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                             Primary Category
New BISAC CategorySuper Category         Sub-category                             Definition

ARCHITECTURE /                                                 Facilities, layouts,
Religious Buildings                    CHURCH                  designs, other

                                                                         All Christian biography
BIOGRAPHY &                                                              and autobiography
AUTOBIOGRAPHY /                                                          including African
Religious                  INSPIRATION MOTIVATION                        Americans, missions.
                                                            BIOGRAPHY & AUTOBIOGRAPHY

BUSINESS &                                                   Personal financial
ECONOMICS / Personal                                         planning and money
Finance / General    CHRISTIAN LIVING           P            management.
                                   PRACTICAL LIFEERSONAL FINANCE

                                                                             Cookbooks, collections of
                                                                             recipes and preparation
                                       GENERAL TOPIC
                                                   COOKBOOK                  techniques. 

                                                                             Biblical, historical &
                                                                             contemporary dramas
                                                                             and skits in a church
                                                                             setting. Also resources.
                                                                             Include puppet ministries
DRAMA / Religious &                                                          and clown resources
Liturgical                 CHURCH & MINISTRY
                                       MINISTRY RESOURCES
                                                   DRAMA                     here.
                                                                     Books for aging process
                                                                     including seniors, mid-life
                                                                     crises, menopause,
                                                                     retirement, etc.
                                                                     Resources in providing
                                                                     care for aging are in
FAMILY &                                                             Church Ministry to
                                    PRACTICAL LIFEGING
                                                 A                   Seniors.

Eldercare                CHRISTIAN LIVING
                                       PRACTICAL LIFE ARE GIVING
                                                    C                Giving care to others

FICTION / Christian                                              Fiction written before
Fiction / Classic &                                              1950 & allegorical style
Allegory               FICTION       GENERAL                     fiction.
                                                   CLASSIC & ALLEGORY
                                                                 Apocalyptic novels set in
                                                                 the future (usually End
FICTION / Christian                                              Times). Includes science
Fiction / Futuristic   FICTION       GENERAL       FUTURISTIC    fiction.
FICTION / Christian                                              Happening in today's
Fiction / General      FICTION       GENERAL       CONTEMPORARY  setting. 
                                                                 General fiction not
FICTION / Christian                                              covered by other
Fiction / General      FICTION       GENERAL       GENERAL       categories.
                                                                 The historical setting is
                                                                 primary driving element of
FICTION / Christian                                              story. Includes Biblical
Fiction / Historical   FICTION       GENERAL       HISTORICAL    fiction.
FICTION / Christian                                              Central theme is
Fiction / Romance      FICTION       GENERAL       ROMANCE       romance. 
                                                            Collection of brief fictional
FICTION / Christian                                         stories with Christian
Fiction / Short Stories   FICTION   GENERAL   SHORT STORIES characters and values.

                                                                  "Who done it" and fiction
                                                                  with high degree of
FICTION / Christian                                               suspense, including
Fiction / Suspense        FICTION   GENERAL   SUSPENSE            Action/thrillers.

                                                                  A western setting usually
                                                                  during second half of 19th
FICTION / Christian                                               century though early 20th
Fiction / Western         FICTION   GENERAL   WESTERN             Century.
                                                          Word games, quizzes,
                                                          crossword puzzles,
                                                          mostly for individual
                                                          enjoyment for general
                                                          adults. Children's quizzes,
                                                          etc. goes with activity
                                 GENERAL TOPIC            books - see Children.
                                             PUZZLES & GAMES

                                                                   Books with trivia
                                 GENERAL TOPIC
                                             TRIVIA                questions and answers.

                                                               Books designed to help
                                                               the Christian lead a
                                                               healthy life-style.
HEALTH & FITNESS /                                             Resources on diet,
Healthy Living                     PRACTICAL LIFE IET & HEALTH illness, and injury.
                     CHRISTIAN LIVING           D

                                                          Gardening; home arts
                                                          and crafts, decorating and
HOUSE & HOME /                                            home maintenance.
General              GENERAL INTEREST        HOUSE & HOME Crafts in general.
                                 GENERAL TOPIC
                                                                       Cartoons, joke books with
HUMOR / General            GENERAL INTEREST
                                       GENERAL TOPIC
                                                   HUMOR               humor as prime content.

Religious / Christian      YOUTH                   TEEN
                                       YOUTH INTERESTS FICTION

                      YOUTH            YOUTH INTERESTS   GENERAL
JUVENILE NONFICTION / Christianity / Christian Life / General

                      YOUTH            YOUTH INTERESTS   ISSUES
JUVENILE NONFICTION / Christianity / Christian Life / General

                      YOUTH            YOUTH INTERESTS   CHRISTIAN LIVING
JUVENILE NONFICTION / Christianity / Christian Life / General

Religion / Devotional & Prayer YOUTH               DEVOTIONAL & PRAYER
                                       YOUTH INTERESTS
Social Issues / Dating &                                                    Dating for teens.  Sex
Sex                      YOUTH               YOUTH INTERESTS
                                                         DATING & SEX       education for teens.

                                                                      Gift books for graduates
JUVENILE NONFICTION /                                                 are under seasonal
Study Aids / General  YOUTH                  YOUTH INTERESTS          books.
                                                         COLLEGE PREPARATION

                       YOUTH              Studies    BIBLE
                                                                    Resources for
                                                                    professional, minister &
MUSIC / Religious / Christian               CHURCH
                                CHURCH & MINISTRY LIFE CHURCH MUSIC RESOURCES
                                                                    worship leaders.

                                                                            General music books of
                                                                            value to Christian reader.
                                                                            Music books of various
                                                                            topics. Examination of role
                                                                            of music in Christian's life.
MUSIC / Religious /                                                         Include critiques of rock
Christian                       GENERAL INTEREST
                                            LITERATURE & MUSIC
                                                         THE ARTS           music here.

                                                                   Collections of poetry of
                                                                   value and interest to
                                                                   Christian reader. Usually
                                                                   written by Christian
                                                                   authors.  Does not
POETRY / Inspirational &                                           include poetry books in
Religious                GENERAL INTEREST
                                        LITERATURE & POETRY
                                                     THE ARTS      gift format. 
                                                                   Decorative and
                                                                   inspirational. Often given
                         super category GIFT CPCs
                                                                   as gifts.
Recategorize - See Album INSPIRATION in GiftBOOK
                         super category GIFT CPCs                  Dedication
                                                     BABY BOOK & BIRTH
                                                                      Includes dated "Life
                                                                      Systems". Personal
                         INSPIRATION GIFT BOOK
Recategorize - See Calendar super category in Gift CPCs CALENDAR & DATEBOOK - DATED
                                                                      Includes undated "Life
                                                                      Systems". Personal
                         INSPIRATION GIFT BOOK
Recategorize - See Calendar super category in Gift CPCs CALENDAR & DATEBOOK - UNDATED
                                                                      Decorative and
Recategorize - See CPC                                                inspirational. Often given
Super Album              INSPIRATION GIFT BOOK          JOURNAL & DIARY
                                                                      as gifts.
                         INSPIRATION GIFT BOOK          in CPCs       Wedding related
Recategorize - See Wedding & Anniversary super category WEDDING & GUESTBOOKS, ETC.

RELIGION / Antiquities &                                       Archeology of Biblical
Archaeology              BIBLICAL STUDIES
                                      GENERAL STUDIES          periods and regions.
                                                 BIBLICAL ARCHEOLOGY

                                                                          Commentaries are books
                                                                          which focus systematically
                                                                          on one or more books of
                                                                          Scripture with comments
                                                                          on the meaning of each
                                                                          verse and/or chapters. It
                                                                          includes other types of
                                                                          analysis and background
                                                                          material such as author,
                                                                          date, political situation, etc.
                                                                          Books dealing with topics
                                                                          or themes only of
                                                                          individual books of
RELIGION / Biblical                                                       Scripture will be in
Commentary / General     BIBLICAL STUDIES
                                                 GENERAL                  General Biblical Studies.
RELIGION / Biblical                                                       Complete Bible in 1 vol.,
Commentary / General                  COMMENTARIES
                         BIBLICAL STUDIES        ONE VOLUME               OT 1 vol., NT 1 vol.

RELIGION / Biblical                                                       Complete, OT set, NT set,
Commentary / General     BIBLICAL STUDIES
                                      COMMENTARIES & SERIES
                                                 SET                      or series of any type.
                                                                Singles, sets on single
RELIGION / Biblical                                             book, exegesis of NT
Commentary / New Testament BIBLICAL STUDIES        NEW TESTAMENT
                                        COMMENTARIES            book
                                                                Singles, sets on single
RELIGION / Biblical                                             book, exegesis of OT
Commentary / Old Testament BIBLICAL STUDIES        OLD
                                        COMMENTARIES TESTAMENTbook. 
                                                                A collection of maps of
                                                                Bible lands and regions.
RELIGION / Biblical                                             Include geography books
Reference / Atlases                     REFERENCE BIBLE ATLASES here.
                           BIBLICAL STUDIES

                                                                  An alphabetical listing of
                                                                  common Biblical words
RELIGION / Biblical                                               with Scripture references
Reference /                                                       indicating  where they
Concordances            BIBLICAL STUDIES
                                     REFERENCE        CONCORDANCE occur in the Bible.

                                                                    An alphabetical listing of
                                                                    Bible words and
                                                                    theological terms with
RELIGION / Biblical Reference /                                     descriptions and
Dictionaries & Encyclopedias BIBLICAL STUDIES
                                          REFERENCE                 explanations of meaning.
                                                      BIBLE DICTIONARY

                                                                   A collection (alphabetical)
                                                                   of articles generally
RELIGION / Biblical Reference /                                    covering the whole body
Dictionaries & Encyclopedias BIBLICAL STUDIES
                                          REFERENCE   ENCYCLOPEDIA of Biblical knowledge.

                                                                        Broad general interest
RELIGION / Biblical                                                     with  ideas generally
Reference / General     GENERAL INTEREST
                                    GENERAL TOPIC
                                                REFERENCE               accepted by Christians.
                                                                    General Reference books
                                                                    whose value can be
                                                                    applied to the whole Bible
                                                                    e.g. concordances,
                                                                    dictionaries, Bible
RELIGION / Biblical                                                 pronunciations, Gospel
Reference / General                 REFERENCE
                       BIBLICAL STUDIES            GENERAL          Harmonies, etc.
                                                                    Scripture passages
                                                                    arranged under headings
                                                                    by topic or subject.
                                                                    Arranged alphabetically
                                                                    and usually with system of
RELIGION / Biblical                                                 cross references.
Reference / General                 REFERENCE
                       BIBLICAL STUDIES            TOPICAL BIBLE
                                                                    Overview of entire Bible,
                                                                    book by book (mainly in
                                                                    broad outline) including
                                                                    author, context, etc.
                                                                    Arranged in order of the
RELIGION / Biblical                                                 Bible. Also called
Reference / Handbook                REFERENCE
                       BIBLICAL STUDIES            HANDBOOK         Companion.

                                                             Bilingual dictionaries,
RELIGION / Biblical                                          grammars, phrase books,
Reference / Language                                         etc.  English as a second
Study                  GENERAL INTEREST
                                    GENERAL TOPIC            language (ESL).
                                                FOREIGN LANGUAGE
                                                             Grammars, Lexicons, and
                                                             related books on Biblical
                                                             Greek, Biblical Hebrew,
                                                             Aramaic, Latin, etc.;
                                                             Original language
                                                             theological word books or
RELIGION / Biblical                                          dictionaries; books on the
Reference / Language                                         theory and practice of
Study                               LANGUAGE TOOLS
                       BIBLICAL STUDIES         GENERAL      translation.
                                                                              Includes Bible words
                                                                              (alpha in English) which
                                                                              are defined and
                                                                              explained. Also may
                                                                              provide idioms and
                                                                              nuance of the original
                                                                              Greek/Hebrew text, word
                                                                              derivation, exegetical
                                                                              commentary, word history
                                                                              and etymology, and
                                                                              synonym and antonym
                                                                              lists. Word studies alpha
                                                                              in Greek/Hebrew are
RELIGION / Biblical                                                           listed with Language
Reference / Language                                                          Tools.
Study                                        REFERENCE
                                BIBLICAL STUDIES             WORD STUDIES
RELIGION / Biblical
Reference / Quotations                      GENERAL TOPIC
                                GENERAL INTEREST        QUOTE BOOK
                                                                    Individual (independent)
                                                                    or small group study,
                                                                    usually interactive with fill-
                                                                    in-blank format, based on
RELIGION / Biblical Studies /                                       a specific Bible book or
Bible Study Guide                            BIBLE
                                BIBLICAL STUDIES STUDY BOOK RELATED topic.
RELIGION / Biblical Studies /
Bible Study Guide                            BIBLE
                                BIBLICAL STUDIES STUDY GENERAL

                                                                              Individual (independent
                                                                              study) or small group
                                                                              study, usually interactive
RELIGION / Biblical Studies /                                                 with fill-in-blank format.
Bible Study Guide               BIBLICAL STUDIES STUDY TOPICAL
                                             BIBLE                            Based on a general topic.

RELIGION / Biblical
Studies / Exegesis &                                                  Theory and practice of
Hermeneutics                    BIBLICAL STUDIES
                                             GENERAL STUDIES          biblical interpretation.
                                                        EXEGESIS & HERMENEUTICS
                                                                    Bible characters, general
                                                                    themes, general surveys
                                                                    of Bible, Canon, guides to
                                                                    various translations,
                                                                    inclusive language
                                                                    debates. Items/themes not
RELIGION / Biblical                                                 part of theology. Also
Studies / General                            GENERAL STUDIES
                                BIBLICAL STUDIES        GENERAL     introductions to the Bible.
                                                                    Gospel of Thomas, Mary,
                                                                    Nag Handmaid, plus
                                                                    other 2nd century  books
RELIGION / Biblical                                                 not accepted in the
Studies / General                            NEW         APOCRYPHA cannon of Scripture. 
                                BIBLICAL STUDIES TESTAMENT STUDIES
RELIGION / Biblical                                                 DEUTEROCANONICAL
Studies / General                            OLD        DEUTEROCANONICAL & APOCRYPHAL
                                BIBLICAL STUDIES TESTAMENT STUDIES  & Apocrypha books.

