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					                               Annotated Bibliography



“Navajo Code Talkers’ Manual.” The United States Marine Corps.


                  This is the official manual used by the Navajo code talkers while

       transmitting messages in WWII. It is a photograph of a code talkers’ personal

       manual. It contains some vocabulary and the word confidential is printed across

       the top.

“Proclamation.” 29 Oct 2004 <>

                  This primary source is a document that shows the proclamation of the

       New Mexican government. It also shows their appreciation to the Navajo code

       talkers that served in WWII.

“Restricted.” 06 Nov 2004. <


                  This document is a Landing Information Sheet for the Navajo Code

       Talkers during WWII. It gave the Navajos instructions on how to land on their

       designated destination.

Kimball, Christopher. 14 May 1982. The Navajo Code Talkers. Reference and Museums

       Section, USMC. 18 Oct 2004


                  This is a copy of a handout given at a program at Fort Huachuca

       recognizing Navajo Code Talkers. The program took place on May 14th 1982. It
       tells the whole story about how the Navajo code talkers were formed. It shows

       how complex the language was, and how nobody could crack the code.

Reagan, Ronald. “National Navaho Code Talkers Day.” The President of the United

       States of America. 01 Nov 2004


              This primary source is a proclamation by Ronald Reagan proclaiming

       August 14th, 1982 as Navaho Code Talkers day. It was signed by Ronald Reagan

       on July 28th, 1982. It explains why Ronald Reagan and the congress wanted to

       designate this day in order to express appreciation to the Navajo Indians.

Sorknes, Harold. “Navajo Code Talkers.” 15 Oct 2004.


              This primary source is a certificate from the President of the United States

       thanking the Navajo for their support during WWII. The President at the time was

       Ronald Reagan.

Vogel, Clayton B. “Enlistment of Navaho Indians.” 06 March 1942. National Archives.

       11 Oct 2004



              This is a message from Clayton B. Vogel suggesting to use Navajo Indians

       as code talkers to the Commandant of the United States Marines. It is an official

       primary source from the National Archives.

Internet Newspaper Articles
"Hero recalls horror." Las Vegas Review-Journal 30 Dec 1994. 25 Oct 2004



              This primary source is a newspaper that talks about the Navajo code

       talkers. It deals with their commitment to World War II.

Manning, Elizabeth. “Warriors – Navajo Code Talkers.” High Country News. 30 Oct

       1995. 01 Nov 2004. <


              This is a newspaper article about a man named Kenji Kawano who wrote a

       book on Navajo Code Talkers. Kenji was born in Japan and he never knew about

       the code talkers. He now lives on an Indian reservation and many of his friends

       are code talkers who fought against his relatives. After hearing all of their stories,

       he has great respect for the code talkers.

McDowell, Edwin. “When the Navajos Baffled the Enemy.” The Wall Street Journal. 31

       Dec 1974. 09 Nov 2004 <>

              This is a picture of an article from the Wall Street Journal. The newspaper

       is dated December 31st, 1974. It summarizes the story of the code talkers. It also

       talks about current events in 1974.

Smith, Albert. The Navajo Times 26 June 1969. 17 Oct 2004


       This newspaper was from the Navajo Times published on June 26th, 1969. The

       code talkers had returned from Iwo Jima to participate in a radio communication

       course in Maui.
Woodbury, Chuck. “Navajo Code Talkers.” Out West Newspaper. 01 Nov 2004


              This source is a newspaper article talking about how the practical code

       was created. It shows where the official headquarters of the remaining Navajo

       code talkers is at. Most code talkers are living in Arizona and New Mexico. They

       were also recruited to San Diego for training during WWII.


“50 Years Later.” National Park Service.



              This picture shows the Navajo code talkers being honored at a ceremony.

       It took place fifty years after their service in WWII.

“Amphibious Scout School.” The United States Mint.


              This black and white photograph shows three Navajo marine scouts study

       night problems at the Amphibious Scout School which is somewhere in the

       Southwest Pacific. It shows them training for the war and trying to figure out

       assigned tasks.

“Corporal Lloyd Oliver.” The United States Marine Corps.


               Corporal Lloyd Oliver is a brilliant Navajo Indian. This photograph

       shows him operating a field radio in the Southern Pacific. Cpl. Oliver also is a

       sniper and a highly regarded scout.

“Guadalcanal.” <


               This photograph shows a Navajo code talker washing his clothes. He is in

       a rural area and washing them in a bucket of water.

“Marine at Tori Gate.” The United States Mint.



               This black and white photograph was taken during WWII. It shows a

       Navajo code talker at Tori Gate. It is on the United States Mint webpage

       dedicated to the code talkers.

