Docstoc

Modeling _ Simulation of Grid Connected Photovoltaic System.pdf

Document Sample
Modeling _ Simulation of Grid Connected Photovoltaic System.pdf Powered By Docstoc
					International Journal of Electronics and Communication Engineering & Technology (IJECET),
            INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF ELECTRONICS AND
ISSN 0976 – 6464(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6472(Online), Special Issue (November, 2013), © IAEME
       COMMUNICATION ENGINEERING & TECHNOLOGY (IJECET)

ISSN 0976 – 6464(Print)
ISSN 0976 – 6472(Online)
                                                                                 IJECET
Special Issue (November, 2013), pp. 128-133
© IAEME: www.iaeme.com/ijecet.asp                                               ©IAEME
Journal Impact Factor (2013): 5.8896 (Calculated by GISI)
www.jifactor.com



       Modeling & Simulation of Grid Connected Photovoltaic System
         Incorporated With Insolation & Temperature Variation
                       Smita Pareek1, J Sandeep Soni2, Dr. Ratna Dahiya3
                   1Faculty/Electronics& Communication, BKBIET, Pilani, Rajasthan, India
                      2Faculty/Electrical Engineering, BKBIET, Pilani, Rajasthan, India
                         3Faculty/ Electrical Engineering, N.I.T. Kurukshetra, India


            1j.sandeepsoni@gmail.com, 2pareeksmita@rediffmail.com, 3ratna_dahiya@nitkkr.ac.in



ABSTRACT: Photovoltaic systems are designed either to feed the grid or for direct
consumption. Due to global concerns on environment issues, the 21st century has seen a
significant growth of grid- connected installations. Photovoltaic plants connected to the utility
grid contain several elements like PV modules, power converters, electric protection apparatus
and monitoring devices in order to ensure secure power generation. Since the PV modules
produce direct current, an inverter is necessary to interface with the alternative voltage utility
grid. The power generated by solar photovoltaic (PV) module depends on surrounding
irradiance, temperature and shading conditions. This paper presents modeling of Photovoltaic
system of grid connected PV system using MATLAB/Simulink. Each component in the system
like boost converter, inverter is modeled and simulated separately and the results are also
shown for each model .The complete system model is given at the end with the results. Module
model is verified by data given in the literature. The complete system modeled shows voltage
output as 220V and 50 Hz frequency.

KEYWORDS: Photovoltaic, Module, Model, Grid, Insolation, Inverter, Temperature.

  I.   INTRODUCTION

Photovoltaic power generation is gaining wide acceptance today as a source of clean and
pollution free power. Most significantly it is showing exponential growth in grid connected
applications [2]. These generators are both grid-connected and stand-alone applications. Fig.1
shows the block diagram of grid connected PV system. DC output from PV module is fed to
boost converter and then to inverter to convert it into AC with voltage output as 220V and 50
Hz frequency.

 II.    MODELING & SIMULATION OF PHOTOVOLTAIC MODULE

The basic device of a PV system is the PV cell. For simplicity, the single diode model as shown
in Fig. 2 of practical PV cell including the series and parallel resistances is considered in this

International Conference on Communication Systems (ICCS-2013)                         October 18-20, 2013
B K Birla Institute of Engineering & Technology (BKBIET), Pilani, India                         Page 128
International Journal of Electronics and Communication Engineering & Technology (IJECET),
ISSN 0976 – 6464(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6472(Online), Special Issue (November, 2013), © IAEME

paper. This model offers a good compromise between simplicity and accuracy, and has been
used by several authors in previous works.




                              Fig.1 Block diagram of grid connected PV system.