                                                                       History of Bible times,
                                                                       Jewish History, Acho
                                                                       Vol., Extra Biblical of
                                                                       whole Bible. Includes
                                                                       Manners and Customs of
                                                                       Bible times explaining
                                                                       many everyday lifestyle
                                                                       and customs of individuals
                                                                       in Bible times. Includes
                                                                       things like people, places,
                                                                       food, housing, clothing,
                                                                       social customs, etc.
                                                                       Include Philo, Josephus,
RELIGION / Biblical Studies /                                          Qumran community and
History & Culture               BIBLICAL STUDIES
                                             GENERAL STUDIES           the Dead Sea Scrolls.
                                                        BIBLICAL HISTORY & CULTURE

RELIGION / Biblical Studies /                                         Matthew, Mark, Luke,
Jesus, the Gospels & Acts                    NEW        GOSPELS &     John, Acts.
                                BIBLICAL STUDIES TESTAMENT STUDIES ACTS
                                                                      Works that deal with
                                                                      Christ's earthly ministry
                                                                      and teachings. Life and
                                                                      Teachings, Sermon on
                                                                      the Mount, Parables.
                                                                      (Books on Christology -
                                                                      the scholarly study of the
RELIGION / Biblical Studies /                                         nature of Christ are found
Jesus, the Gospels & Acts                    NEW        JESUS STUDIES in theology).
                                BIBLICAL STUDIES TESTAMENT STUDIES

RELIGION / Biblical                                          I & II Peter, James,
                                     NEW        OTHER LETTERSHebrews

RELIGION / Biblical
                                     NEW        REVELATION                   Revelation, Apocalypse

RELIGION / Biblical                                                          Include translator's
                                     NEW        GENERAL                      handbooks.

                                                              Introduction and
                                                              overview of NT literature,
RELIGION / Biblical                                           history, languages.
                                     NEW        NT STUDIES    Includes NT surveys.

RELIGION / Biblical                                                          Theology in the New
                                     NEW        THEOLOGY                     Testament.

RELIGION / Biblical
                                             OLD        HISTORICAL           Judges - Esther
                                                                             First five books of OT.
                                                                             Commentaries would not
                                                                             go here but books
                                                                             dealing with themes,
RELIGION / Biblical                                                          characters or parts of
Studies / Old Testament                      OLD        PENTATEUCH
                                BIBLICAL STUDIES TESTAMENT STUDIES           individual books would.
RELIGION / Biblical
Studies / Old Testament                 OLD        GENERAL
                           BIBLICAL STUDIES TESTAMENT STUDIES            

                                                                 Introduction and
                                                                 overview of OT literature,
RELIGION / Biblical                                              history, languages.
                                        OLD                      Includes OT surveys.
                                                   OT INTRODUCTION
RELIGION / Biblical
Studies / Old Testament                 OLD        THEOLOGY
                           BIBLICAL STUDIES TESTAMENT STUDIES           Theology in the OT.

                                                                Paul, Letters of Paul,
RELIGION / Biblical                                             Colossians, Ephesians,
Studies / Paul's Letters                NEW        PAUL AND HIS etc.

                                                                 Studies of "predictive"
RELIGION / Biblical                                              prophecy and fulfillment in
Studies / Prophecy         BIBLICAL STUDIES
                                        GENERAL STUDIES          OT & NT
                                                   PREDICTIVE PROPHECY

                                                                        Focus on the OT
RELIGION / Biblical                                                     prophets and their
                                        OLD        PROPHETS             messages. 

RELIGION / Biblical                                              Job, Psalms, Proverbs,
Studies / Wisdom                                                 Ecclesiastes, Song of
Literature                              OLD        WRITINGS &    Songs, Ruth, Joshua
                                                                 Books that offer
                                                                 specialized training and
                                                                 enrichment for church
                                                                 business managers,
                                                                 pastors, and others
                                                                 responsible for
                                                                 administration in local
                                                                 church congregations,
                                                                 church agencies and
RELIGION / Christian                                             institutions.  Also church
                                                                 staff relations.
                                                                 Addressing the complex
                                                                 issues of our world's
                                                                 ongoing cultural shifts and
                                                                 the impact this will have
RELIGION / Christian Church /                                    on the local church and its
General                                   CHURCH
                              CHURCH & MINISTRY LIFE EMERGING CHURCH
                                                                 Books on understanding
                                                                 and organizing the
                                                                 ministries of the church.
                                                                 Also church renewal,
                                                                 body life, etc. Include
RELIGION / Christian                                             roles of deacon and
Church / General                          CHURCH
                              CHURCH & MINISTRY LIFE GENERAL     elders here.

                                                            Studies that focus on the
                                                            planting and growth of
                                                            congregations. Include
                                                            Cell ministries, house
                                                            churches plus books like
RELIGION / Christian                                        Purpose Driven Church/
Church / Growth                      CHURCH                 Revival  
                         CHURCH & MINISTRY LIFE CHURCH GROWTH

                                                             History of the church.
                                                             Includes Patristics (early
                                                             Church Fathers) and
RELIGION / Christian                                         Hagiography (Lives of
Church / History                     CHURCH                  the Saints).
                         CHURCH & MINISTRY LIFE CHURCH HISTORY
                                                                    Stewardship is the
                                                                    responsibility given to
                                                                    humans in creation for
                                                                    managing the resources
                                                                    of the earth.  Church
                                                                    finance provides
                                                                    resources for church
                                                                    leaders responsible for
                                                                    financial administration in
                                                                    local church
                                                                    congregations, church
                                                                    agencies and institutions.
RELIGION / Christian                                                Often these two topics are
Church / Stewardship &                                              combined as a church
Giving                                       CHURCH                 focus.
                                                                    Theory and methodology
                                                                    of various aspects of
                                                                    Christian education. Also
                                                                    includes general
                                                                    educational issues:
                                                                    private vs. public schools,
                                                                    funding for public
                                                                    education, and Christian
RELIGION / Christian                                                and church related higher
Education / General                          MINISTRY RESOURCES EDUCATION
                               CHURCH & MINISTRY         CHRISTIAN  education.
                                                                    Books used by teachers
                                                                    in classroom setting.
                                                                    Includes  coloring books
                                                                    and lesson books.
RELIGION / Christian Education                                      Annual Lesson
/ General                                    MINISTRY RESOURCES HELPS
                               CHURCH & MINISTRY         TEACHING   commentaries here.
                                                                    Books for parents on
                                                                    methodology, theory and
                                                                    practice of education and
                                                                    learning within the family
                               CHRISTIAN LIVING          H          context.  

                                                                    Death and dying, grief,
                                                                    and consolation. Also
RELIGION / Christian Life                                           treatments of life after
/ Death, Grief, &                                                   death. Books for pastor
Bereavement               CHRISTIAN LIVING           G              are in Pastoral Care. 
                                        PRACTICAL LIFE RIEF, SUFFERING, CONSOLATION
                                                                  Books with devotional
                                                                  entries, usually intended
                                                                  to be read on daily basis.
                                                                  Short meditations, usually
RELIGION / Christian Life /                                       with prayer and
Devotional                    INSPIRATION MOTIVATION DEVOTIONAL   Scripture.
                                                                  Lectionary, Christian
                                                                  Year. Lectionary is a
                                                                  compilation of Scripture
                                                                  readings for each day of
RELIGION / Christian Life /                                       year for personal or
Devotional                                PASTORAL HELP
                              CHURCH & MINISTRY      LECTIONARY RESOURCES
                                                                  church worship services.

                                                                     Books dealing with family
RELIGION / Christian Life /                                          life usually in Christian
Family                        CHRISTIAN LIVING          F            context.
                                            RELATIONSHIPSAMILY CONCERNS

RELIGION / Christian Life /                                                Parenting resources
Family                        CHRISTIAN LIVING
                                                        P                  (including single parents)
                                                                           Books that apply
                                                                           Christianity to practical
                                                                           areas of life. Christian Life
                                                                           titles usually will focus on
RELIGION / Christian Life /                                                the following Sub-cats
General                                     PRACTICAL LIFE ENERAL
                              CHRISTIAN LIVING           G                 and issues.

                                                                           Usually hard back gift
                                                                           books. Much smaller than
                                                                           mass size. Limited text
RELIGION / Christian Life                                                  and illustration. Often sold
/ Inspirational           INSPIRATION GIFT BOOK            MINI BOOK       like cards. Gift oriented.
                                                                           Gift by design, binding,
RELIGION / Christian Life                                                  illustration, generally
/ Inspirational           INSPIRATION GIFT BOOK            GENERAL         themed.
                                                                              Generally 100 years old
RELIGION / Christian Life /                                                   with long history of
Inspirational                     INSPIRATION MOTIVATION        CLASSICS      readership.
                                                                              A broad category of
                                                                              books which encourage
                                                                              and promote Christian
                                                                              faith. May contain some
                                                                              mixture of memoirs, life
                                                                              stories, insight of divine
RELIGION / Christian Life /                                                   guidance, as perceived to
Inspirational               INSPIRATION MOTIVATION              GENERAL       be received from God. 
                             Inspirational                                    Illness  
                                                                ILLNESS & GET WELL
                                                                              Size of Honor series -
                                                                              limited text often with
RELIGION / Christian Life /INSPIRATION GIFT BOOK                POTABLES      visuals.
                                                                              All scripture promise
RELIGION / Christian Life /INSPIRATION GIFT BOOK                PROMISES      books here. 

                                                                          Books dealing with the
                                                                          many facets of marital life
                                                                          and intimacy including
                                                                          issues of growing healthy
RELIGION / Christian Life                                                 marriages, romance, and
/ Love & Marriage                 CHRISTIAN LIVING           L            troubled marriages.
                                                RELATIONSHIPSOVE & MARRIAGE
                                                                          Focus on the marriage
                                                                          relationship for couples
RELIGION / Christian Life                                                 who are getting ready for
/ Love & Marriage                               RELATIONSHIPS ARRIAGE PREPARATION
                                  CHRISTIAN LIVING           M            marriage.
                                                                          Books to honor mothers
RELIGION / Christian Life                                                 and celebrate Father's
/ Men                                           SEASONAL
                                  GENERAL INTEREST           FATHER'S DAY Day.
                                                                          Focused on unique
                                                                          needs and interests or
                                                                          men including parenting
                                                                          and marriage issues
                                                                          when strictly focused on
RELIGION / Christian Life / Men                 PRACTICAL LIFE EN
                                  CHRISTIAN LIVING           M            men.
                                                                   Branch of science that
                                                                   deals with the inner
                                                                   workings of the mind.
                                                                   Approached from a
                           Personal Growth
                                         PRACTICAL LIFESYCHOLOGY
                                                      P            scientific point of view.

                                                                   Looking at ones
                                                                   individuals needs in order
                                                                   to grow as a human.
                                                                   Includes emotional and
                                                                   mental well being.
                                                                   Approaches from a
                           Personal Growth
                                         PRACTICAL LIFEELF HELP
                                                      S            personal point of view.
RELIGION / Christian Life
/ Personal Growth          CHRISTIAN LIVING           P            
                                         PRACTICAL LIFEERSONAL GROWTH

                                                                   Prayer books, theory and
                                                                   practice. Also, books on
                                                                   Blessings and  fasting.
                                                                   (Rosary and Novenas
RELIGION / Christian Life                                          are in the Catholic sub-
/ Prayer                  CHRISTIAN LIVING
                                        SPIRITUAL GROWTH
                                                     PRAYER        category Church Life).

                                                                   Choosing or changing
                                                                   jobs, job hunting and
                                                                   being a Christian in the
RELIGION / Christian Life                                          workplace. Include time
/ Professional Growth     CHRISTIAN LIVING
                                        PRACTICAL LIFE AREER
                                                     C             management books here.
                                                                       Business leadership,
                                                                       business management,
                                                                       often written from with
                                                                       Biblical insights. John
RELIGION / Christian Life /                                            Maxwell business
Professional Growth                         PRACTICAL LIFEUSINESS & LEADERSHIP
                              CHRISTIAN LIVING           B             oriented here.

                                                                            Deals with addiction,
RELIGION / Christian Life /                                                 codependency, and
Counseling & Recovery         CHRISTIAN LIVING
                                            PRACTICAL LIFE ECOVERY
                                                         R                  the12-step programs. 

                                                                            Books to help understand
                                                                            and survive the breakup
                                                                            of a marriage. Including
RELIGION / Christian Life                                                   Biblical understanding of
/ Relationships           CHRISTIAN LIVING
                                        RELATIONSHIPS IVORCE
                                                    D                       divorce.

RELIGION / Christian Life                                           General not covered in
/ Relationships           CHRISTIAN LIVING
                                        RELATIONSHIPS ENERAL
                                                    G               other categories.
                                                                    Sex education books for
                                                                    use in family setting.
                                                                    Usually in series. Books
                                                                    aimed at teens for
RELIGION / Christian Life /                                         personal use will go
Relationships                             RELATIONSHIPSEX EDUCATION under youth.
                            CHRISTIAN LIVING          S
                                                                    Examines the unique
                                                                    aspects of single life.
                                                                    Does not includes books
RELIGION / Christian Life                                           on family life for single
/ Relationships                           RELATIONSHIPSINGLE LIVING parent.
                            CHRISTIAN LIVING          S
RELIGION / Christian Life
/ Relationships                         RELATIONSHIPS ATING
                          CHRISTIAN LIVING          D                       Dating issues for adults.
                                                                           Focus on the relationship
                                                                           roles of males and
RELIGION / Christian Life /                                                females in context of
Relationships                               RELATIONSHIPSEXUALITY
                              CHRISTIAN LIVING          S                  sexual needs.
RELIGION / Christian Life /
Social Issues                               PRACTICAL LIFE ONTEMPORARY ISSUES
                              CHRISTIAN LIVING           C

                                                                     Development of a
                                                                     disciplined and joyful
                                                                     spiritual life, especially
                                                                     one enhanced by the
                                                                     Holy Spirit.  Expressed
                                                                     through practices and
                                                                     rituals that enhance the
                                                                     sense of God's presence
                                                                     and reality. Enables one
RELIGION / Christian Life /                                          to draw closer to God.
Spiritual Growth            CHRISTIAN LIVING
                                          SPIRITUAL GROWTH
                                                       GENERAL       Gifts of the Spirit here. 
                                                                     Restoring to health and
                                                                     wholeness of human life
RELIGION / Christian Life /                                          through spiritual reliance
Spiritual Growth                          SPIRITUAL GROWTH
                            CHRISTIAN LIVING           HEALING       on God.
                                                                     The experience of the
                                                                     union with God that brings
                                                                     a sense of direct
                                                                     knowledge of and
RELIGION / Christian Life /                                          fellowship with God
Spiritual Growth                          SPIRITUAL GROWTH
                            CHRISTIAN LIVING           MYSTICISM     centered in Jesus Christ.
                                                                     Aids and resources
                                                                     designed to foster growth
                                                                     in spiritual life through
                                                                     techniques, methods,
                                                                     habits, tools, or regimens.
                                                                     Will usually be identified
RELIGION / Christian Life /                                          as "Spiritual Growth/
Spiritual Growth                          SPIRITUAL GROWTH
                            CHRISTIAN LIVING           SPIRITUAL FORMATION
                                                                     To study, meditate and
                                                                     give thought to the
                                                                     meaning of ones spiritual
                                                                     life, Include here non-
                                                                     sectarian monastic rules
                                                                     (Rule of St Benedict),
RELIGION / Christian Life                                            Veniti. General meditation
/ Spiritual Growth                        SPIRITUAL GROWTH
                            CHRISTIAN LIVING           CONTEMPLATIVE LIFE
                                                                     books here. 
                                                                   Books that help Christian
RELIGION / Christian Life /                                        discern and resist the
Spiritual Warfare         CHRISTIAN LIVING
                                        SPIRITUAL GROWTH           work of Satan.
                                                     SPIRITUAL WARFARE
                                                                   Books to honor mothers
RELIGION / Christian Life                                          and celebrate Mother's
/ Women                                 SEASONAL
                          GENERAL INTEREST           MOTHER'S DAY Day.
                                                                   Focused on unique
                                                                   needs and interests or
                                                                   women including
                                                                   parenting and marriage
                                                                   issues when strictly
                                                                   focused on women.
                                                                   Includes vignettes of life
                                                                   as a woman, a wife, a
                                                                   mother as well as titles
RELIGION / Christian Life                                          dealing with home
/ Women                                 PRACTICAL LIFE OMEN
                          CHRISTIAN LIVING           W             management.

