Docstoc

A Scout is Vegetarian

Document Sample
A Scout is Vegetarian Powered By Docstoc
					A Scout is Vegetarian




 A vegetarian reference resource and
  cookbook for Boy Scout patrols.



                 Developed by:
                 James Harvey
              Assistant Scoutmaster
                    Troop 25
              Great Plains District
               Circle Ten Council

                Wood Badge 73
A Scout is Vegetarian
                 Table of Contents

What is a vegetarian?                       3

Who are vegetarians?                        4

Why is this important?                      5

Vegetarian nutrition                        5

How do I create vegetarian menus?           6

Substitutions and Replacements              7

Recipes:      2-Alarm ® Vegetarian Chili    8

              Bean and Rice Burritos        9

              Vegetarian Spaghetti         10

              Red Beans and Rice           11

              Vegetarian Gumbo             12

              Mountain Man Stew            13

Breakfasts and Lunches                     14

Resources                                  16




                  A Scout is Vegetarian         2
What is a vegetarian?
Many people are confused by the word “vegetarian”. Some people think it means eating
no animal products and being an animal rights activist. Others think it only defines
people who do not eat beef. Still others associate it with certain religions, such as
Hinduism. We will try to clear-up any misunderstanding about vegetarianism and talk
about why it is something that a troop’s youth leaders need to understand.

First, there are two kinds of vegetarians. One type we simply call vegetarians, the other
we know as vegans.

Vegetarian     A vegetarian diet consists of plant-based foods and uses no flesh from
               animals. Plant-based foods include vegetables, fruits, nuts, beans, and
               grains. Animal flesh is fowl, fish, pork, beef, and or any other kind of
               animal meat. Vegetarians do eat animal-derived products like eggs, milk
               cheese, and other dairy products.1

Vegan          A vegan diet consists of only plant-based foods. It excludes all animal
               flesh as well as dairy, eggs, honey or any animal produced ingredients.
               Vegans also do not wear leather, fur, wool, silk, or any other products
               made from animals.2

From these definitions you can see that the big difference is that vegetarians may use
animal products, including milk, cheese, and eggs, but do not eat meat from any animal,
bird or fish. In contrast to this, vegans avoid the use of any animal products. They eat
only foods from plants and use only plant-based or man-made products, such as cotton or
synthetic fleece rather than wool.

Some people choose to eat only chicken or fish and avoid red meat. We do not have a
word that describes the diet they have chosen, but they are not really vegetarians.

Being a vegetarian does not mean that you have specific religious beliefs. Some religions
encourage vegetarianism. However, none of the largest religions in the United States,
including Christianity, Judaism, or Islam, prohibits a vegetarian diet.




                                     A Scout is Vegetarian                                  3
Who are vegetarians?
Anyone can be a vegetarian. Based upon a survey conduced in 2003, around 2.8% of the
adult population in the United States said that they were vegetarians.3 Of, those, about
half were vegetarian and half were vegan. There was no specific information in the
survey about how many children are vegetarians or who are being raised in vegetarian
families.

Vegetarianism is closely associated with many Eastern religions. The Hindu scriptures
encourage a vegetarian diet, but not all Hindus are vegetarian. The foundations of this
belief in vegetarianism are the Hindu ideals of nonviolence and spirituality. Nearly all
Hindus avoid eating beef because they consider the cow to be a sacred animal. However,
Hindus can drink milk and can make and eat dairy products, such as cheese and butter.
Buddhism, Jainism, and Taoism also encourage vegetarianism in their religion.