Some authors have proposed more sophisticated models that present better accuracy and
serve for different purposes. In PV cell, the light-generated current depends linearly on the
solar irradiation and is also on the temperature according to the following equation [4]

       I   = (I       ,    + K ∆T)                                                               (1)

Where I , is light generated current at the nominal condition (in amperes), ∆T=T− Tn (T and
Tn being the actual and nominal temperatures [in K], G is the irradiation on the device surface
(watts per square meters) and Gn is the nominal irradiation (watts per square meters).The
saturation current I0 is strongly dependent on the temperature and is given by:

                                           ,     ∆
       I = (I     ,       + K ∆T)/(exp                – 1)                                       (2)

Where K and K are current and voltage coefficient.

The basic equation that mathematically describes the I–V characteristic of the ideal PV cell is
given by equation 3 as follows:

                                 (    )          (    )
       I = (I     − I exp                 –1 −                                                   (3)

Where Ipv and I0 are the photovoltaic and saturation currents, respectively, of the array and Vt =
NskT/q is the thermal voltage of the array with Ns cells connected in series. Photovoltaic model
is simulated using above three equation and the parameters taken to simulate module are
Isc,n=8.21A; Voc,n=32.9V; Kv= -0.1230 V/K;KI= 0.0032 A/K;I , = 8.214A ; Gn =1000W/m2
;a=1.3;Rs=0.221 Ohm =Rp=415.405 Ohm; and total 54 cells are connected in series in a module
at nominal operating conditions.




                                 Fig.2. Equivalent circuit of practical PV cell

The current- voltage and power-voltage characteristic of simulated module is shown in Fig.3.
As shown the open circuit voltage is 33.1 V, short circuit current is 8.21A. Figure 4 and figure 5
International Conference on Communication Systems (ICCS-2013)                     October 18-20, 2013
B K Birla Institute of Engineering & Technology (BKBIET), Pilani, India                     Page 129
International Journal of Electronics and Communication Engineering & Technology (IJECET),
ISSN 0976 – 6464(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6472(Online), Special Issue (November, 2013), © IAEME

shows the Current- Voltage and Power-Voltage characteristic of the module for temperature
variation from 100C to 1000C and insolation variation from 200 W/m2 to 1000W/m2
respectively.




                Fig. 3: I-V & P-V Characteristic Curve of Simulated Single Module




                   Fig. 4: I-V and P-V characteristic for Temperature Variation




International Conference on Communication Systems (ICCS-2013)                October 18-20, 2013
B K Birla Institute of Engineering & Technology (BKBIET), Pilani, India                Page 130
International Journal of Electronics and Communication Engineering & Technology (IJECET),
ISSN 0976 – 6464(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6472(Online), Special Issue (November, 2013), © IAEME




                     Fig. 5: I-V and P-V characteristic for Insolation Variation

III.   MODELING OF BOOST CONVERTER

A boost converter converts an input voltage to a higher output voltage. Main purpose of boost
converter is to boost the input voltage and make stable output voltage. Figure 6(a) shows the
boost converter and Figure 6(b) shows the output waveform of Boost Converter. The voltage
has been increased from 33.1 V to 57 V. Since power must be conserved, therefore, the output
current is lower than the source current.




                   Fig. 6: a) Boost Converter b) Output waveform of Boost Converter.

III    MODELING OF COMPLETE SYSTEM

Centralized architecture, series-connected micro converters, parallel-connected micro
converters, and micro inverters are the basic architectures for grid-connected PV systems, as
shown in Figure 7[3].In this paper series connected micro-converter architecture is used.
International Conference on Communication Systems (ICCS-2013)                      October 18-20, 2013
B K Birla Institute of Engineering & Technology (BKBIET), Pilani, India                      Page 131
International Journal of Electronics and Communication Engineering & Technology (IJECET),
ISSN 0976 – 6464(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6472(Online), Special Issue (November, 2013), © IAEME




      Fig. 7: (a) Centralized (b) Series-Connected Microconverter (c) Parallel-connected
                             Microconverter     (d)Microinverter[3]




                         Fig. 8: MATLAB/Simulink of Complete PV system.