“Marine Playing Native Drum.” The United States Mint.



               This photograph was taken by a United States Marine. It is in black and

       white and it shows a Navajo Code Talker relaxing and playing a native drum.

“Marine Scouts.” The United States Mint. <


               This picture shows three Navajo marine scouts that are reviewing

       information and analyzing information. They are all Navajo code talkers who left

       their reservations to fight for their country.
“Marine with Walky-Talky.” The United States Mint.



              A code talker is communicating with his base via walky-talky. It shows

       him armed and trying to relay the unbreakable code to soldiers. It is also a black

       and white photograph.

“Navajo Code Talkers.” <>

              This picture shows five Navajo Code Talkers that are together in testing

       and training prior to combat. The code talkers were a crucial part of our victories

       in WWII.

“Navajo Code Talkers” <>

              This is a picture of the marines in WWII. Navajos were contacted for

       support because Japanese intelligence had broke every code before. There were

       29 original volunteers for the Navajo Code Talkers and they ended up playing a

       big role in WWII.

“Navajo code talkers honored after 56 years.”


              This picture shows Navajo war veterans at a ceremony honoring the

       Navajo Code Talkers. They are wearing medals that were awarded to them in

       honor of their service in WWII.

“Navajo Code Talkers Sworn In.”

               This is a black and white photo of the original 29 code talkers being sworn

       in at Fort Wingate, New Mexico. The twenty-nine code talkers are sworn in with

       their right hand in the air. In the background is a large two-story military buliding.

“Navajo Seal.” <>

               This picture is a photo of the official Navajo Seal. It is used on every

       official Navajo letter that is sent to the government.

“Noumea” <


               This is a black and white photo of three code talkers standing outside their

       tent. Other tents are also visible in the area.

“Setting up a Communications System.”<


               This photo shows a Navajo code talker in WWII setting up his radio

       communications. It is a black and white photo taken in a rural area. It is kind of

       hard to see but it shows the armed code talker transmitting messages in the


"The Japanese Attack Pearl Harbor"


             The US Navy took this photograph of the USS Arizona on fire. This was

       after the attack on Pearl Harbor in December 1941.

“The Medal.” <>
               These gold and silver medals were awarded to the code talkers for

        recognition in the war. These medals were the most distinguishing item that

        congress dedicated to the code talkers.

“Veteran recalls Navajo Code Talkers’ war in Pacific.” United States Department of

        Defense. <>

               This picture shows Navajo Code Talkers marching in formation at Camp

        Pendleton, California. It is a marine corps archive photo.

“Warrior.” <>

               This black and white photograph shows a Navajo code talker. In the

        background there is a statue of code talkers holding an American flag.

“Warriors-The Navajo Code Talkers.” <>

               This picture shows a Navajo warrior who is serving his country. This man

        was a windtalker or a “code talker” which were a group of Navajos who spoke

        code during WWII.

“Windtalkers.” < >

               This picture is a graphic that is based on the movie “Windtalkers.” It

        shows two Navajo Code talkers and they are communicating through radio.



“Dirty Little Secrets of World War II.” 1st edition. New York: William Morrow and

        Company, Inc., 1994.
              This book tells how the Navajo Code Talkers or what they call

       “communication specialists” were a big part of WWII. They used them as an

       example with some of the biggest events in WWII.

Aaseng, Nathan. Navajo Code Talkers. Ontario: Thomas Allen & son, 1992.

              Navajo Code Talkers were the real heroes of WWII. They used their

       code in crucial, challenging and dangerous situations. The messages were not

       understandable by the Americans or the Japanese. Nobody except for a Navajo

       Marine could send or receive these complex messages.

Durrett, Deane. Unsung heroes of World War II. New York: Facts on File, 1998.

              This book has information about how the Navajo Code Talkers were

       never recognized during WWII. They were the most important part of the war,

       however their heroic efforts were not recognized until after the war.

Paul, Doris A. The Navajo Code Talkers. 15th edition. Pittsburgh: Dorrance

       Publishing Company, 1973.

              This book contains many details about the story of the Navajo Code

       Talkers. It has the information from when the code was created all the way until

       when the code talkers were honored by President Bush.

Computer Software

“American History.” Computer software. Cosmi, 2003. Windows XP, 1.37 MB, CD-

               This company provided me with background information on WWII

        and told me why Navajo Code Talkers were desperately needed. It also had

        many interesting photographs also.


“Navajo Code Talkers.” Encyclopedia Americana. 1st edition. 1829.

               World War II made an immaculate difference in Navajo history and in US

        history. Many Navajos headed to the military and left their reservations. They

        also complied a remarkable war record after serving in the military.