Even though vegetarianism is not required in the Christian, Jewish, and Islamic faiths,
many vegetarians of those faiths believe that their scriptures and holy writings encourage
vegetarianism. This view comes from passages that encourage us to treat animals kindly
or humanely. Today, many vegetarians feel that the way we raise and butcher animals on
modern farms is neither kind nor ethical.4

In addition to religious beliefs, vegetarians often give health or social reasons for
choosing a vegetarian life style. From a health perspective, most vegetarians reduce the
use of animal fats and cholesterol in their diets while vegans eliminate them all together.
Current dietary guidelines from the Unites States Department of Agriculture recommend
a diet for all Americans that are low in saturated fats, trans fats, and cholesterol.5

From a social perspective many vegetarians and feel that modern farming methods are
cruel to animals or that it is wrong to kill an animal for food or to make leather. Other
vegetarian believe that the resources (such as farmland, water, and gasoline) that we use
to grow food for animals can be used best to grow food for consumption directly by
humans. For example, a cow has to eat around 10 pounds of grain to grow 1 pound of
beef.6 Based on this, vegetarians advocate that the world would benefit from feeding 10
pound of grain to 10 people instead of feeding 1 pound of beef to 1 person.




                                    A Scout is Vegetarian                                     4
Why is this important?
Each year thousands of new boys join Boy Scout troops in the United States. Some of
these new scouts are vegetarians. Some because of their religious beliefs and some
because this is how they are being raised by their family. Regardless of their reason for
being vegetarian, it is up to scout leaders, both adults and boys, to make these scouts feel
welcome in their new troops.

For adult leaders, this may mean helping the new scout’s patrol understand what it means
to be a vegetarian. Adults will also need to ensure that youth leaders, such as the patrol
leader or troop guide understand what they may need to do to help the scout feel
welcome. Additionally, adult leaders will need to consider where they stop for troop
meals when traveling or about menus for troop functions.

Patrol leaders or troop guides will need to understand what their new patrol member
needs and help them become an active patrol member. They will have to work with the
patrol’s grubmaster to ensure that the menu planned provides a vegetarian menu or
accommodates the scout brining and preparing some of his own food. Additionally, if the
patrol will be providing both vegetarian and non-vegetarian menus on camp-outs, the
scout many need extra help when he is working on his Second Class and First Class
cooking requirements.


Vegetarian nutrition?
Vegetarians can get all of the nutrition they need from by carefully planning their diet,
just as non-vegetarians get the nutrition they need from a balanced and varied diet. For
vegetarians, the challenge is to ensure that they are getting enough protein, iron, and
vitamin B12. Vegans have the additional challenge of getting the calcium and vitamin D
found in dairy products and have to provide for calcium and vitamin D in their diets.7
Vegetarian and vegan menu planning can be very complex. Providing a complete
reference on how to do this is beyond what we are trying to accomplish with this guide.

For a weekend campout a parent or scout should not to be concerned about any lack of
nutrition in a menu plan that accommodates a vegetarian patrol member. As we will
discuss in the next section, the patrol menu should be designed around the food pyramid



                                   A Scout is Vegetarian                                     5
and the patrol can easily substitute vegetarian ingredients in their means. For parents or
scouts who are concerned about nutrition in a vegetarian menu, camp-out friendly foods,
such a jerky or cheese sticks, can easily be added to the patrol’s menu.


How do I create vegetarian menus?
Boy Scout menu planning is based upon a food pyramid. The current United States
Department of Agriculture (USDA) food pyramid suggests that a 12-year old, active boy
eat 2,400 calories per day as outlined in the food pyramid provided below.8




To adjust this for vegetarian use, patrols will need to remove meats from the “Meat &
Bean” guidelines and replace the calories, vitamins and minerals provided by the meat
with other nutritional sources. For vegans, “Milk” will also need to be replaced with
appropriate non-dairy foods.

The following pages will provide information on how to make vegetarian and vegan
substitutions in your patrol menus. We will also provide some specific vegetarian recipes
based upon popular camp-out meals.



                                  A Scout is Vegetarian                                      6
Substitutions and Replacements
To simplest way to accommodate a vegetarian in the patrol is to substitute commonly
used non-meat meals for meals that traditionally contain meat. For example, two eggs
are the MyPyramid equivalent of 2 ounces of meat. By having two eggs for breakfast, a
scout has gotten nearly 1/3 of his Meat & Bean requirement for the day. A lunchtime
idea is to replace luncheon meats sandwiches with vegetarian choices and supplement the
meal with nuts. For example, replace ham and cheese sandwiches with toasted cheese
sandwiches and 1 ounce of mixed nuts. One ounce of mixed nuts is equivalent to two
ounces of lean lunchmeats. For more ideas, go inside the MyPyramid meat and bean
food gallery at http://www.mypyramid.gov/pyramid/meat.html#.