                                                                            Ministry resources
                                                                            focused on Children
                                                                            including After School
                                                                            Care, Day Care,
                                                                            Mother's Day Out,  Pre-
                                                                            school, etc.  Include
                                                                            activity and coloring
                                                                            books designed for
                                                                            Sunday School use.
                                                                            Often reproducible or
RELIGION / Christian Ministry /                                             have multiple copies of
Children                          CHURCH & MINISTRY
                                                MINISTRY RESOURCES          same picture. 
                                                             CHILDREN'S MINISTRY
                                                                            Includes resource books
                                                                            with clip art, bulletin board
                                                                            design,  banner design,
RELIGION / Christian Ministry /                                             Christmas, Jessie Tree,
Children                                        MINISTRY RESOURCES ARTS &etc. 
                                  CHURCH & MINISTRY          CHURCH          CRAFTS
                                                                            Of interest to the pastoral
RELIGION / Christian Ministry /                                             counselor in church
Counseling & Recovery                           PASTORAL HELP
                                  CHURCH & MINISTRY          PASTORAL CARE & COUNSELING
                                                                            Spiritual art of
RELIGION / Christian Ministry /                                             especially by non-
Counseling & Recovery                           PRACTICAL LIFENCOURAGEMENT & LAY COUNSELING
                                  CHRISTIAN LIVING           E              professional.
                                                                          Books that help a disciple
                                                                          (pupil, learner or
                                                                          adherent) learn how to
                                                                          live their faith in the world.
RELIGION / Christian Ministry /                                           Also include books for
Discipleship                    CHRISTIAN LIVING           DISCIPLESHIP & new believer.
                                              SPIRITUAL GROWTH            NEW BELIEVER

RELIGION / Christian Ministry /                                     Theory and practice of
Evangelism                                  CHURCH                  evangelism.  
                                CHURCH & MINISTRY LIFE EVANGELISM & OUTREACH

                                                                     Packages of tracts
                                                                     (folded, printed sheets).
                                                                     Booklets usually book
RELIGION / Christian Ministry /                                      form and stapled.  Usually
Evangelism                      GENERAL INTEREST
                                            GENERAL TOPIC            32 pages or less.  
                                                        TRACTS & BOOKLETS
                                                                     Church wide programs.
                                                                     Programs for special
                                                                     celebrations in a church
RELIGION / Christian                                                 setting. Includes chalk
Ministry / General                          CHURCH                   talks.
                                CHURCH & MINISTRY LIFE PROGRAM RESOURCES
RELIGION / Christian Ministry /                                   Ministry resources
General                   CHURCH & MINISTRY         ADULT MINISTRYfocused on Adults 
                                        MINISTRY RESOURCES
RELIGION / Christian Ministry /                                   Stephen Ministries, Parish
General                                 MINISTRY RESOURCES MINISTRIES
                          CHURCH & MINISTRY         CARING        nurse, Hospice. 
RELIGION / Christian Ministry /                                   Ministry resources
General                                 MINISTRY RESOURCESMINISTRY
                          CHURCH & MINISTRY         FAMILY        focused on Families
RELIGION / Christian Ministry /                                   Include general church
General                                 MINISTRY RESOURCES
                          CHURCH & MINISTRY         GENERAL       wide programs here.
RELIGION / Christian Ministry /                                   Ministry resources
General                                 MINISTRY RESOURCESMINISTRY
                          CHURCH & MINISTRY         SINGLE        focused on Singles
RELIGION / Christian Ministry /                                   Ministry resources
General                                 MINISTRY RESOURCES
                          CHURCH & MINISTRY         SMALL GROUP focused on Small Groups
RELIGION / Christian Ministry /                                   Ministries to deaf and
General                                 MINISTRY RESOURCES MINISTRY
                          CHURCH & MINISTRY         SPECIAL       other disabilities
                                                                  Ministry resources
                          CHURCH & MINISTRY         SENIOR
                                                                  focused on Seniors. 

                                                                        History, theory and
                                                                        practice of Christian
                                                                        missionary endeavors.
RELIGION / Christian Ministry /                                         Include cross-cultural
Missions                        CHURCH & MINISTRY LIFE MISSIONS
                                            CHURCH                      evangelism here.
                                                                      General books that aid
                                                                      the pastor in his ministry.
                                                                      Includes pastoral tax
                                                                      guides. (Church
RELIGION / Christian Ministry /                                       administration is under
Pastoral Resources              CHURCH &      PASTORAL HELP
                                           MINISTRY      GENERAL      Church Life).
                                                                      Analysis and insight for
                                                                      pastoral leadership skills;
                                                                      Congregational ministry/
                                                                      leadership; Chaplaincy;
                                                                      Leadership of Special
                                                                      Ministries such as Street
RELIGION / Christian Ministry /                                       Ministry, Prison Ministry,
Pastoral Resources              CHURCH &      PASTORAL HELP
                                           MINISTRY      LEADERSHIP   etc.
                                                                      Focuses on liturgy and
                                                                      the concepts of the
                                                                      ordinances, Sacraments,
RELIGION / Christian Ministry /                                       Wedding/Funeral
Pastoral Resources              CHURCH &   MINISTRY
                                              PASTORAL HELP           Resources.
                                                         MANUALS & RESOURCES
                                                                      Resources for clergy on
                                                                      professional skills, the
RELIGION / Christian Ministry /                                       pastoral role, and other
Pastoral Resources              CHURCH &      PASTORAL HELP
                                           MINISTRY                   GROWTH AND DEVELOPMENT
                                                         PROFESSIONAL special needs.

                                                                       Sermon preparation,
                                                                       sermon outlines and the
RELIGION / Christian Ministry /                                        theology and practice of
Preaching                       CHURCH & MINISTRY
                                            PASTORAL HELP
                                                       PREACHING       preaching. 
RELIGION / Sermons /                                           Children Sermons, object
Christian                 CHURCH & MINISTRY
                                      PASTORAL HELP            lessons, and resources
                                                 CHILDREN'S SERMONS
RELIGION / Sermons /
Christian                             PASTORAL HELP
                          CHURCH & MINISTRY                    Collections of sermons. 
                                                 SERMONS & ILLUSTRATIONS

                                                                      Theology and shape of
                                                                      worship, liturgical studies,
                                                                      and worship aids. Liturgy
                                                                      is the service of God by
                                CHURCH & MINISTRY                     the people of God.
RELIGION / Christian Ministry / Worship & CHURCH LIFE WORSHIP & LITURGY
                                                                      Ministry resources
                                                                      (including ideas and
                                                                      theory) focused on Youth
RELIGION / Christian Ministry /                                       including youth group
Youth                           CHURCH & MINISTRY
                                            MINISTRY RESOURCES
                                                        YOUTH MINISTRYactivities. 
                                                                    An academic study of the
RELIGION / Christian Rituals &                                      place of rituals and myths
Practice / General             GENERAL INTEREST RELIGION
                                           OTHER                    within religion.
                                                      RITUAL & MYTH STUDIES

                                                                          Theology of Sacraments
RELIGION / Christian Rituals &                                            (Manuals/Liturgy under
Practice / Sacraments          THEOLOGY   THEOLOGY & DOCTRINE
                                                      SACRAMENTS          Pastoral Helps)

RELIGION / Christian Theology                                      Doctrine of Angels/
/ Angelology & Demonology     THEOLOGY    SYSTEMATIC THEOLOGY      Demons
                                                      ANGEOLOGY & DEMONOLOGY
RELIGION / Christian Theology
/ Anthropology                THEOLOGY   SYSTEMATIC THEOLOGY     Doctrine of Man
                                                     ANTHROPOLOGY & MAN

                                                                 Resources that defend
                                                                 the faith, usually from a
                                                                 philosophical or Biblical
                                                                 perspective. Also the
                                                                 endeavor to provide a
                                                                 reasoned account of the
RELIGION / Christian Theology                                    grounds for believing in
/ Apologetics                 THEOLOGY               APOLOGETICS the Christian faith.
                                         THEOLOGY & DOCTRINE

                                                                 Doctrine of Christ or
                                                                 nature of Christ. Usually
                                                                 somewhat scholarly.
                                                                 Books that Works that
                                                                 deal in general with
                                                                 Christ's earthly ministry
                                                                 and teachings are found
RELIGION / Christian Theology                                    in Biblical Studies - New
/ Christology                 THEOLOGY               CHRISTOLOGY Testament.
                                         SYSTEMATIC THEOLOGY
RELIGION / Christian Theology
/ Ecclesiology                THEOLOGY               ECCLESIOLOGY Doctrine of Church.
                                         SYSTEMATIC THEOLOGY      & CHURCH

RELIGION / Christian Theology                                    Doctrine of Last Things
/ Eschatology                 THEOLOGY   SYSTEMATIC THEOLOGY     and Times.
                                                     ESCHATOLOGY & END TIMES

RELIGION / Christian Theology                                          History and theory of
/ Ethics                      THEOLOGY   THEOLOGY & DOCTRINE
                                                     ETHICS            ethics, Christian morality.
                                                                        General Doctrines &
RELIGION / Christian Theology                                           Theology, including
/ General                     THEOLOGY   THEOLOGY & DOCTRINE
                                                     DOCTRINES          methodology.

RELIGION / Christian Theology                                      Theology based on
/ General                     THEOLOGY   THEOLOGY & DOCTRINE       Creeds and Confessions.
                                                     DOGMATICS & CREEDS
                                                                   What is theology, how to
                                                                   think theologically,
RELIGION / Christian Theology                                      Introduction to various
/ General                     THEOLOGY               GENERAL
                                         THEOLOGY & DOCTRINE       theologies, etc.
RELIGION / Christian Theology                                      Study of numbers in the
/ General                     THEOLOGY               NUMEROLOGY Bible
                                         THEOLOGY & DOCTRINE
                                                                   A branch of practical
                                                                   theology dealing with the
                                                                   relationships between the
                                                                   Word of God and the
RELIGION / Christian Theology                                      Christian lives of God's
/ General                     THEOLOGY               PASTORAL
                                         THEOLOGY & DOCTRINE & PRACTICAL THEOLOGY
                                                                   The approach to theology
                                                                   that employs the methods,
RELIGION / Christian Theology                                      terms and resources of
/ General                     THEOLOGY               PHILOSOPHICAL philosophy. 
                                         THEOLOGY & DOCTRINE        THEOLOGY
                                                                The study of the views of
                                                                theologians and of the
RELIGION / Christian Theology                                   Christian Church, in their
/ History                     THEOLOGY               HISTORICAL historical contexts.
                                         THEOLOGY & DOCTRINE THEOLOGY

                                                                Theological efforts to
                                                                relate Christian theology
                                                                to the contemporary
                                                                world. Includes
                                                                Constructive Theology,
                                                                Postmodern theology,
RELIGION / Christian Theology                                   Feminist Theology, and
/ Liberation                  THEOLOGY   THEOLOGY & DOCTRINE    Liberation Theology.
                                                     CONTEMPORARY THEOLOGIES
                                                                Doctrine of Holy Spirit
                                                                including works, gifts and
                                                                theology of Holy Spirit.
                                                                Books on fruits of the
RELIGION / Christian Theology                                   Spirit should go to
/ Pneumatology                THEOLOGY               PNEUMATOLOGY & HOLY SPIRIT
                                         SYSTEMATIC THEOLOGY    Spiritual Growth. 
RELIGION / Christian Theology                                      Doctrine of Salvation,
/ Soteriology                 THEOLOGY   SYSTEMATIC THEOLOGY       Atonement, Justification
                                                     SOTEIRIOLOGY & SALVATION

                                                                         The branch of Christian
                                                                         theology that attempts to
                                                                         present theological
                                                                         thinking and practice in an
                                                                         orderly and coherent
                                                                         way and implies an
                                                                         underlying philosophical
                                                                         frame of reference and
                                                                         method.  Include works
                                                                         on nature and
                                                                         methodology of systematic
                                                                         theology; multi-volume
RELIGION / Christian Theology                                            complete systematic
/ Systematic                  THEOLOGY   SYSTEMATIC THEOLOGY
                                                     GENERAL             theologies.
RELIGION / Christian Theology
/ Systematic                  THEOLOGY               HAMARTIOLOGY Doctrine of Sin.
                                         SYSTEMATIC THEOLOGY        & SIN
RELIGION / Christian Theology                                      Inspiration and authority
/ Systematic                  THEOLOGY               REVELATION & INSPIRATION SCRIPTURE
                                         SYSTEMATIC THEOLOGY       of Scripture  

                                                              Practices and beliefs
                                                              specifically connected with
                                                              the Roman Catholic
                                                              Church (such as
RELIGION / Christianity /                                     Mariology, Novenas,
Catholic                              CHURCH                  Papacy).
                          CHURCH & MINISTRY LIFE ROMAN CATHOLIC
                                                                   Practices and beliefs
                                                                   specifically connected with
RELIGION / Christianity /                                          the Roman Catholic
Catholic                  YOUTH                       ROMAN CATHOLIC
                                          YOUTH INTERESTS          Church.

                                                                 General art books of
                                                                 value to Christian reader.
                                                                 Collections of Christian
RELIGION / Christianity /                                        art. Books dealing with art
Literature & the Arts       GENERAL INTEREST
                                        LITERATURE & ART ARTS
                                                     THE         and the Christian.
                                                                 A short treatise or a
                                                                 written account of events/
                                                                 recollections that do not
RELIGION / Christianity /                                        specifically include
Literature & the Arts       GENERAL INTEREST         THE ARTS    Christian testimony.
                                        LITERATURE & ESSAYS & MEMOIRS

                                                                          General books of
                                                                          literature  of value to
                                                                          Christian reader.
                                                                          Including secular general
RELIGION / Christianity /                                                 interest titles with topics of
Literature & the Arts       GENERAL INTEREST
                                        LITERATURE & GENERAL
                                                     THE ARTS             interest to Christians.

                                                                          Greek, Russian and other
                                                                          Orthodox communions:
                           CHURCH       CHURCH                            history, polity & doctrine
                                                                    Books from Pentecostal
                                                                    and charismatic circles.
                                                                    Works on theology of the
RELIGION / Christianity /                                           Holy Spirit are found in
Pentecostal & Charismatic   INSPIRATION MOTIVATION   CHARISMATIC    Pneumatology/Holy Spirit.

