.freeservers.com/WebHosting101/WhatIsADomainNameRegistrar.html “A domain name registrar is an organization or commercial entity that manages the reservation of Internet domain names. A domain name registrar must be accredited by a generic top-level domain (gTLD) registry and/or a country code top-level domain (ccTLD) registry” http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Domain_name_registrar A Registrar (or Domain Name Registrar) is an organization like TUCOWS or Network Solutions that has control over the granting of domains within certain Top Level Domains or “TLDs” (such as the generic .COM/.ORG/.NET or country-specific ones such as .CA/.US/.MX etc.). http://www.tucowsdomains.com/glossary-of-terms/whatisaregistrar/ In my own words: A domain name registrar is an organisation that allows you to officially register you website. the domain name that you choose has to be completely unique, meaning that a website can sometimes be tricky to register. World Wide Web “The world wide web is a system of interlinked hypertext documents accessed via the Internet. With a web browser, one can view web pages that may contain text, images, videos, and other multimedia, and navigate between them via hyperlinks. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/World_Wide_Web “Many people use the terms Internet and World Wide Web (aka. the Web) interchangeably, but in fact the two terms are not synonymous. The Internet and the Web are two separate but related things. What is The Internet? The Internet is a massive network of networks, a networking infrastructure. It connects millions of computers together globally, forming a network in which any computer can communicate with any other computer as long as they are both connected to the Internet. Information that travels over the Internet does so via a variety of languages known as protocols. What is The Web (World Wide Web)? The World Wide Web, or simply Web, is a way of accessing information over the medium of the Internet. It is an information-sharing model that is built on top of the Internet. The Web uses the HTTP protocol, only one of the languages spoken over the Internet, to transmit data. Web services, which use HTTP to allow applications to communicate in order to exchange business logic, use the the Web to share information. The Web also utilizes browsers, such as Internet Explorer or Firefox, to access Web documents called Web pages that are linked to each other viahyperlinks. Web documents also contain graphics, sounds, text and video.” http://www.webopedia.com/DidYouKnow/Internet/2002/Web_vs_Internet.asp “Let's start with a cliche' one line description of what the World Wide Web is. It's basically a lot of different files (all over the world) that are linked to each other, so that you can look at a file that has a link to another file and then follow that link to read the next file. (These days, it's not just files but useful programs, too.) What makes this so powerful is that these files can contain graphics, or snippets of animation or music, and they can contain information that you normally would have to find with special programs like ftp or gopher (which is fine for nerds, but is a real pain otherwise). Or they can let you use statistical programs, user surveys, games, and so on” http://www.mit.edu/~rei/wwwintro.html In my own words: The World Wide Web is a system of linked hypertext documents. What makes this so useful is the fact that graphics, music and animation can be held on them. The difference between the internet and the World Wide Web is that the World Wide Web is a way of accessing information over the internet. The web utilizes browsers such as Google chrome, safari to access web pages.