Another easy way to create vegetarian menus is to replace meat products with vegetable-
based meat substitutes. In most recipes the meat substitute is a one-to-one replacement
for the meat item. For example, one beef hamburger is replaced by one meat substitute or
“veggie” burger. One company that makes and distributes meat substitutes is BOCA®
Food Products. BOCA® makes a full range of range of meatless products that substitute
for burgers, ground meat, sausages, and chicken patties or nuggets. These products and
others like them can usually be found in the specialty area of the frozen food section in
your local grocery store. Most meat substitutes are suitable for both vegetarian and
vegan diets.

For vegans, replacing milk and diary products has gotten simpler in the last few years.
Soy-based or Soya milk and cheese are now sold in many grocery stores as well as in
specialty health food stores. Soy milk and soy cheese can be used just like regular mike
or cheese in meals and recipes. Nearly all commercial soy dairy products have been
fortifies with calcium to more closely simulate cow’s milk. Eggs substitutes that can be
used to make scrambled eggs or omelets do not exist. For baking recipes that call for
eggs, an egg substitute call Ener-G Egg can be found at heath food stores or egg-less
recipes can be found at one of the websites listed in our vegetarian cooking reference list.
The commercial egg replacement products available at the grocery store and “complete”
baking mixes, such as pancakes or brownies, usually include some real egg are can not be
considered as vegan substitutes.



                                   A Scout is Vegetarian                                    7
                            2-Alarm® Vegetarian Chili
Chili is a popular lunch or dinner meal with scouts. This recipe uses Wick Fowler’s 2-
Alarm® Chili Kit as a base and replaces 2 pounds of ground beef with 2 15.5 ounce cans
of kidney beans.

              Ingredients                                  Cooking Instructions
 1   2-Alarm® Chili Kit                              Add tomato sauce, 15.5 ounces of
 1   15.5 ounce can tomato sauce                      water, kidney beans, and all chili kit
 1   15.5 ounce can water                             ingredients (except masa) to a 3 or 4
 2   15.5 ounce can kidney beans                      quart cooking pot. Simmer on
     ¼ cup water                                      medium or low heat for
                                                      approximately 15 to 20 minutes to
                                                      blend flavors and heat the kidney
                                                      beans.
                                                     Dissolve masa in ¼ cup of water and
                                                      add to chili. Simmer for additional
                                                      10 minutes to thicken the chili.
                                                     Serve hot.
                                                     Chili can be topped with sour cream
                                                      and/or shredded cheese (not included
                                                      in nutritional information).
                                                                  Servings
                                                     Approximately 6 servings

                                    Other Alternatives
In addition to this bean-based chili recipe, there are two more meatless chili alternatives.
One is to use a vegetable-based ground beef substitute in place of the ground beef. To
make this recipe with a meat substitute, replace the kidney beans with the meat substitute
and follow the chili kit instructions. The other alternative is to use tofu. To make this
recipe with tofu, cut a one-pound package of tofu into ½-inch squares and brown the
squares lightly. Browning them makes the tofu firmer and improves the flavor. Then,
just follow the directions given above, adding the ingredients to the pre-browned tofu.

                                    Vegan Comments
The basic chili recipe is suitable for vegan diets. The cheese and sour cream toppings
will need to be replaced with vegan alternatives, such as cheese and plain yogurt made
from soy.




                                   A Scout is Vegetarian                                   8
                             Bean and Rice Burritos
Tex-Mex favorites, such as burritos, tacos, and quesadillas, are easy to make in
vegetarian versions. This is a recipe for burritos made with a bean, rice and vegetable
filling.