                                                              Books of interest to
                                                              various denominations,
                                                              including Baptist,
                                                              Methodist, Church of
                                                              Christ etc. Statement of
                                                              denomination beliefs and
                                                              government. Include
                                                              comparison of
                                                              denominations. Include
                                                              history of specific
RELIGION / Christianity /                                     churches, denominations
Protestantism                         CHURCH                  here.
                          GENERAL INTEREST RELIGION
RELIGION / Comparative Religion       OTHER      JUDAISM

                        GENERAL INTEREST RELIGION
RELIGION / Comparative Religion     OTHER      BUDDHISM
                                                            Studies of religions in
                                                            general and other
                                                            religions not listed
                                                            following, plus inter-
RELIGION / Comparative Religion
                        GENERAL INTEREST RELIGION
                                    OTHER      GENERAL      religious dialogue.
                                                            Analysis, study and
                                                            comparison of various
                                                            world religions, often from
                                                            the perspective of
RELIGION / Comparative Religion
                        GENERAL INTEREST RELIGION
                                    OTHER                   Christianity.
                                               COMPARATIVE RELIGIONS
                                                            Non orthodox groups or
                                                            movements claiming to be
                                                            Christian yet have
                                                            unorthodox theology.
                                                            Include books on
                                                            Mormons and Jehovah's
RELIGION / Cults                    OTHER      CULTS
                        GENERAL INTEREST RELIGION           Witness here.  
                                                            Non Christian beliefs
                                                            centered around
                                                            Satanism, demonology,
                        GENERAL INTEREST RELIGION
                                                            and witchcraft.

                                                               Spiritualist movements
                                                               originating in 1970's (and
                                                               since) that as a loose
                                                               grouping emphasis beliefs
                                                               such as reincarnation,
                                                               importance of dreams,
                                                               psychic or holistic healing,
                                                               and self-fulfillment, etc.
                                                               Expanded human
                                                               potentials and social and
                                                               planetary renewal are
RELIGION / Comparative Religion
                        GENERAL INTEREST RELIGION
                                    OTHER      NEW AGE         advocated.

                        GENERAL INTEREST RELIGION
RELIGION / Comparative Religion     OTHER      HINDUISM

                        GENERAL INTEREST RELIGION
RELIGION / Comparative Religion     OTHER      ISLAM

                                                               Books which focus on the
                                                               desire for unity among
                                                               churches and believers in
                                   CHURCH                      Jesus Christ.
                                                                 Books with historical and
                                                                 cultures issues of African
                                                                 American cultures and of
                                                                 special interest to the
                                                                 African American market.
                                         ETHNIC                  Not biographies.
                                                    AFRICAN AMERICAN

                                                                         Books with historical and
                                                                         cultures issues of ethnic
                                         ETHNIC     ASIAN                cultures. Not biographies.

                                                                Books with historical and
                                                                cultures issues of ethnic
                                         ETHNIC     GENERAL     cultures. Not biographies.
                                                                Books with historical and
                                                                cultures issues of
                                                                Hispanic cultures. Not
RELIGION / Ethnic & Tribal               ETHNIC     HISPANIC
                             GENERAL INTEREST & CULTURAL        biographies.
                                                                Books with historical and
                                                                cultures issues of other
                                                                ethnic cultures. Such as
                                                                Native Americans,
                                                                aboriginals. Not
RELIGION / Ethnic & Tribal               ETHNIC     OTHER
                             GENERAL INTEREST & CULTURAL ETHNIC biographies.

                                                                         General interest; general
                                                                         for homeschooling use,
                                         GENERAL TOPIC
                                                     HISTORY             etc.
                                                              Items for celebrating of
                                                              Advent/ Christmas.
                                                              Includes Advent
                                                              calendars, programs,
RELIGION / Holidays / Christmas & Advent
                         GENERAL INTEREST
                                       SEASONAL   ADVENT      supplies.

                                                              Books with Christmas/
RELIGION / Holidays / Christmas & Advent
                         GENERAL INTEREST
                                       SEASONAL   CHRISTMAS   Advent mixed go here.

                                                              All adult gift and season
RELIGION / Holidays /                                         theme books included
Christian               GENERAL INTEREST
                                    SEASONAL      GENERAL     here.
RELIGION / Holidays / Easter &
Lent                           GENERAL INTEREST
                                           SEASONAL   EASTER          Easter related
                                                                      Lent and Easter
RELIGION / Holidays / Easter &                                        combined would go here.
Lent                                       SEASONAL
                               GENERAL INTEREST       LENT
RELIGION / Holidays /                                                 Halloween related
Other                                      SEASONAL
                               GENERAL INTEREST       HALLOWEEN       (Christian Perspective)
RELIGION / Holidays /
Other                                      SEASONAL
                               GENERAL INTEREST       THANKSGIVING Thanksgiving related
                                                                   Books to celebrate
RELIGION / Holidays /                                              someone on Valentine's
Other                               SEASONAL
                        GENERAL INTEREST              VALENTINES   day.

                                    GENERAL TOPIC
                                                PHILOSOPHY            General interest
                                                                        Exams relationship of
                                                                        science and Christian
                                                                        faith, including the issue of
                                                                        creation and evolution.
                                                                        Also focuses on the
                                                                        Christian response to
RELIGION / Religion &                                                   new scientific knowledge
Science                                     PRACTICAL LIFECIENCE, FAITH,and culpability.
                              CHRISTIAN LIVING           S               EVOLUTION

                                                                                Primarily focused on
RELIGION / Religion,                                                            Christian's involvement in
Politics & State              CHRISTIAN LIVING
                                            PRACTICAL LIFEOLITICS
                                                         P                      politics.
                                                                                Christian travel helps;
TRAVEL / Special Interest /                                                     sites of historical interest to
Religious                                 GENERAL TOPIC
                              GENERAL INTEREST        TRAVEL                    Christians.
RELIGION / Christian
Rituals & Practice /
              New Definition

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Recategorize based on subject, use theme.
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Those that apply to Liberation, otherwise
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The art and science of designing religious buildings and structures including
the total environment, from the macro level of town planning, urban design,
and landscape architecture to the micro level of creating furniture.
Architectural design usually addresses both feasibility and cost for the
builder, and function and aesthetics for the user. Planned architecture often
manipulates space, volume, texture, light, shadow, or abstract elements in
order to achieve pleasing aesthetics. Many architectural works may be seen
also as cultural and political symbols, and/or works of art.

A genre of literature based on the written accounts of the lives of religious
individuals, usually in reference to non-fiction. A biography develops complex
insight and highlights different textures of personality including intimate
details of experiences. A biography is more than a list of impertinent facts
like birth, education, work, relationships and death. It also delves into the
emotions of experiencing such events. An autobiography is a biography
written by the subject or composed conjointly with a collaborative writer.
Biographers generally rely on a wide variety of documents and viewpoints; an
autobiography may be based entirely on the writer's memory.
Management of personal finance issues from a foundation of Biblical
principles and teachings. Includes mortgages, retirement, bankruptcy, credit,
budgeting, saving, investing, planning, and taxation issues. ***May need to
include tithing and giving.
Cooking is the act of preparing food for consumption. It encompasses a vast
range of methods, tools and combinations of ingredients to improve the flavor
or digestibility of food. It generally requires the selection, measurement and
combining of ingredients in an ordered procedure in an effort to achieve the
desired result. Constraints on success include the variability of ingredients,
ambient conditions, tools and the skill of the individual cooking. The diversity
of cooking worldwide is a reflection of the myriad nutritional, aesthetic,
agricultural, economic, cultural and religious considerations. Cookbooks
include a collection of recipies that may comprise dishes served for religious
Drama is a literary form involving parts written for actors to perform. Dramas
can be performed in a variety of media: live performance, film, or television.
"Closet dramas" are works written in the same form as plays (with dialogue,
scenes, and "stage directions"), but meant to be read rather than staged.
Drama is also often combined with music and dance, such as in opera which
is sung throughout, musicals which include spoken dialog and songs, or
plays that have musical accompaniment.

Drama content is biblical in nature, either historical or contemporary, and is
usually performed in a church setting.
Aging is the process of becoming older. The social, cultural, and economic
effects of aging. Aging is an important part of all human societies reflecting
the biological changes that occur, but also reflecting cultural and societal
conventions. Age is usually, but wholly arbitrarily, measured in years and a
person's birthday is often an important event.

Older people have different requirements from society and government as
opposed to young people, and frequently differing values as well. Older
people are also far more likely to vote and thus have comparatively more
political influence.
Elder care is a broad term encompassing such services as assisted living,
adult day care, long term care, nursing homes, hospice care, and
Alzheimer's care. The majority of elderly care facilities are freestanding, but
they may also be part of a continuing-care retirement community, seniors
apartment complex, or wing or floor of a nursing home.

Elder care emphasizes the social and personal requirements of senior
citizens who need some assistance with daily activities and health care, but
who desire and deserve to age with dignity. It’s an important distinction, in
that the design of housing, services, activities, employee training and such is
truly customer-centered. Elder Care is focused on satisfying the
expectations of two tiers of customers: the resident customer and the
purchasing customer.
An allegory is a figurative mode of representation conveying a meaning other
than (and in addition to) the literal. Though it is similar to other rhetorical
comparisons, an allegory is sustained longer and more fully in its details
than a metaphor, and appeals to imagination, while an analogy appeals to
reason or logic. The fable or parable is a short allegory with one definite
A short story is a form of short fictional narrative prose. Short stories tend to
be more concise and to the point than longer works of fiction, such as
novellas (in the modern sense of this term) and novels. Because of their
brevity, successful short stories rely on literary devices such as character,
plot, theme, language, and insight to a greater extent than long form fiction.

Short stories have their origins in the prose anecdote, a swiftly-sketched
situation that comes rapidly to its point, with parallels in oral story-telling
traditions. Short stories tend to be less complex than novels. Usually, a
short story will focus on only one incident, has a single plot, a single setting,
a limited number of characters, and covers a short period of time.

Modern short stories occasionally have an exposition. More typical, though,
is an abrupt beginning, with the story starting in the middle of the action. As
with longer stories, plots of short stories also have a climax, crisis, or turning-
point. However, the endings of many short stories are abrupt and open and
may or may not have a moral or practical lesson.
Suspense or tension is the feeling of uncertainty and interest about the
Determiningcertain actions an audience perceives fromdramatic work. It
outcome of what exactly separates a short story in a longer fictional
formats is problematic. Areal danger looming and a ray of hope. The must be
consists of having some classic definition of a short story is that it two
able to be read in one sitting. Other definitions place the maximum will feel
common outcomes can be: the danger hits, whereby the audience word
sorrowful or the hope comes true, whereby the the term will first feel joy,
length at 7,500 words. In contemporary usage, audience short story most
often satisfaction. If there is no no longer than 20,000 wordsdespair. shorter
then refers to a work of fiction hope, the audience will feel and no
thanthriller is a broad genre of literature with numerous overlapping sub-
The 1,000.
Stories shorter than 1,000 words adventures with fast-paced plots and
genres. Thrillers are suspenseful fall into the flash fiction genre.
action, where resourceful heroes are pitted against villains, with the hero
facing danger alone, or in the company of a small band of companions.
The hero may be a law enforcement agent, a journalist, a soldier, or an
ordinary citizen, drawn into danger and intrigue by circumstances beyond his
or her control. The plot is often driven by a villain, who presents obstacles
that the hero must overcome. A thriller uses suspense as an indispensable
ingredient, evoking feelings of tension and excitement. Plot devices such as
red herrings, foreshadowings, and cliffhangers are often employed. century,
Westerns are set in the American West, almost always in the 19th
generally between the 1860's and 1900. Some incorporate the Civil War.
Westerns often involve semi-nomadic wanderers, often cowboys, with life
reduced to its elements. Their sole possessions consisting of: clothing, a
gun, and a horse. The high technology of the era – such as the telegraph,
printing press, and railroad – may appear, usually symbolizing the coming
end of the frontier soon to give way to the march of civilization.

The Western takes these simple elements and uses them to tell simple
morality tales, usually set against the spectacular scenery of the American
West. Westerns often stress the harshness of the wilderness and frequently
set the action in a desert-like landscape. Specific settings include lonely
isolated forts, ranches, the isolated homestead, the saloon or the jail. Other
iconic elements in westerns include Stetsons and Spurs, Colt .45s,
prostitutes and the faithful steed.

The western genre often portrays the conquest of the wilderness and the
subordination of nature, in the name of civilization or the confiscation of the
territorial rights of the original inhabitants of the frontier. The Western depicts
a society organized around codes of honor, rather than the law, in which
persons have no social order larger than their immediate peers, family, or
perhaps themselves alone. In the Western, these themes are forefronted, to
the extent that the arrival of law and "civilization" is often portrayed as
regrettable, if inevitable.
A puzzle is a problem or enigma presented as entertainment that is written
down, acted out, etc. Many puzzles stem from serious mathematical or
logistical problems, whereas others are devised for the sole purpose of being
brain teasers.
The term trivia is widely used to refer to unimportant (or trivial) information,
but it can also refer to basic or elementary knowledge. Before the trivia
subculture became widespread, via radio and TV quiz shows and books, the
term commonly referred to bits of information to which most adults in the
culture had at one time been exposed, via standard education or via popular
culture. In time, the term came also to comprise more obscure and arcane
bits of knowledge.
Health is a term that refers to a combination of the absence of illness, the
ability to cope with everyday activities, physical fitness, and high quality of
life. In any organism, health can be said to be a "state of balance," or
analogous to homeostasis, and it also implies good prospects for continued
survival. Wellness is a term sometimes used to describe the psychological
state of being healthy, but is most often used in the field of alternative
medicine to describe one's state of being.

Health is maintained through the science of medicine, but can also be
improved by individual effort. Physical fitness, weight loss, healthy eating,
and stress management training are examples of steps to improve one's
health. Workplace programs are recognized by an increasingly large number
of companies for their value in improving health and well-being of their
employees, and increasing morale, loyalty and productivity at work. A
company may provide a gym with exercise equipment, implement smoking
cessation programs, and provide nutrition, weight or stress management        Use for ECPA only.
training. Other programs may include health to cleaning and caretaking,
House and home includes issues pertaining risk assessments and health
screenings. design and construction, carpentry, electrical, masonry,
plumbing, appliances, furniture, hand tools, house plans, outdoor areas, and

Garden design is the process of designing the layout and planting of
domestic gardens. Garden designers are also concerned with the layout of
yardscape, including paths, water features, patios and decking. The
elements of garden design include landform, water features, fountains,
garden ponds, garden planting, garden buildings, garden lighting, garden
sculpture, garden ornament, garden furniture and hard landscape materials.
These elements are used to make a wide range of garden types.

Interior decoration is the art of decorating a room so it looks good, is easy to
use, and functions well with the existing architecture. The goal of interior
decoration is to provide a certain "feel" for the room; it encompasses
applying wallpaper, painting walls and other surfaces, choosing furniture and
fittings, such as light fixtures, and providing other decorations for the area
such as paintings and sculptures. There is a distinct difference between          Use for ECPA only.
interior decorating and interior design. Interior decorating is generally focused
on finishes, such as wallpaper, paint, window coverings, and furnishings.