USMC. "Marine Corps Anthem."

               We used part of the Marine Corps Anthem in our flash introduction.

Van Halen. "Jump."

               We extracted the beginning instrumental part of this song. It is used as

        background music for one of our pages.

Van Halen. "Right Now." For Unlawful Carnal Knowledge.

               We extracted the beginning instrumental part of this song. It is used in our

        flash introduction.

Sound Recordings


                  This source has extracted audio from a RealPlayer file. It talks about the

       creation of the code.



                  This source also has audio. It has an interview with one of the code


Video Recordings

“Windtalkers.” Director John Woo. With Nicolas Cage, John Rice, and Joe

       Batteer. Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer Pictures, 2002.

                  Two United States Marines in World War II are assigned to protect

       Navajo Code Talkers who use their language as an unbreakable radio code. The

       US had been looking for a code that was not known to Japanese. They finally

       found the Navajo language, however, they must make sure that the code talkers

       are never captured by their enemy.


“All You Need to Know about Navajo Code Talkers.” Marios Cyberspace Station. 11 Oct

       2004 <>.

                  The Navajo code talkers took part in every United States Marines attack

       that was conducted in the Pacific from 1942 to 1945. They transmitted messages
       by telephone and radio in their native language and served in all six Marine


“American Indian Heritage Month.” The code that was never broken. InfoPlease. 25 Oct

       2004 <>.

              The code talkers helped out in every US attack from 1942 to 1945. They

       code encode, transmit, and decode an English message consisting of three lines in

       under 20 seconds. Their skill, speed and accuracy made it the most reliable

       military code in United States history. There is now an exhibit at the Pentagon

       dedicated to the Navajo code talkers.

Code Talkers. 01 Nov 2004 <http:/>.

              This website features many categories such as a timeline of the Navajo,

       details, and the whole story. It describes Navajos from many different

       perspectives and it tells their full and complete history.

“Code Talkers Strength of America.” Code Talkers Strength of America. 04 Oct 2004


              About 300 Navajos were trained to speak code and approximately 300 saw

       action in battle. They served in all 6 marine divisions. They were a part of every

       assault in WWII.

“Department of the Treasury.” 30 Jan 2002. The Navajo Code Talkers Timeline. United

       States Mint. 18 Oct 2004 <


              This source gives a specific timeline of events between the Navajo code

       talkers and World War II. It starts off when the original twenty-nine code talkers
       were enlisted in May 1942. It ends when George W. Bush presented medals to the

       code talkers in July 2001.

“Frequently Asked Questions.” 03 Nov 1999. Navajo Code Talkers’ Dictionary.

       Department of the Naval – Naval Historical Center. 04 Oct 2004


              The Navajo Code Talkers’ Dictionary is a complete dictionary with

       translations from Navajo to English. It was declassified and put on the Internet

       with the United States Navy. It has some basic words and literal translations.

“Frequently Asked Questions.” 12 Aug 1997. Navajo Code Talkers – World War II Fact

       Sheet. Department of the Navy. 11 Oct 2004


              Navajo Code Talkers were a very important part of World War II. They

       participated in every US assault against Japan. Even the best code breakers were

       baffled by the code. In May 1942, 29 Navajo recruits prepared for war and went

       through training. This 1st group created the actual code. They developed a

       dictionary and memorized common terms.

Navajo Code. 29 Oct 2004 <>

              This website tells information about the Navajo Code and its code talkers.

       This webpage also contains an interview between a Navajo Code Talker and the

       woman who interviewed him. There are also many other interviews between

       Navajo code talkers on this page.

“Navajo Code Talkers.” Navajo Code Talkers. 08 Nov 2004

              This website talks basically all about World War II and its themes, but

       there is a page on the Navajo code talkers and their history in WWII. It also talks

       about a man named Philip Johnston organizing the code talkers.

“Navajo Code Talkers.” Navajo Code Talkers. 24 Oct 2004


              This website talks about Phillip Johnston and how he recruited the

       Navajos and his belief in the success of the code. He thought there was a huge

       possibility that the code would be successful.

“Navajo Code Talkers.” 08 Oct 2004


              This website talks about the history of the Navajo code talkers and talks

       about how a WWI veteran named Phillip Johnston persuaded the Navajos to enter

       the marines and speak their native language that would be unbreakable to

       mankind. His attempt was a successful one. By 1945, about 540 Navajos served

       as marines. The pentagon in Washington DC now hosts a special exhibit in

       memory of the Navajos who risked their life’s for their country,

Navajo Code Talkers Association. 01 Oct 2004 <>.