              Ingredients                                  Cooking Instructions
 3  cups cooked rice                                Cook the rice according to the
 1  medium onion                                     package instructions. Either white or
 2  green peppers                                    brown rice is suitable.
 2  15.5 ounce cans of black beans or               Slice the onions and green peppers in
    vegetarian refried beans                         to long thin strips. Lightly brown the
 12 vegetarian tortillas                             vegetables in a frying pan using 1
1 ½ cups cheese (cheddar, jack or a tex-             tablespoon of vegetable oil.
    mex mix)                                        Drain excess water from the beans
  1 Small can or jar of salsa (mild,                 and heat them in a frying pan using 1
    regular, or hot based upon patrol                tablespoon of vegetable oil. Mash
    preference).                                     them after they are hot.
  2 tablespoons vegetable oil                       On each tortilla, spread about 2
                                                     tablespoons of mashed beans, ¼ cup
                                                     of rice, 2 tablespoons of cheese, and
                                                     a few pieces of the vegetables.
                                                    Roll burrito tightly and serve with
                                                     salsa on top.
                                                                  Servings
                                                    12 burritos (plan on 2 per scout)

                    Vegetarian Tortillas, Tacos and Refried Beans
Many tex-mex food products are made with lard, which is made from pork fat and is an
animal product. You will need to look for a vegetarian label on the package or carefully
read the ingredient list to ensure that you are using a vegetarian version.

                                   Other Alternatives
Just about any tex-mex recipe that uses ground beef can be converted to a vegetarian
version by substituting rice and beans for the ground beef. Alternatively, the ground beef
can be replaced with vegetable-based ground beef substitutes.

                                    Vegan Comments
The basic burrito recipe is suitable for vegan diets. The cheese will need to be replaced
with vegan alternatives, such as cheese made from soy.




                                  A Scout is Vegetarian                                     9
                               Vegetarian Spaghetti
Spaghetti and other pasta dishes are popular patrol meals that can be made meatless with
little difficulty.

              Ingredients                                  Cooking Instructions
 1   medium onion (chopped)                         Slice or chop the vegetables. Lightly
 1   green peppers (chopped)                         brown the vegetables in a frying pan
 2   zucchini squash (sliced)                        using 1 tablespoon of vegetable oil.
 1   cup mushrooms (sliced)                         Add the tomato sauce, diced
 1   15.5 ounce can tomato sauce                     tomatoes, and Italian seasoning mix.
 1   15.5 ounce can diced tomatoes                  Simmer on medium or low heat for
 2   tablespoons Italian seasoning mix               approximately 15 to 20 minutes to
 1   tablespoons vegetable oil                       blend flavors and heat sauce and
 1   12 ounce package spaghetti                      tomatoes.
 6    tablespoons parmesan cheese                   Cook the spaghetti according to
                                                     package instructions.
                                                    Drain the spaghetti and serve with 1
                                                     cup of sauce. Sprinkle 1 tablespoon
                                                     of parmesan cheese on top.
                                                                 Servings
                                                    Approximately 6 servings

                                   Other Alternatives
Just about any pasta recipe that uses ground beef or Italian sausage can be converted to a
vegetarian version by replacing them with vegetable-based ground beef or sausage
substitutes.

                                    Vegan Comments
By omitting the parmesan cheese, the basic spaghetti recipe is suitable for vegan diets.




                                  A Scout is Vegetarian                                    10
                                Red Beans and Rice
Red beans and rice is a staple of Cajun cooking. Often made with pork or sausage, this
version is suitable for both vegetarian and vegan diets. When made with quick rice and
canned beans, the recipe is a fast, hot, and filling lunch.

               Ingredients                                 Cooking Instructions
 3   cups cooked rice                               Cook the rice according to the
 1   medium onion                                    package instructions. Either white or
 1   green peppers                                   brown rice is suitable.
 2   15.5 ounce can kidney beans                    Chop the onions and green peppers
 1   tablespoon Cajun seasoning                      into small pieces. Lightly brown the
 1   tablespoon vegetable oil                        vegetables in a frying pan using 1
                                                     tablespoon of vegetable oil.
                                                    Drain excess water from the beans
                                                     and add them to the browned
                                                     vegetables.
                                                    Add the cooked rice and stir
                                                     everything together.
                                                    Sprinkle the Cajun seasoning on top
                                                     of the mixture and stir.
                                                    Simmer on medium or low heat for
                                                     approximately 15 to 20 minutes to
                                                     blend flavors and heat the kidney
                                                     beans.
                                                                 Servings
                                                    Approximately 6 servings

                                    Other Alternatives
Red Beans and Rice are often made with sausage. A vegetable-based sausage substitute,
such as BOCA® Smoked Sausages can be added to this recipe. Simply cut the sausage
substitute into ¼-inch slices and put them in the pan when you combine the vegetables,
rice, and beans.