Home repair involves the diagnosis and resolution of problems in a home,
and is related to home maintenance to avoid such problems. Periodic
maintenance also falls under the general class of home repairs. These are
inspections, adjustments, cleanings, or replacements that should be done
regularly to ensure proper functioning of all the systems in a house, and to
Humor is the ability to evoke feelings of amusement in other people. The
term encompasses a form of entertainment or human communication which
evokes such feelings, or which makes people laugh or feel happy. Includes
cartoons and joke books with humor as the main content.

Fiction is the storytelling of imagined events and stands in contrast to non-
fiction, which makes factual claims about reality. A large part of the appeal
of fiction is its ability to evoke the entire spectrum of human emotions: to
distract our minds, to give us hope in times of despair, to make us laugh, or
to let us experience empathy without attachment. Fictional works—novels,
stories, fables, fairy tales, Anime and Manga—may be partly based on
factual occurrences but always contain some imaginary content. The term is
also often used synonymously with literature and more specifically fictional
prose. In this sense, fiction refers only to novels and is often divided into two
categories, popular fiction (e.g., science fiction or mystery fiction) and
literary fiction (e.g., Victor Hugo or William Faulkner). These books
specifically relate to juvenile audiences and are of a religous content.

Use same as CL / General once the definition is developed

use same as CL / Social Issues?

Devotion is a term used to designate several related activities within the
Christian church. Most frequently, this term refers to a period of time set
aside to study the Bible and pray in an effort to build a stronger spiritual
relationship with God. This time is often spent alone or with a small group of
people. These books contain directed Bible studies often incorporating
stories or anecdotes that convey Biblical principles, similar to the parables
used by Jesus in his ministry. Devotionals are most often formatted in an
ordinal manner.

The term also refers to an individual story or message that follows the above
format. Pastors and youth ministers who speak using stories as opposed to
sermons are said to be giving a "devotion(al)".

In the Roman Catholic Church, devotions are generally forms of prayer that
take place outside of the official liturgy of the Mass and Divine Office. While
the faithful are required to paticipate in the liturgy, devotions are strictly
optional, although highly recommended, and by Canon Law must take place
outside of the liturgy to avoid confusion. In the Latin Rite, well-known
devotions include the Rosary, Divine Mercy Chaplet, the Stations of the
Cross, Lectio Divina, and the Angelus. Typically devotions have the specific
approval of the Church hierarchy, and some are restricted to purely private
recitation, such as many litanies of saints.
Courtship or dating is the process of selecting and attracting a mate for
companionship, marriage, and sexual reproduction. In many traditional
societies, courtship is a highly structured activity, with well-known rules. A
date is an occasion when one socializes with a potential spouse. In this
sense, the purpose of a date is for the people dating to get to know each
other and decide whether they want to have a relationship. Dating may be
the term describing the relationship of two people attending a date.

Sex education is a broad term used to describe education about human
sexual reproduction, sexual intercourse, and other aspects of human sexual
behavior. It often includes topics such as sexually transmitted diseases
(STD) and how to avoid them, as well as methods of contraception.
Abstinence. Yikes, help with this one please.

A common approach to sex education is to view it as necessary to reduce
risk behaviors such as unprotected sex, and equip individuals to make
informed decisions about their personal sexual activity.
Study aids are student tools used to help facilitate learning and
comprehension of literature, research topics, history, and other subjects.
Most study guides summarize chapters of novels or the important elements
of the subject. There are a number of companies that produce or distribute
study guides, including Cliffs Notes, SparkNotes, BookRags, QuickStudy,
Pinkmonkey and eNotes.
Independent or small group studies of a biblical book or theme usually
containinig interactive discussion quesitons or having a fill-in-the-blank
Religious music includes sheet music or books of music with a staff and
treble cleff, etc. The history of music, music programs, and musicals for the
chruch setting are included.


Poetry is traditionally a written art form in which human language is used for
its aesthetic qualities in addition to, or instead of, its notional and semantic
content. The increased emphasis on the aesthetics of language and the
deliberate use of features such as repetition, meter and rhyme, are what are
commonly used to distinguish poetry.

Poetry often uses condensed form to convey an emotion or idea to the
reader or listener, as well as using devices such as assonance, alliteration
and repetition to achieve musical or incantatory effects. Furthermore, poems
often make heavy use of imagery, word association, and musical qualities.




Antiquities, ancient history, is the study of significant cultural and political
events from the beginning of human history until the Early Middle Ages.

The classical antiquity is a term that is often used to refer to ancient history
since the apogee of Ancient Greece in about 776 BC. This coincides –
roughly – with the traditional date of the Founding of Rome in 753 BC, the
beginning of the history of Ancient Rome.

The span of recorded history is roughly 5 000 – 5 500 years, with Sumerian
cuneiform being the oldest form of writing discovered so far.

Archaeology is the study of human cultures through the recovery,
documentation and analysis of material remains and environmental data,
including architecture, artifacts, biofacts, human remains, and landscapes.

The goals of archaeology are to document and explain the origins and
development of human culture, understand culture history, chronicle cultural
evolution, and study human behavior and ecology, for both prehistoric and
historic societies.

A commentary is provided by a person who offers reasoned judgment or
analysis, value judgment, interpretation, or observation. Commentaries are
books that focus systematically on one or more books of Scripture with
comments on the meaning of each verse and/or chapter. It often includes
other types of analysis and background material such as author, date,
political situation, etc.




A collection of maps showing Bible lands, regions, cities, journeys, or other
themes. May contain geographic features and political boundaries, many
often feature geopolitical, social, religious, and economic statistics.
An alphabetical list of the principal words used in the Bible, with their
immediate contexts. They often contain additional material, including
commentary on, or definitions of, the indexed words, and topical cross-

A topical concordance is a list of subjects that a book (usually the Bible)
covers, with the immediate context of the coverage of those subjects. Unlike
a traditional concordance, the indexed word does not have to appear in the
verse. For example, an entry for 'homosexuality' in a Biblical topical
concordance will list all the verses in the Bible that deal with the subject of
homosexuality, even if the word 'homosexual' doesn't actually appear in that
A dictionary is a list of Bible words and theological terms with their
definitions, a list of characters with their glyphs, or a list of words with
corresponding words in other languages. In some languages, words can
appear in many different forms, but only the lemma form appears as the
main word or headword in most dictionaries. Many dictionaries also provide
pronunciation information; grammatical information; word derivations,
histories, or etymologies; illustrations; usage guidance; and examples in
phrases or sentences. An encyclopedia is a written a concise yet
comprehensive compilation of knowledge.

A reference work is a compendium of information, usually of a specific type,
compiled in a book for ease of reference. That is, the information is intended
to be quickly found when needed. Reference works are usually referred to for
particular pieces of information, rather than read cover to cover. The writing
style used in these works is informative; the authors avoid use of the first
person, and emphasize facts. Indexes are commonly provided in many types
of reference work. Updated editions are published as needed, in some cases

Examples of reference works not listed in other categories include: almanac,
citation index, lexicon, gazetteer, mathematical tables, periodical index,
scientific tables, and thesaurus'.


A handbook overviews the entire Bible, book by book and in broad outline. It often includes author and context information a

Grammar is the study of rules governing the use of language. The set of
rules governing a particular language is also called the grammar of the
language; thus, each language can be said to have its own distinct grammar.
Grammar is part of the general study of language called linguistics.
The subfields of contemporary grammar are phonetics, phonology,
morphology, syntax, semantics, and pragmatics. Traditional grammars
include only morphology and syntax.

A lexicon is usually a list of words together with additional word-specific
information. Lexicon is a word of Greek origin (λεξικόν) meaning vocabulary.
When linguists study the lexicon, they study such things as what words are,
how the vocabulary in a language is structured, how people use and store
words, how they learn words, the history and evolution of words, types of
relationships between words as well as how words were created.


A quotation is a fragment of a human expression that has been inserted into another human expression. It is most often a w

Independent or small group studies of a biblical book or theme usually
containinig interactive discussion quesitons or having a fill-in-the-blank



Exegesis involves an extensive and critical interpretation of the Old and New
Testaments of the Bible. The word exegesis means "to draw the meaning
out of" a given text. In general, exegesis presumes an attempt to view the
text objectively. Traditional exegesis requires the following: analysis of
significant words in the text in regard to translation; examination of the
general historical and cultural context, confirmation of the limits of the
passage, and lastly, examination of the context within the text.

Hermeneutics is a philosophical technique concerned with the interpretation
and understanding of texts. It may be described as the theory of the
interpretation and understanding of a text on the basis of the text itself.
Biblical studies is the academic study of the Judeo-Christian Bible.
Christianity traditionally includes the New Testament and Old Testament,
sometimes called the "Scriptures." Biblical studies is a branch of theology,
but also draws on the disciplines of history, literary criticism, philology, and
increasingly the social sciences.



History is information about the biblical past. When used as the name of a
field of study, history refers to the study and interpretation of the record of
humans, families, and societies..

Culture generally refers to patterns of human activity and the symbolic
structures that give such activity significance. Different definitions of "culture"
reflect different theoretical bases for understanding, or criteria for evaluating,
human activity. The universal human capacity to classify, codify, and
communicate their experiences symbolically.
Jesus is the central figure of Christianity, in which context he is known as
Jesus Christ.
Christians believe that Jesus was born of a virgin, crucified and entombed,
resurrected on the third day of death, and ascended into Heaven where he
resides with God the Father until the Second Coming. Christians also believe
that Jesus fulfilled Biblical prophecy.

In Christianity, gospel means "good news". Gospel has generally been used
in two ways:
1. To denote the proclamation of God's saving activity in Jesus of Nazareth
or to denote the message proclaimed by Jesus of Nazareth.
2. More popularly to refer to the four canonical Gospels (Matthew, Mark,
Luke and John) that offer a narrative of the life, death, and resurrection of

The Acts of the Apostles is a book of the Bible, the fifth in the New
Testament. It describes many of the journeys and actions taken by the
apostles, meaning "those who have been sent" by God, to be His witnesses.
The book of Acts contains many descriptions of miraculous events (which
were given as signs from God to validate the apostles' teachings), which
were performed by the Holy Spirit through the apostles. These included
miraculous healings, casting out evil spirits, and the raising of the dead. The
narrative also contains historical descriptions of everyday life in the Roman
Empire and in ancient Jerusalem.
The New Testament (Καινή Διαθήκη), sometimes called the Greek
Testament or Greek Scriptures, and sometimes also New Covenant, is the
name given to the part of the Christian Bible that was written by various
authors c. 48-140 AD and gradually collected into a single volume over the
next few centuries. Messianic Judaism commonly refers to the New
Testament as the B'rit Chadashah, Hebrew for New Covenant, or the
Apostolic Writings.
The New Testament is made up of twenty-seven separate works, these being
four narratives of Jesus Christ's ministry, called "Gospels;" a narrative of the
Apostles' ministry, which is also a sequel to the third Gospel; twenty-one
early letters, commonly called "epistles" in Biblical context, which were
written by various authors and consisted mostly of Christian counsel and
instruction; and an Apocalyptic prophecy, which is also technically the
twenty-second epistle.
General Epistles
See main article: General Epistles
The General or Catholic Epistles are those written to the church at large
(Catholic in this sense simply means universal).
• Epistle of James - traditionally James, brother of Jesus and Jude Thomas;
actually anonymous
• First Epistle of Peter - traditionally the Apostle Simon, called Peter;
actually anonymous
• Second Epistle of Peter - traditionally the Apostle Simon, called Peter;
actually anonymous
• First Epistle of John - traditionally the Apostle John, son of Zebedee;
actually anonymous
• Second Epistle of John - traditionally the Apostle John, son of Zebedee;
actually anonymous
• Third Epistle of John - traditionally the Apostle John, son of Zebedee;
actually anonymous
• Epistle of Jude - traditionally Jude Thomas, brother of Jesus and James;
actually anonymousconstitutes the first major part of the Bible according to
The Old Testament
Revelation It is usually divided into the categories of law, history, poetry (or
wisdom books) and prophecy. All of these books were written before the
birth of Jesus of Nazareth who is the subject of the subsequent Christian
New Testament. Traditional Christianity affirms that the laws or Torah of the
Old Testament is the word of God.




The Pauline epistles are the thirteen or fourteen letters in the New Testament
of the Christian Bible traditionally believed to have been written by the
apostle Paul. Among them are some of the earliest extant Christian
documents. They provide an insight into the beliefs and controversies of
formative Christianity and, as part of the canon of the New Testament, they
have also been, and continue to be, hugely influential in Christian theology
and ethics.

The Pauline epistles are: Romans, First Corinthians, Second Corinthians,
Galatians, Ephesians,
Philippians, Colossians, First Thessalonians, Second Thessalonians, First
Timothy, Second Timothy, Titus, Philemon, and disputably, Hebrews.

Prophecy, in a broad sense, is the prediction of future events. It is also used
as a general term for the revelation of divine will. The Old Testament of the
Bible contains prophecies from various Hebrew prophets who foretold of their
people's trials and tribulations. The Book of Revelation in the New Testament
is accepted by many Christians as a prophecy related by its author, John
the Evangelist, of the events of the end times and Armageddon.

Christians believe that Jesus fulfilled many prophecies of the Old Testament,
thus proving he was the son of God, or messiah, and that he will return in the
future to fulfill other prophecies. In the New Testament, the stories of Jesus
telling a Samaritan woman about her life, or telling the apostles the future,
are examples of prophecy in the Christian tradition
Christians believe a prophet is a person who speaks for God, in the name of
God, and who carries God's message to others. For Christians, the
authenticity of a prophet is judged by their fruits as Jesus said that one
should judge a prophet by his fruits, (Gospel of Matthew 7) and by checking
whether his predictions come true. Deuteronomy 18:21-22 contains several
warnings about false prophets and is very specific about the test of whether
a prophet is true or false. A false prophet is considered to be someone who
is purposely trying to deceive, or is delusional, or is under the influence of
Wisdom literature is the a genre of literature is characterized by praise of
God, often in poetic form, and by sayings of wisdom intended to teach about
God and about virtue. The following Biblical books are classified as wisdom
literature: Psalms, Proverbs, Ecclesiastes, and Song of Songs (also known
as Song of Solomon).
Church administration consists of the performance or management of
transactions and other matters, and the making and implementing of major
decisions. Administration can be defined as the universal process of
efficiently organizing people and resources so to direct activities toward
common goals and objectives. Administration is both an art and a science
as administrators are judged ultimately by their performance. Church
administrators, broadly speaking, engage in a common set of functions to
meet the organization's goals. The act of planning, organizing, staffing,
directing, coordinating, reporting, and budgeting.

The term Christian Church expresses the idea that organised Christianity is
seen as an institution. The phrase "The Church" in its widest sense (as "the
Body of Christ") has a similar breadth.

Church Growth describes a wide movement within Christianity to aid and
encourage the spread of the Gospel of Jesus Christ. Most advocates have a
real concern for the salvation of the individuals represented by the numbers.