              The Navajo code talkers saved many lives in World War Two using a

       special code. The Navajo’s main mission was to communicate and talk about

       battle plans, weapons, strategies, etc. using their code. The difficulty and

       complexity of the language made it extremely difficult for enemies to understand.

“The Navajo Code Talkers Exhibit.” The Pentagon. 08 Nov 2004

              This website is about the Pentagon, but has information about an exhibit

       based on the Navajo code talkers. It talks about the “Honoring the Navajo code

       talkers Act” which was introduced by Senator Jeff Bingaman. It awarded a gold

       medal to each of the first 29 code talkers.

“The Code.” 2002. Navajo Code Talkers. Celebrate Freedom. 25 Oct 2004


              This website is based on the Navajo code and its meaning. It shows how

       the code was created and how it was used during WWII.

Quotes about Marines . 09 Apr. 2005 <>.

              This website features numerous moving quotes from marines and about

       marines. It made me think of how much the Marines dedicated to our country.

       They were a huge influence on our success in the battles leading up to our victory

       in Japan.

Warriors: Navajo Code Talkers. 09 Apr. 2005


              This website provided quotes for our flash introduction. The quotes are by

       Navajo Code Talkers that fought in World War Two. It gave us an insight on how

       the actual people felt during war.
Bingaman, Jeff. Navajo Code Talkers. 4 Oct 2004


              On July 26th, 2001 President Bush presented gold medals to the first

       twenty-nine code talkers. The ceremony took place in the Capital Rotunda. The

       first 29 enlistees were credited with the development of the code. They started out

       with 200 terms and it grew to 600. It became one of the most advanced and

       successful secret military code of its time.

Galambros, Imre. 2000. The Navajo Code Talkers. 25 Oct 2004.


              The Navajo tribe forgot about their ill fate during the United States

       colonization and helped out the country they called theirs. The Navajo took part

       actively in World War I and World War II. In WWII over 3,600 Navajo’s fought

       for their country. That was the highest percentage of ethnicity in the United States


Gange, David. "Codebreakers Through the Battle of Midway ." 09 Apr. 2005


              This website refers to information about the Purple Code which was used

       by the Japanese in World War II. It shows information about how the US broke

       the Purple Code and about the Purple Machine which broke the code.

Hitt, Jack. Navajo Code Talkers - America's Biggest WWII Crypto Secret. 03 Dec. 1999.

       13 Apr. 2005 <>.
              This website helped us to learn about the history of the Navajo Code

       Talkers. It shows us the reason they were brought in to the War and what they did

       for our country. This website provided information on the Navajo code talkers’

       history and communication skills.

Jevec, Adam and Lee Ann Potter. “Memorandum RE: The Enlistment of Navajo

       Indians.” Social Education 65, 5 (September 2001): 262-268. <http://www.>.

              This source has detailed lesson plans on a unit on the Navajo code talkers.

       It is from the National Archives. It gives very descriptive information on what

       really happened in World War II. It shows how keeping things private and secret

       was vital during wars.

Lapahie, Harrison. 15 June 1997. The Navajo Code Talkers. 11 Oct 2004


              If the Navajo code talkers never existed, the Marines would never have

       taken Iwo Jima and other places. This site lists all of the enlisted code talkers

       names. It has many links to primary sources such as Philip Johnston’s original

       letter to the United States Marines.

Lockard, Vicki. 03 June 2000. Code Talkers. 08 Nov 2004


              This website is mainly discussing how the Navajo code talkers were

       formed and why they were formed as a native group. This site also discusses

       some of the members of the Navajo code talkers along with some interesting

       stories about them.
Mollo, Anna. Navajo Code Talkers. 04 Oct 2004


              During World War II the United States needed a code for communication

       that was unbreakable. The Navajo language was perfect due to its complexity.

       Philip Johnston proposed the idea to the military. It was accepted and worked out

       very well. One very experienced code-cracker stated that it sounded like


Rosenberg, Jennifer. “Navajo Code Talkers.” 20th Century History. 01 Nov

       2004 <>.

              The story of the Navajo Indians is quite dreadful. First, the Americans

       took their land and killed them in thousands. Then, during World War II when the

       Americans needed their help, they proudly offered. Communication is the basis of

       war, as in World War II. Code were often created and broken also. The Navajo

       code was brilliant because it was unbreakable.

Shepler, John. “Navajo Code Talkers, America’s Secret Weapon.” 25

       Oct 2004 <>.

              This website mostly talks about the events leading up to the Navajo code

       talkers and how this historic group was formed. It also talks a lot about why and

       when they were formed. It leads up to the end of the war for the Navajo’s.

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