                                     Vegan Comments
The recipe is suitable for vegan diets.




                                   A Scout is Vegetarian                                11
                                 Vegetarian Gumbo
Gumbo is a Cajun soup that is usually made with sausage, fowl, or seafood. This version
uses beans and vegetables as replacements for the meat and is suitable for both vegetarian
and vegan diets.

               Ingredients                                 Cooking Instructions
 3   cups cooked rice                               Cook the rice according to the
 1   medium onion (chopped)                          package instructions. Either white or
 1   green pepper (chopped)                          brown rice is suitable.
 2   zucchini squash (sliced)                       Chop or slice the vegetables into
 2   stalks celery (chopped)                         small pieces. Lightly brown the
 1   cup mushrooms (sliced)                          vegetables in a frying pan using 1
 1   cup okra (sliced)                               tablespoon of vegetable oil.
 2   15.5 ounce can kidney beans                    Drain excess water from the beans
 2   14.5 ounce can stewed tomatoes                  and add them to the browned
 1   14 ounce can vegetable broth                    vegetables.
 1   tablespoon vegetable oil                       Add the tomatoes.
 1   tablespoon Cajun seasoning                     Add the vegetable stock
                                                    Add the Cajun seasoning and stir.
                                                    Simmer on medium or low heat for
                                                     approximately 15 to 20 minutes to
                                                     blend flavors and heat the gumbo.
                                                    Put ½ cup of rice in a bowl and ladle
                                                     1 cup of gumbo over the rice.
                                                                 Servings
                                                    Approximately 6 servings

                                    Other Alternatives
Gumbo is often made with sausage. A vegetable-based sausage substitute, such as
BOCA® Smoked Sausages can be added to this recipe. Simply cut the sausage substitute
into ¼-inch slices and put them in the pan when you combine the vegetables, tomatoes,
and beans.

                                     Vegan Comments
The recipe is suitable for vegan diets.

                         A Note About Cajun or Creole Recipes
Cajun or Creole gumbos, jambalayas, and etouffees lend themselves to vegetarian
conversion. However, jambalayas and etouffees typically begin with a roux and are not
suitable for patrol menus. Making a roux on a camp stove can be very difficult for a 12-
year old boy and a roux can cause sever burns if touched or spilled.


                                   A Scout is Vegetarian                                12
                                Mountain Man Stew
Hearty soups and stews are great one pot meals for cool weather camping. This version
uses a tomato base with frozen beans, potatoes, and vegetables for a quick and nutritious
lunch or dinner.

               Ingredients                                 Cooking Instructions
 1   15.5 ounce can stewed tomatoes                 Pour all of the ingredients into a 3 or
 2   14 ounce cans vegetable broth                   4 quart cooking pot.
 1   16 ounce bag frozen lima beans                 Simmer on medium or low heat for
 1   16 ounce bag frozen diced potatoes              approximately 15 to 20 minutes to
 1   16 ounce bag mixed vegetables                   blend flavors and heat the
     (peas, corn, carrots, etc.)                     ingredients.
                                                                  Servings
                                                    Approximately 6 servings


                                     Vegan Comments
The recipe is suitable for vegan diets.




                                   A Scout is Vegetarian                                  13
                             Breakfasts and Lunches
Breakfast is a meal that can easily accommodate a vegetarian diet. Eggs, pancakes,
oatmeal, and cold cereals are all well-liked breakfast items. By including fruit and dairy
in the meal, a complete and well-balanced menu plan is within the reach of the patrol.
The key to a balanced cold breakfast is to have three or four smaller items, such as fruit,
yogurt, and granola, rather than just one big bowl of cereal.