Church planting is a process by which churches are begun in new areas.
Christian denominations such as Evangelicals view church planting as a
necessary adjunct to the work of evangelism. Churches do not necessarily
have to own their buildings, and many churches have been planted using
school or community halls, and even people's houses. Over the last century
there has been a great movement in the Christian faith to restore the New
Testament model of church planting.

A revival meeting is a series of Christian religious services held with an eye
to encourage active members of a religious body and to provoke those
outside of it to become part of it. Generally speaking, a revival meeting
consists of several consecutive nights of services conducted at the same
time and location each night, most often the building belonging to the
sponsoring congregation but sometimes a rented secular assembly hall, for
Ecclesiastical space or an scientific appeal to the unchurched in a setting
more adequatehistory is the attempt toinvestigation and the methodical
description of the temporal development to them. Tents were very as an
that will presumably be less intimidating of the Church considered frequently
employed in this effortJesus Christ and guidedoccasionally Spirit for but less
institution founded by in the recent past, and by the Holy still are, the
so due toof mankind. Patristics (early church fathers)and otherwise making
salvation the difficulties in heating and cooling them and hagiography (lives
them comfortable, an increasing consideration with modern audiences.
of the saints) are an important aspect of church history.

The focus atway the subject matter ofon the sermon, whichthat suffers
In a general revival meetings is often history is everything is usually
delivered by a well-known minister from outside the immediate area in which
change owing to its existence in time and space; more particularly, however,
it is the genetic or natural development of facts, events, situations, that
the meeting is being held in order to enhance the event as "special". Most
sermons are designed to evoke a visible response from the audience, either
history contemplates.
to make an initial commitment to follow Jesus or to repent from sins
committed since that commitment was initially made.

House church is an informal term for a group of Christians gathering regularly
or spontaneously in a home or on grounds not normally used for worship
services, instead of a building dedicated to the purpose. Another term with
In a Christian context, stewardship refers to the responsibility that Christians
have in maintaining and using wisely the gifts that God has bestowed,
including the environment. In some settings, stewardship is operationalized
as time, talent and treasure. An example of stewardship is in Genesis 2:15.
The verse teaches that humans are responsible for nature.

In recent years, tithing has been taught in Christian circles as a form of
"stewardship" that God requires of Christians. The primary argument is that
God has never formally "abolished" the tithe, and thus Christians should pay
the tithe (usually calculated at 10 percent of all gross income from all
sources), usually to the local congregation (though some teach that a part of
the tithe can go to other Christian ministries, so long as total giving is at
least 10 percent).

Giving, in the church context, can include generously giving of one’s time,
talent, and money for the benefit of the church.

Christian education proclaims God’s word as the source of wisdom and
knowledge through the social science of education. Education encompasses
teaching and learning specific knowledge, beliefs, and skills based on
Christian principles and beliefs. Christian education addresses teaching
practices and subjects including lectures, game playing, testing, scheduling,
record keeping, bullying, seating arrangements, interests, motivation,
computer access, and more.



Grief is a multi-faceted response to loss. Although conventionally focused on
the emotional response to loss, it also has a physical, cognitive, behavioral,
social and philosophical dimensions. Common to human experience is the
death of a loved one, be they friend, family, or other. While the terms are
often used interchangeably, bereavement often refers to the state of loss,
and grief to the reaction to loss. Losses can range from loss of employment,
pets, status, a sense of safety, order, possessions, to the loss of the people
nearest to us. Our response to loss is varied and researchers have moved
away from conventional views of grief (that is, that people move through an
orderly and predictable series of responses to loss) to one that considers the
wide variety of responses that are influenced by personality, family, culture,
and spiritual and religious beliefs and practices.
Devotion is a term used to designate several related activities within the
Christian church. Most frequently, this term refers to a period of time set
aside to study the Bible and pray in an effort to build a stronger spiritual
relationship with God. This time is often spent alone or with a small group of

Books contain directed Bible studies often incorporating stories or
anecdotes that convey Biblical principles, similar to the parables used by
Jesus in his ministry. The term also refers to an individual story or message
that follows the above format. Pastors and youth ministers who speak using
stories as opposed to sermons are said to be giving a "devotion(al)".

A family is a domestic group of people (or a number of domestic groups),
typically affiliated by birth or marriage, or by comparable legal relationships.
Family issues are addressed in the context of a relationship with Christ and
through biblical principles and teachings.

Parenting is the process of raising and educating a child from birth until
adulthood. This is usually done in a child's family by the mother and father
(i.e., the biological parents). Where parents are unable or unwilling to provide
this care, it is usually taken on by close relatives (including older siblings)
and grandparents, adoptive parents, foster parents, godparents, or
institutions (such as group homes or orphanages).

The Christian life category focuses on the living out of one’s faith in Jesus
Christ, including the practical application of faith to specific areas and
responsibilities of life, the spiritual growth and development of personal
disciplines and practices that enhance one’s sense of God’s presence, and
the interacting with others in ways that glorify God and promote spiritual
Christian inspirational writing includes an attempt to persuade the reader to
incorporate principles of faith into his or her life. They motivate, encourage,
and promote biblical principles. The writings strive to benefit the reader
emotionally and spiritually. Often, inspirational writing includes novels, short
stories, Scripture quotations, or promises. They can be mixtures of
memoirs, life stories, or narrative prose. Books are sometimes organized
around subjects such as illness or get well. They are formatted with
illustrations and often differ in size compared to traditional books. Often
these books are used for gift giving.




Love can describe an intense feeling of affection, an emotion or an emotional
state. In ordinary use, it refers to interpersonal love.

Marriage is a relationship between individuals which has formed the
foundation of the family for most societies. Marriage can include legal,
social, and religious elements. In The Christian view of marriage has
regarded marriage as ordained by God for the lifelong union of a man and a
woman. Included are books dealing with the many facets of marital life and
intimacy including issues of growing healthy marriages, romance, and
troubled marriages.

The Christian life of men creates unique topics of interest specifically for
men. Parenting and marriage issues focused on men's needs and intersts
are included.

Personal growth comprises the development of the self. Referring to personal
development means a full and total transformation from deep within and not
just a temporary personality change for a specific occasion or context. There
are certain areas of life that are considered in personal growth. Mental
knowledge and learning, openness to new skill, self help, character,
emotions, physical health, fun and adventure, social circles, friends and

Psychology is an academic and applied field involving the study of the mind
and behavior, both human and nonhuman. Psychology also refers to the
application of such knowledge to various spheres of human activity, including
problems of individuals' daily lives and the treatment of mental illness.
Psychology involves studying the mental processes and behavior of
individuals (alone or in groups) rather than the behavior of the groups or
aggregates. Psychology is primarily concerned with the interaction of mental
processes and behavior and of the overall processes of a system.

The term self-help can refer to any case whereby an individual or a group,
such as a support group, betters themselves economically, intellectually or
emotionally. Self-help has also become a way of saving cost especially in
legal settings, with self-help services available to help with routine legal
matters from filing wills to domestic processes to recording property deeds.



Prayer is an effort to communicate with God either to offer praise, to make a request, or simply to express one's thoug

Professional growth encompasses the developing of skills relevant to the
one's current occupation. Professional growth can include aspects of the
career such as job seeking, resume writing, time management, skill
development, and being a Christian in the workplace. Professional growth
also includes developing goals, work life, job matching, and job transitioning.

Professional growth can also includes business issues such as managing
people to organize and maintain collective productivity toward accomplishing
particular creative and productive goals. With some exceptions, businesses
are formed under the motivation of earning profit and growing personal wealth
of its members. Christians seek to balance the need to operate profitably
with biblical principles for business operation.

Leadership includes giving guidance or direction for the benefit of all. People
have come to expect transformational change stemming from the leader.
Such entities may encourage their followers and believers to respect
leadership and to strive to become proficient in it.
Christian counseling includes the entire ‘community of care,’ licensed
professionals, pastors, and caring church members with little or no formal
training. Books in this category are intended to equip clinical, pastoral, and
lay care-givers with Biblical truth and psycho-social insights that ministers to
hurting persons and helps them move to personal wholeness, interpersonal
competence, mental stability, and spiritual maturity.
Recovery is an ongoing process of yielding. Christians overcoming the
lingering affects of addiction, trauma, or abuse and moving into the fullness
of the abundant life is an involved, long-term process. Often support groups
are part of the recovery process. A support group is, first, a place where
recovering addicts will find true acceptance and a sense of what
unconditional love is all about. It is a safe, non-judgmental setting where they
can express struggles, thoughts, ideas, and feelings without fear of rejection.
Hearing the stories of others with similar difficulties and how they overcame
them, gives the struggling addict great encouragement to go on in a life of
sobriety. Healthy support groups can associations, connections, or
Interpersonal relationships are social provide a sort of "family" atmosphere
that stimulates the hope for a better life in all involved. Because addiction
affiliations between two or more people. They vary in differing levels of
wreaks havocsharing, implying therelationships with others, a good support
intimacy and upon an individual's discovery or establishment of common
ground, a wonderful centered around something(s) shared in difficult and
group is and may be place for recovering addicts to begin the common.
painful process of re-connecting with other people.
The termtraditional can refer tocourtship is a highlyan individual or a group,
In many self-help societies, any case whereby structured activity, with
such as a supportIn manybetters themselves economically, intellectually or
well-known rules. group, cultures, courtship is made redundant, or
eliminated altogether, by the practice of arranged marriages, where partners
are chosen for young people, typically by their parents. In some societies,
the parents or community choose potential partners, and then allow limited
dating to determine whether the parties are suited.

In Western societies, a date is an occasion when one socializes with a
potential spouse. In this sense, the purpose of a date is for the people dating
to get to know each other and decide whether they want to have a
relationship. Dating may be the term describing the relationship of two
people attending a date, but other terms are often used.

Divorce or dissolution of marriage is the ending of a marriage before the
death of either spouse, which can be contrasted with an annulment which is
a declaration that a marriage is void, though the effects of marriage may be
recognized in such unions, such as spousal support, child custody
and distribution of property.

In relationships, a single person is one that is not married, or, more broadly,
that they are not in an exclusive romantic relationship. Loneliness, however,
can occur for many single people who look for but cannot find anyone they
might wish to date, especially for those suffering the loss of companionship
following divorce.

Human sexuality refers to the expression of sexual sensation and related
intimacy between a man and a woman, as well as the expression of identity
through sex and as influenced by or based on sex. There are a great many
forms of human sexuality. The sexuality of human beings comprises a broad
range of behavior and processes, including the physiological, psychological,
social, cultural, political, and spiritual or religious aspects of sex and human
sexual behavior.


Social issues are matters that can be explained only by factors outside an individual’s control and immediate social environ
Spirituality is, in a narrow sense, a concern with matters of the spirit. The
spiritual concerns eternal verities regarding Man's ultimate nature. It may
include belief in supernatural powers, as in religion, but the emphasis is on
personal experience. It may be an expression for life perceived as higher,
more complex or more integrated with one's worldview, as contrasted with
the merely sensual. Spirituality in religion connotes the nature of a believer's
personal relationship or "connection" with their God.

One aspect of 'Being spiritual' is goal-directed, with aims such as:
simultaneously improve one's wisdom and willpower, achieve a closer
connection to God, and remove illusions or false ideas at the sensory,
feeling and thinking aspects of a person. Others say that spirituality is a two-
stroke process: the "upward stroke" is inner growth, changing oneself as one
changes his/her relationship with God, and the "downward stroke" is
manifesting improvements in the physical reality around oneself as a result
of the inward change. Another connotation is that change will come onto
itself with the realization that all is oneself; whereupon the divine inward
manifests the diverse outward for experience and progress.

Mysticism is the philosophy and practice of a direct experience of God. In
the Christian context it is traditionally practiced through pursuit of the three
disciplines of prayer (including Christian meditation and contemplation),
fasting (including other forms of abstinence and self-denial), and alms-giving,
all discussed by Jesus in the Sermon on the Mount (Matthew Chapters 5-7).
Christians believe that God dwells in Christians through the Holy Spirit, and
therefore all Christians can experience God directly.

Faith healing is sometimes used in reference to the belief of some Christians
who hold that God heals people through the power of the Holy Spirit, often
involving the "laying on of hands". Those who hold to this belief do not
usually use the term "faith healing" in reference to the practice; that
expression is more often used descriptively by commentators outside of the
faith movement in reference to the belief and practice.

Spiritual warfare has been understood as a metaphor that broadly covers the
individual Christian's struggle with sin and temptation. Spiritual conflict (less
than "war") exists throughout Christian thought and practices (e.g. prayer).
However, since the late Twentieth century, the term spiritual warfare has
been popularized in such a way that it is frequently equated with the
interaction of persons with the angelic and demonic realms in positive or
negative ways (e.g. exorcism).
The Christian life of women creates unique topics of interest specifically for
women. Parenting and marriage issues focused on women's needs and
intersts are included.

A religious ministry is a specialized activity or set of activities performed by
a religious organization in addition to standard church services. The term
"ministry" can also apply to the collected activities of a religious group such
as a church or an individual ministry, as listed below. As churches attempt
to meet the needs of their congregations, they often separate their members
into groups according to age categories. Age-specific groups meet for
religious study including Sunday school programs, fellowship, and other

These ministries allow churches to provide 'age-appropriate' activities and
content to maximize spiritual education and growth as well as peer group
fellowship. In terms of religious education, the 'socialization' of children into
the faith community is one important approach that requires connecting the
children and family with the wider congregation.



A disciple is one who receives instruction from another; a scholar; a learner;
especially, a follower who has learned to believe in the truth of the doctrine of
his teacher, and implies that the pupil is under the discipline of, and
"understands", his teacher; an adherent in doctrine.[1]
In many versions of Christian theology, discipleship is used to refer to the
decision to become a committed follower of the teachings of Jesus. Jesus
taught that "as I have loved you, so you must love one another. By this
everyone will know that you are my disciples, if you love one another.” (John
13:34-35, TNIV).

Evangelism is the preaching of the Christian Gospel or, by extension, any
other form of preaching or proselytizing. For many groups, a church planter
is called an evangelist. Sometimes, the regular minister of a church is called
an evangelist in a way that other groups would typically use the term pastor.
Focus on evangelism and the drawing-in of new converts.

Outreach is an effort by an organization or group to connect its ideas or
practices to the efforts of other organizations, groups, specific audiences or
the general public. Unlike marketing, outreach does not inherently revolve
around a product or strategies to increase market share. Typically non-
profits, civic groups, and churches engage in outreach.

Outreach often takes on an educational component (i.e., the dissemination
of ideas), but it is increasingly common for organizations to conceive of their
outreach strategy as a two-way street. In this case outreach is also framed
as engagment, rather than simple dissemination/education.
Outreach strategies are linked to the organization's mission, and define
targets, goals, and milestones.