Figure 8 shows the Matlab/Simulink of the complete system and Figure 9 shows the voltage
waveform of complete PV system. The voltage output of complete system modeled is 220V and
50 Hz frequency.




                         Fig. 9: Voltage waveform of complete PV system.
International Conference on Communication Systems (ICCS-2013)              October 18-20, 2013
B K Birla Institute of Engineering & Technology (BKBIET), Pilani, India              Page 132
International Journal of Electronics and Communication Engineering & Technology (IJECET),
ISSN 0976 – 6464(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6472(Online), Special Issue (November, 2013), © IAEME

IV.    CONCLUSION

Modeling of grid connected PV system has been done using MATLAB/Simulink. Each
subsystem of PV system is modeled, simulated and discussed separately. In day time, 9:00 AM
to till 5:00 PM, insolation is enough to generate sufficient voltage from PV. During this time,
grid will receive the necessary voltage from PV system. Future work includes harmonics
reduction of output waveform and to increase current capacity of the system by connecting
modules in parallel.

REFERENCES

[1] Marcelo Gradella Villalva, Jonas Rafael Gazoli, and Ernesto Ruppert Filho “Comprehensive
    Approach to Modeling and Simulation of Photovoltaic Arrays” IEEE Transactions on power
    electronics, Vol. 24, No. 5, May 2009 pp 1198-1208.
[2] Ahmed Sony Kamal Chowdhury, M. Abdur Razzak,” Single Phase Grid-Connected
     Photovoltaic Inverter for Residential Application with Maximum Power Point Tracking”
     IEEE 2013.
[3] Ali Bidram, Student Member, IEEE, Ali Davoudi, Member, IEEE, and Robert S. Balog, Senior
     Member, IEEE “Control and Circuit Techniques to Mitigate Partial Shading Effects in
     Photovoltaic Arrays” IEEE Journal Of Photovolatics,, Vol. 2, No. 4, October 2012,pp 532-
     547.

BIOGRAPHY

                Smita Pareek, Assistant Professor in Electronics & Communication
                Department at B.K.Birla Institute of Engineering & Technology. She received
                B.E. & M.E. degree in 2002 & 2008 respectively .She is currently pursuing Ph.D.
                from N.I.T. Kurukshetra, Kurukshetra, India. She has also taught at Poornima
                College Of Enginnering, Jaipur and Government Engineering College Bikaner,
                Bikaner. She has more than eleven years of teaching experience. She is Co-
                Author of three books for Engineering Undergraduate Students. She has many
papers in National and International Conferences and Journals of high reputes.

                 J Sandeep Soni, Asst. Prof. in Electrical Engg. Deptt. at B. K. Birla Institute of
                 Engg. & Tech., Pilani. He obtained Diploma (Electrical Engg.) in 2001 and B.E.
                 Electrical Engg (Hons) in 2004. He worked for more than four years in
                 corporate industries and more than four years in Engineering Education. He
                 has number of papers in National and International Conferences and Journals
                 of high reputes. His research interests are in Power System Automation, Smart
                Grid Technology, FACTS, Electrical Drives & Control and Renewable Energy &
their Applications.

                  Dr. Ratna Dahiya received her B.Tech from GBU, Pant Nagar and M.Tech and
                  Ph.D. degree degree in Electrical Engineering from R.E.C, Kurukshetra,
                  Kurukshetra University, Haryana, India. Currently, she is working as Professor
                  in Electrical Engineering Department with NIT, Kurukshetra (Deemed Uni.),
                  Haryana, India. Her research interests include SMES, Electric Power System,
                  Electric Power Quality, Power Electronics & FACTS. She has many papers in
                  National and International Conferences and Journals of high reputes.

International Conference on Communication Systems (ICCS-2013)                  October 18-20, 2013
B K Birla Institute of Engineering & Technology (BKBIET), Pilani, India                  Page 133

				
DOCUMENT INFO
Shared By:
Categories:
Tags:
Stats:
views:0
posted:12/5/2013
language:Latin
pages:6