Eggs and egg-based breakfasts, like French Toast, are all OK menu items. Hot cereals,
such as oatmeal or grits, are also good choices. Breakfast tacos make with eggs and
cheese are a great “no plate” meal for a busy Saturday morning.

A vegan breakfast is a little more difficult. Eggs and dairy are excluded from the vegan
diet and must be eliminated or replaced with substitutes. Cold cereal is still OK as long
soy milk is used. Additionally, most pancake mixes either include dairy or eggs in their
ingredients or require that these be added when they are made. If a patrol wants vegan
pancakes the grub master will need to prepare a “from scratch” recipe at home and bring
the pre-mixed ingredients to the campout. Vegan pancake recipes can be found in the
online recipe web sites listed on the References page.

Lunch options for the vegetarian already include some all-time favorites like Peanut
Butter and Jelly or Toasted Cheese sandwiches. Vegetable-based soups, vegetarian chili
and Macaroni and Cheese are also OK. Like breakfast, three or four smaller items can be
combined for lunch. Ideas include energy or protein bars, dried fruit, GORP or trail mix,
and pre-packaged cheese sticks and crackers. An added benefit of these multiple item
lunches that they are “trail friendly” and do not require cooking. For more information
on trail foods, a link to the Philmont Country Cookbook has been included in the
references.

The vegan lunch is a little more of a challenge. For cold lunches, all of the trail foods,
except cheese from milk, should be OK. You need to check the ingredient lists of any
energy or protein bars to ensure that they do not include any dried milk. Non-dairy
sandwiches are also fine and PB&J is still on the menu. Many hot lunches may take too
long to prepare and will probably need to be avoided on a busy campout schedule.


                                   A Scout is Vegetarian                                     14
A Scout is Vegetarian   15
                                 Resources
USDA Nutritional Information   The U.S. Department of Agriculture’s (USDA) Food
Center                         and Nutrition Information Center was used to compile
                               nutritional comparison data. www.nal.usda.gov/fnic/



MyPyramid                      Information about the USDA’s Food Pyramid can be
                               found at http://www.mypyramid.gov/



Vegetarian Times               Vegetarian Times magazine and web site
                               http://www.vegetariantimes.com/



VegWeb                         VegWeb, a vegan oriented web site with recipes and
                               resource links http://vegweb.com/



Vegetarian Resource Group      Like the name says, vegetarian and vegan resources,
                               including many recipes. http://www.vrg.org/index.htm



Philmont Country Cookbook      Not a vegetarian source, but plenty of great ideas for
                               trail lunches and GORP.

                               http://www.macscouter.com/Cooking/PHLMNTCB.pdf




                               A Scout is Vegetarian                                    16
                                           Citations

1   “HappyCow's Vegetarian Guide to Restaurants and Health Food Stores.” Vegetarian Diet and
    Vegetarianism.
    http://www.happycow.com
2   Ibid.

3   “How Many Vegetarians Are There?: 2003 National Harris Interactive Survey.” Vegetarian Journal.
    2003 Issue 3. Volume XXII, Number 3.
    http://www.vrg.org/journal/vj2003issue3/index.htm
4   “Vegetarianism and the Major World Religions.” Society of Ethical and Religious Vegetarians.

    http://www.serv-online.org/pamphlet2005.htm
5   “Dietary Guidelines.” United States Department of Agriculture.

    http://www.mypyramid.gov/guidelines/index.html
6   “Why Eat Less Meat?” Compassion in World Farming (CIWF).

    http://www.ciwf.org/home/news2.shtml.
7   “Dietary Guidelines for Americans.” 2005 Edition.
    http://www.health.gov/dietaryguidelines/dga2005/document/
8   MyPyramid Plan.
    http://www.mypyramid.gov/mypyramid/




                                       A Scout is Vegetarian                                          17

				
DOCUMENT INFO
Shared By:
Categories:
Tags:
Stats:
views:0
posted:12/4/2013
language:Unknown
pages:17
alice1311 alice1311
About alice1311@yeah.net