A religious ministry is a specialized activity or set of activities performed by
a religious organization in addition to standard church services. The term
"ministry" can also apply to the collected activities of a religious group such
as a church or an individual ministry, as listed below.
As churches attempt to meet the needs of their congregations, they often
separate their members into groups according to age categories. Age-
specific groups meet for religious study including Sunday school programs,
fellowship, and other activities. These age divisions may include:
• Nursery
• Pre-school
• Children, generally elementary age students
• Youth, generally middle and high school students
• College and career, designed for university-age students
• Adults, which is often broken up into single adults, couples ministry, men's
and women's ministries, and senior adults.
Advantages and disadvantages
There are several advantages to the concept of age-specific ministries.
• Many parents / caregivers are glad to allow the church to be in charge of
the spiritual enrichment of their children. Similarly, they are used to using
programs for the development of their children such as weekday childcare,
preschool, and grade school and enjoy the ability to continue a similar
format in church.
• These ministries allow churches to provide 'age-appropriate' activities and
content to maximize spiritual education and growth as well as peer group
• Ministries often provide fellowship activities outside of the church service
that encourage the involvement of non-church going friends and relatives.
Age-specific ministry does have certain disadvantages, mostly stemming
from the separation of children from the primary church functions.
• In terms of religious education, the 'socialization' of children into the faith
community is one important approach that requires connecting the children
and family with the wider congregation.
• These ministries may increase the possibility of child abuse within the
churchthe Lausanne Congress of 1974, of widely-accepted definition ofthe
Since as it does increase the amount a time children spend without a
supervision of their particular parent or viable indigenouspresence of the
Christian mission has been "to form a caretaker or the church-planting
movement." at large. It is is motivated however, that analyses of the hire
congregationThis definition worth noting,by theological many churches acts
certified teachers to fill these positions and most performas "glory" or
required to enhance God's reputation (usually translated background
checks on anyone that is claimed to summarize the acts ofwith children.
"honor"). The definition may come into supervisory contact Jesus' ministry,
which is forms of a model for all ministries. The motivation is life" plays
• Certain taken as these ministries reduce the role that "familysaid to be in
the development of children, because of Bible, includingof differing age
God's will, plainly stated throughout the the separation the Old Testament
groups into differently facilitated programs. In some ministries, the children
(see below).
The movement separate from the churches congregation, such as during
are also placedmust "plant" (start)rest of the because the process of forming
Sunday school and youth programs. Many of these programs, however, take
Godly disciples is necessarily social. "Church" should be understood in the
place at different times from the primary church service, and in many
widest sense, as an organization of believers. It is not a building. Many
churches,start by meeting elementary Discipling isand youngergrowseparated
churches only children of in houses. school age required to are the
from theof believers to to provide more relevantmaximize their quality and
number main service the largest extent, and material to their age group.
therefore the to age-specific ministry gaining ground non-Christians.
An alternativeacceptability of their worship to God andis the concept of inter-
generational ministry, which seeks to include all age and peer groups in
"Viable" means that it is self-governing, self-supporting and self-propagating.
primarythe famous "three-self" formula invented by Henry Venn of the London
This is church functions.
www.wikipedia.comSociety in the 19th century.
Church Missionary
In common use, care refers tonative members of the culture have all the
"Indigenous" means that fully a mental or emotional state of predisposition
in whichabilities and interestall the required someone or something.can care
needed one has an accept or concern for duties. Only indigenes To fully
adapt the Gospel also refer to a maximizing both natural, high-quality
for someone, mayto their culture, disquieted state of mixed uncertainty,
apprehension, and responsibility; or a cause for such anxiety. culture.for an
worship and the number of people that can be reached in that Caring
object, such "movement," refers to aspecialof attendant maintenance; or may
It must be a as a house, because state organization is required for the
also refer to a state of charge or supervision, as in under across-cultural
task of planting churches. This movement naturally forms doctor’s care.
missions, when persons who understand and accept church-planting duties
go to people outside their culture, as Christ commanded in the Great


Are sermons and preaching together? Should they be? A sermon is an
oration by a prophet or member of the clergy. Sermons address a Biblical,
theological, or religious topic, usually expounding on a type of belief or law.

Sermons are usually, but not always, delivered in a house of worship, most
of which have a pulpit or ambo, an elevated architectural feature from which
sermons are given. Sermons are occasionally known as homilies, especially
in the Roman Catholic Church and similar traditions. The word "sermon"
comes from a Middle English word which was derived from an Old French
term, which in turn came from the Latin word sermō; ("discourse"). (Actually,
it meant "conversation", and early sermons were delivered in the form of
question and answer, only later did it come to mean a monologue)
In modern language, the word "sermon" can also be used pejoratively in
secular terms to describe a lengthy or tedious speech delivered with great
passion to a disinterested audience. A sermonette is a short sermon.
Preacher is a colloquial term for a clergyman, in particular a local priest,
pastor or Minister; one who preaches. Some believe a preacher is distinct
from a theologian by focusing on the communication of the doctrine rather
than the development of the doctrine. Others see preaching and theology as
being intertwined. Preaching is not limited to religious views, but it extends
to moral and social world-views as well. Preachers are common throughout
most cultures. They can take the form of a Christian "Reverend" on a
Sunday morning. The point of preaching is to inform or convince the hearer of
a certain world-view or belief. For this reason, many nonreligious persons
shun preachers and accuse them of forcing beliefs on people. Preaching
also serves as reminders and encouragements to people who already
subscribe to the preacher's beliefs. For many, the term preacher is
derogatory, while some consider it an honor.
The preaching of sermons is especially prominent in Protestantism,
especially among those denominations that feature revivalism. Lay preachers
often figure in these traditions of worship.

A sermon is an oration by a prophet or member of the clergy. Sermons
address a Biblical, theological, or religious topic, usually expounding on a
type of belief or law.
Sermons are usually, but not always, delivered in a house of worship, most
of which have a pulpit or ambo, an elevated architectural feature from which
sermons are given. Sermons are occasionally known as homilies, especially
in the Roman Catholic Church and similar traditions. The word "sermon"
comes from a Middle English word which was derived from an Old French
term, which in turn came from the Latin word sermō; ("discourse"). (Actually,
it meant "conversation", and early sermons were delivered in the form of
question and answer, only later did it come to mean a monologue)
In modern language, the word "sermon" can also be used pejoratively in
secular terms to describe a lengthy or tedious speech delivered with great
passion to a disinterested audience. A sermonette is a short sermon.
There are a number of different types of preaching, that differ both by their
subject matter and by their intended audience. Not all types of preaching are
within the gift of every preacher. These types of preaching include:
• Topical preaching - concerned with a particular subject of current concern;
A liturgy comprises a prescribed the story of a particular biblical character
• Biographical preaching - tracingreligious ceremony, according to the
traditions number of parts of the it may
through a of a particular religion; Bible; refer to, or include, an elaborate
formal ritual (such as the seeking to convert the congregation or as the
• Evangelistic preaching - Catholic Mass), or a daily activity such bring them
back to Salats (see Oxford through a recountingReligions, p.582-3). The
Muslim their previous faith Dictionary of World of the Good News;
unprogrammed meeting exegesis, in The United States is and seeking to
• Expository preaching - of Quakersor preaching from a text an example of a
non-liturgical service because there is
expound the text to the congregation; no minister or structured order of
• Redemptive-Historical Preaching - Preaching that takes into consideration
the context of any given text within the broader history of salvation as
Methods of dress, preparation of food, application of cosmetics or other
recorded in the canon of the bible.
hygienic practices
Delivery methods are all considered liturgic activities. Liturgies are natural
and common differ on the amount such and effort used to prepare them.
Sermons alsoin all human activitiesof timeas organized sports venues. They
appear to preaching - preaching with a needs.
• Scripted resonate with human salutoryprevious preparation, it can be with
help of notes or a script, or rely on the memory of the preacher.
In the Christian church, liturgical churches are those that use a well-defined
• Extemporaneous preaching - preaching without notes and sometimes
liturgy preparation.
withoutdating to the second century and earlier, in which many of the words
• Impromptu preaching basic patterns each previous preparation.
and music used follow - preaching without time the service is conducted.
Illustration/Visualization Anglican, and Lutheran churches are liturgical
Most Orthodox, Catholic,
Visualization is any techniquelesser extent. So-called non-liturgical churches
while most others are to a far for creating images, diagrams, or animations
usually do follow a common Visualization through visual imagery the next,
to communicate a message.worship sequence from one service tohas been
but identical elements are few.
an effective way to communicate both abstract and concrete ideas since the
dawn of man.
Examples from history include cave painting, hieroglyphs, Greek geometry,
and Leonardo da Vinci's revolutionary methods of technical drawing for
engineering and scientific purposes.
Visualization today has ever-expanding applications in science, engineering
Product visualization, all forms of education , interactive multimedia,
medicine etc. Typical of most applications of visualization these days is the
extensive use of computer graphics. The invention of computer graphics may
be the most important development for the visualization field since the
invention of central perspective in the Renaissance. The development of
animation also helped advance the field of visualization.
A ritual is a set of actions, performed mainly for their symbolic value, which
is prescribed by a religion or by the traditions of a community.
A ritual may be performed at regular intervals, or on specific occasions, or at
the discretion of individuals or communities. It may be performed by a single
individual, by a group, or by the entire community; in arbitrary places, or in
places especially reserved for it; either in public, in private, or before specific
people. A ritual may be restricted to a certain subset of the community, and
may enable or underscore the passage between religious or social states.
The purposes of rituals are varied; they include compliance with religious
obligations or ideals, satisfaction of spiritual or emotional needs of the
practitioners, strengthening of social bonds, demonstration of respect or
submission, stating one's affiliation, obtaining social acceptance or approval
for some event — or, sometimes, just for the pleasure of the ritual itself.
Rituals of various kinds are a feature of almost all known human societies,
past or present. They include not only the various worship rites and
sacraments of organized cults and religions, but also the rites of passage of
A sacrament is a Christian rite that mediates divine grace—a holy
certain societies, oaths of allegiance, coronations, and presidentialmystery.
In the Western tradition, and funerals, school "rush" traditions and
inaugurations, marriages it is often defined as an outward, visible sign that
graduations,inward, spiritual grace. events, halloween parties and veteran
conveys an club meetings, sports
The Latin word sacramentum and more.
parades, Christmas shopping,had its origin as the oath of allegiance taken
by Roman soldiers; hence, a sacred ritual is that the actions and their
In any case, an essential feature of aceremony used to impress an
obligation; are not arbitrarily chosen by the
symbolisma solemn oath-taking; an oath. performers, nor dictated by logic
or necessity, but are, at least in part, prescribed conveys would mean only
Among many Protestants, the word mediates or and imposed upon the
that it is a by some external source.
performersvisible symbol or reminder of invisible grace.
Roman Catholics, Eastern Orthodox Christians, the Oriental to the kind
Because of their symbolic nature, there are hardly any limits Orthodox, of
Assyrian Christians, members of in a ritual. The rites Methodist, and Old
actions that may be incorporated the Anglican, Unitedof past and present
societiestraditions, the Independent Catholic Churches and Lutherans hold
Catholic have typically involved special gestures and words, recitation of
that texts, performance of special music, songs or dances, symbols which
fixedsacraments are not mere symbols, but rather, "signs or processions,
effect what they signify", that is, the sacraments in and consumption of
manipulation of certain objects, use of special dresses, of themselves,
specialadministered, are used by much more.
rightly food, drink, or drugs, and God as a means to communicate grace to
faithful recipients.
In religion, a ritual can comprise the prescribed outward forms of performing,
Generally, there of seven sacramental rites used since apostolic times
the cultus or cultarea particular observation within a religion or religious in
the Church, though not ritual is often accepted as such by all groups.
denomination. Althoughall of them areused in context with worship performed
These are: Baptism, Chrismation (or Confirmation),athe Eucharistsystem of
in a church,is a branch relationship between any religion's doctrine and its
Angelology the actual of theology that deals with hierarchical
(Communion), The Sacrament of Orderor emanations, Ritual often has these
angels, can vary considerably powers (Ordination), Reconciliation of a
ritual(s) messengers, celestial from religion to religion. and the study of a
systems. It primarily relates Christianity[1], where it is one of do ten
close connection with the Sick, and Matrimony. many cases expresses
Penitent, Anointing of reverence, thus a ritual in Some groupsthe not major
reverence of theology, to be sacraments. one[2]. groups, such as Anglicans
consider any a deity. albeit a neglected Some
branches for of these
MythsNewgenerally narrativesappeardominical sacraments of theof God and
and Old-Catholics, consider the two frequently as the ministers Gospel,
In the are Testament angels passed down traditionally intended to explain
the universal and Eucharist, to be the "precepted, primary, and principal
Baptism and the local beginnings ("creation(to Joseph), 4:11. (to Jesus),
      agents of revelation (E.g. Matthew 1:20 myths" and "founding myths"),
natural phenomena, inexplicable cultural conventions,the otherof angels as
sacraments ordainedActs 12:7 (to Peter)); and Jesus speaks five else for
Luke 1:26 (to Mary), for our salvation," and consider and anything
fulfilling such functions "lesser sacraments" that are derivative have this
sacramental rites to be (E.g. presents itself. Not all myths oneof these two.
which no simple explanation Mark 8:38, 13:27), implying inneed saying that
explicatory purpose, however.doin marriage (Mark 12:25). Angels usually
Occasionally, Christians who Myths believe definition sacred and arewill
they neither marry nor are given not are by in sacramental theology most
involve a supernatural for example, New Testament takes little interest in —
nevertheless the Apocalypse. The marriage as a "sacrament" inlegends the
prominent in refer to, force or deity. There is some overlap with an effort to
idea of containing hierarchy, historical the institution.
stories the angelic heroesthe sanctity of trappings — the doctrine. The level
underscore their belief in andbut there are traces of depending on the
of supernatural content.bad angels is recognized,sectsthe good angels
Clearly, Christian churches, denominations, and with are divided regarding
distinction of good and
In folkloristics,1:19), Metatron (Rev.with the study they aresecular andandto
the number and operation of the sacraments, but of both generally held the
Gabriel (Luke which is concerned 10:1), and Michael (Daniel 12:1), sacred
evil angels Beelzebub, Jesus. Those who power believe in sacramental
have been a myth also derives some of its do not from and Apollyon and
narratives, instituted by(Mark 3:22) Satan (Mark 1:13), being believed(Rev.
deeplyranks asto implied, archangels least, those rites which theyhave myths,
theology refer true. In the study of folklore, all Jude 9),traditions useand
9:11); held are these rites -- or, at (Michael, sacred principalities --
powers (Rom. 8:38; pejorative thrones and intended in sacraments term,
and therebaptism and communion, as "ordinances." Thethe 1:16). Angels
primarily is nothing Col. 2:10),or dismissive dominions (Col use of theare
as thereadministered by the clergy to7:1). The Angels of the Seven are
usually groups of four or seven (Rev a recipient or recipients, and Churches
occur in often is in common usage.
of Asia Minor are described in visible and invisible components. The angels,
generally understood to involveRev. 1-3. These are probably guardian invisible
component (manifested inwardly) is understood to be brought about by the
standing to the churches in the same relation that the angel-princes in
action of the Holy Spirit, God's grace working in the sacrament's
Daniel stand to the nations; practically the angels are personifications of the
participants, while the visible (or outward) component entails the use of such
The archangel Gabriel appeared to wine in the blessed or consecrated; the
things as water, oil, and bread and Mary that is traditional role of messenger
laying-on-of-hands; orchild would besignificant covenant that angels were a
to inform her that her a particularly the Messiah, and other is marked by
public benediction (such as with marriage and absolution). at Jesus' tomb,
present to herald his birth. In Matt. 28:2, an angel appeared
frightened the Roman guards, rolled away the stone from the tomb, and later
Anthropology (from the Greek word άνθρωπος, "human" or "person")
consists of the study of humanity (see genus Homo). It is holistic in two
senses: it is concerned with all humans at all times and with all dimensions
of humanity. A primary trait that traditionally distinguished anthropology from
other humanistic disciplines is an emphasis on cultural relativity, in-depth
examination of context, and cross-cultural comparisons.
Apologetics is the field of study concerned with the systematic defense of a
position. Someone who engages in apologetics is called an apologist or an
"apologete". Religious apologetics is the effort to show that the preferred
faith is not irrational, that believing in it is not against human reason, and
that in fact the religion contains values and promotes ways of life more in
accord with human nature than other faiths or beliefs.
Apologetics serves an intellectual function within religious communities by
providing arguments that support the doctrinal and ethical tenets of the
religion. These arguments strengthen the believer's faith and support the
propagation of the religion by offering arguments intended to persuade the
Skeptics engaged in debate with apologists tend to expect apologetics to
consist of powerful arguments intended to persuade skeptics. The
effectiveness of these arguments can occasionally fail to meet skeptical
anticipation, largely because the arguments are not always directed to
skeptics, but have the stated purpose of reaffirming the beliefs of current
Christology is that part of Christian theology that studies and defines who
believers. These arguments aim for a much less concerned with the minor
Jesus the Christ was and is. It is generally lower burden, not trying to do
more thanhis life; the religious belief plausiblewas, thedoubt on skeptical
details of make rather it deals with who he or cast incarnation, and the
arguments. of his life (his birth, death, and resurrection).
major events
This faith-affirming aspect is often downplayed or even overlooked, but it can
Important issues in Christology include:
be very important, particularly in psychological and sociological terms. For
• His human nature
some, the mere fact that even superficially reasonable arguments exist in
• His divine nature
support of their beliefs between to prevent them from making any effort at all
• The interrelationship suffices these two natures; how they interacted and
to question whether they should continue to believe. For others, the ready-
affected each other
Christology may allow simplified defense of beliefs, sometimes to the
made arguments also cover questions concerning the nature of God like the
detriment of intellectualBinitarianism, and what, if anything, Christ
Trinity, Unitarianism or debate. In the case of so-called true believers, more
far-fetched argumentsrest of humanity. There are almost as consistent with
accomplished for the may replace traditional logic. This is many
the observations of sociologists of religion, such as Peter Berger and
Christological views as there are variants of Christianity. The different
Douglas Cowan, who found that boundary maintenanceto accusations of
Christological views of various Christian sects have led of belief occurs when
one religious infrequently, subsequent religious persecution. In many cases,
heresy, and, tradition encounters another. In this view, engaging in
a sect's unique christology is its chief distinctive feature; their own faith.
apologetics is less about converting others than boosting in these cases it is
There areforvariety of to be known by the name given schools of thought. In
common a the sect Christian apologetic styles and to its christology.
the Thomistic or Classicalthose who deny Christ's divine nature
Controversies concerning apologetics tradition philosophical arguments for
Some important are emphasized before turning controversy with Arians
God's existence controversies have included theto the specific case for over
Christian revelation claims. In the Evidentialist tradition led to the arguments
Christ's divinity and relationship with the Father, which empirical adoption of
about the life, miracles, death and the controversyChrist are presentedand
the Nicene-Constantinople Creed; resurrection of over Nestorianism, as
that over Monophysitism (and its derivates Monothelitism that
probabilistic proofs. The Presuppositional tradition argues and belief in God
must be presupposed, led to the that vantage point non-theistic assumptions
Monoenergism) which and from first Seven Ecumenical Councils and their
are proven to becanons and professions of faith. The adoption of the
many decrees, fallacious.
Early Church view of Christology was, as Karl Rahner would say, key to the
In the first of Christologicalnumber of Christiancontroversies in Christologyof
beginning centuries AD a Discussion. Other writers undertook the task
proving that Christianityand the Adoptionists. Roman Empire and for
included the Docetists was beneficial for the
We can describe most of these wrote to of whether they believed attacks
humanity as a whole. Also they in terms defend their faith against Christ had
made by other people or to properly explain their faith. Aristides and two
a divine nature, human nature or both; and if both, in terms of how the
Quadratus of Athens,interacted.the early second century, presentedof the
natures coexisted or writing in All of these views will be were two in
first Christians to write apologetics treatises. Other second-century
simplified form.
apologeticsearliest dispute within Christianity centered and SecondJesus
One of the writings of note included the First Apology on whether Apology
of Justin Martyr and the Epistle to Diognetusbelieved that Jesus was not
was God. A number of early Christian sects , a response to the accusation
divine, but was simply a human Rome, further more: Athenagoras, Tatian,
that Christians were a danger to Moshiach prophet promised in the Old
Theophilos of Antioch, Tertullian and Minucius Felix.
Testament, see Deuteronomy 18. This doctrine, originating in the Judeo-
About a century after in Nazareth, that believed to Christianity, the Roman
Christian community Constantine's conversion that Jesus was simply a
Ecclesiology is a branch of Christian theology that deals with the doctrines
pertaining to the Church itself as a community or organic entity, and with the
understanding of what the "church" is: its role in salvation, its origin, its
relationship to the historical Christ, its discipline, its destiny (see
Eschatology) and its leadership. It is, therefore, the study of the Church as a
thing in itself, and of the Church's self-understanding of its mission and role.
In addition to describing a broad discipline of theology, ecclesiology may be
used in the specific sense of a particular church or denomination’s
character, self-described or otherwise. This is the sense of the word in such
phrases as Roman Catholic ecclesiology, Lutheran ecclesiology, and
ecumenical ecclesiology.
Ecclesiology asks the questions:
• Who is the Church? Is it a visible or earthly corporation -- a "church" in the
sense of a specific denomination or institution, for instance? Or is it the body
of all believing Christians regardless of their denominational differences and
disunity? What is the relationship between living Christians and departed
Christians -- do a part(those on Earth and those inconcerned with the final
Eschatology is they of theology and philosophy Heaven) constitute
together the Church?of the world or the ultimate destiny of human kind,
events in the history
commonly join a church? end is, what is the many corporate worship in the
• Must onephrased as the That of the world. In role of religions, the end of the
spiritual a future believers? Is it in fact necessary? or folklore. More broadly,
world is lives of event prophesied in sacred texts Can salvation be found
outside of formal membership in a given faith community, and what or
eschatology may encompass related concepts such as the Messiah
Messianic "membership?"
constitutesAge, the afterlife, and the soul.
• What is the authority of the "age"; some translations institution itself,of the
The Greek word αιών means Christian church? Is the may read "end either
in a single corporate of the world". The distinction also has theological
age" instead of "end body, or generally, an independent vehicle of revelation
or of God's grace? Or is the Church's authority dependent on and derivative
significance, for the "end times" in many religions may involve the
destruction of the planet (or of individual institutions are       Church to the
of a prior divine revelation, and all living things), but with the human race
extent that they teach form,message? Is, for instance, the Bible a and
surviving in some new that ending the current "age" of existence written
part of a wider revelation entrusted to the Church as faith community, and
beginning a new one.
Most Western interpreted within that have doctrines claiming the 'chosen'
therefore to be monotheistic religions context? Or is the Bible that revelationor
itself, and the Church is one true faith as a group of people claim adherence
'worthy' members of the to be defined will be "spared" or "delivered" from the
to it? judgment and wrath of God. They will be ushered into paradise either
• What during, or Church depending are the sacraments, in the context ofthey
before, does the after it do? What upon the end-time scenario to which the
Ethics is the as the part of God at of end of major there is Gospel? of
hold. As well branch wrath of the onethe the fourthe agebranches of
Church, and are theyof axiology, Church's mission to preach thethe wrath Is
the Eucharist the defining element of the rest of the sacramental system and
philosophy, which attempts to understand the nature of morality; to
distinguish itself, or century from to which of preaching? Is the Church
Christians that 1st is it rightAD believed act is wrong. world would
the Churchin thewhich is secondarythatthethe end of the The Westerncome to
during theirethics the vehicle Mark 13:8 compared the end of the in the
be understood as is Jesus in for called moral philosophy.presenceworld with a
tradition of lifetime. sometimes salvation, or the salvific
mother's birth community ofimage already the world was already pregnant
world, or asbranch of philosophy dealing with right and wrong in human
Ethics is a a pain, and the those implied "saved?"
behavior. All the Church be moral but God was the mission and authority
• How shouldreligions have a governed? What knows when it will happen. to
with its own destruction, but no onecomponent, and religious approaches
of the Apostles, and is this in Thessalonica were persecuted by the Roman
the problem of ethics Paul handed down through the sacraments today?
When the converts of historically dominated ethics over secular approaches.
From are the proper methods was upon them. However, bishops and
Empire, they believed of end of religions, to the extent that ethics when
What the point of view thetheistic choosing clergy such asdoubt rosestems as
early revealed truth from divinewithin the ethics isofthese as a [of an end
priests, and whatChristians said, "We have heardstudiedthingsbranch of of
from as the 90s is their role sources, context the Church? Is the
the world] Many necessary? the Golden Rule, look, teaches people to "treat
ordained clergy in the days of our fathers, andwhich we have grown old and
theology. even believe that
others are thewant to be treated", Inin the life of denominator of all moral
none of them roles of 'spiritual gifts' the 130s Justin Martyr
• Whatas youhas happened to us".is the commonthe church?declared God
• How doesreligions. of the world because he wishedcovenants expressed in
codes and the Church's 'new covenant' relate to the for Christianity to
was delaying the end
Christian world religion. In people, Cyprian wrote that
become with God's chosenthe 250s the Jewish people? Christian the of that
scriptureaethics developed while early Christians were subjects ofsins Roman
• What is the ultimate destinytook the end was Christian eschatology?
Empire. Christians and proof of the Church in near.
time were a preludeeventually that over the Empire itself. Saint Augustine
adapted Plato, and century most Christians believed the his was beyond
However, by the 3rdlater, after the Islamic transmission of Endworks,
their ownworked Aristotelian philosophy into a denounced attempts to divine
Aquinas lifetime; Jesus, it was believed, had Christian framework.
Christian ethics in the "times tended to stress grace, attempts to
the future, to know general hasand seasons", and such mercy, and predict
forgiveness; it stresses doubt in the End was given a date with the help It
the future were discouraged; yet human (as opposed to divine) judgment.of
also codified the in the Deadly Sins. For more see Christian philosophy and
Jewish traditions Seven Six Ages of the World. Using this system, the End
wasSevenat 202, but when the date passed, the date was changed to AD
the fixed virtues.
Paul teaches 500 the importance of the End as a his of Christianity was
500. After AD (Rom., ii, 24 ff) that God has written partmoral law in the hearts
of all men, even of those outside to influence of during the season of
marginalized, though it continuesthe be stressed Christian revelation; this law
Advent. itself in the conscience of every man and is the norm according to
Some the whole human race will be judged onworldday of reckoning. In or
which current Christians place the end of the the within their lifetime
consequence of their evidence to support these ideas, become, to a great
shortly thereafter. As perverse inclinations, this law hadmany point to the
extent, obscured and of tragedies around pagans; Christian understand their
prolific news coveragedistorted among the the world, sometimes "Biblical" in
Theology is reasoned discourse concerning God. It can also refer to the
study of other religious topics. A theologian is a person learned in theology.
Christian theology practices theology from a Christian viewpoint or studies
Christianity theologically. Given the overwhelming influence exercised by
Christianity, especially in pre-modern Europe, Christian theology permeates
much of Western culture and often reflects that culture.
The history of Christian theology intertwines with Church history and covers
important developments in philosophy and in the history of ideas. Specific
issues such as heresy, Arianism, and the Protestant Reformation are of
particular importance.
Doctrine means "a body of teachings" or "instructions", taught principles or
positions, as the body of teachings in a branch of knowledge or belief
system. The Greek analogy is the etymology of catechism.
Often doctrine specifically connotes a corpus of religious dogma as it is
promulgated by a church, but not necessarily: doctrine is also used to refer
to a principle of law, in the common law traditions, established through a
history of past decisions, such as the doctrine of self-defense, or the
principle of fair use, or the more narrowly applicable first-sale doctrine.
Examples of religious doctrines include:
• Christian Trinity and virgin birth
• Roman Catholic transubstantiation and immaculate conception
• Pentecostal Jesus-Only doctrine
• Calvinist predestination
• Methodist Prevenient Grace
Dogma (the plural is either dogmata or dogmas) is belief or doctrine held by
a religion, ideology or any kind of organization to be authoritative and not to
be disputed or doubted.
There are some conceptual similarities between dogma and the axioms used
as the starting point for logical analysis. Axioms may be thought of as
concepts or "givens" so fundamental that disputing them would be
unimaginable; dogmata are also fundamental (e.g. "God exists") yet
incorporate also the larger set of conclusions that comprise the (religious)
field of thought (e.g. "God created the universe"). Axioms are propositions
not subject to proof or disproof, or are statements accepted on their own
merits. Dogmata might be thought to be more complex, the product of other
proofs. Philosophy and theology find ways to evaluate all statements,
whether classified as axioms or dogmata.
Religious dogmata, properly conceived, reach back to proofs other than
themselves, and ultimately to faith. Perhaps the pinnacle of organized
exposition of theological dogma is the Summa Theologiae by Thomas
Aquinas, who proposes this relationship between faith and objection: "If our
opponent believes nothing of divine revelation, there is no longer any means
of proving the articles of faith by reasoning, but only of answering his
objections — if he has any — against faith" (I 1 8)..
Dogmata are found in many religions such as Christianity where they are
considered core principles that must be upheld by all followers of that
religion. As a fundamental element of religion, the term "dogma" is assigned
to those theological tenets which are considered to be well demonstrated,
such that their proposed disputation or revision effectively means that a
person no longer accepts the given religion as his or her own, or has entered
into a period of personal doubt. Dogma is distinguished from theological
opinion regarding those things considered less well-known. Dogmata may be
clarified and elaborated but not contradicted in novel teachings (e.g.,
Galatians 1:8-9). Rejection of dogma is considered heresy and may lead to
expulsion from the religious group, although in the Christian Gospels this is
not done rashly (e.g. Mt 18:15-17).
For most of Eastern Christianity, the dogmata are contained in the Nicene
Earliest emergence of Christianity
Debatably and Biblically speaking, Christianity began with the Messianic
promise (Genesis 3:15) at the dawn of creation and therefore with Adam and
Eve, the first people with faith in the Messiah (Christ) to come. It then follows
the history of those peoples, mostly the Jewish "nation", who kept that faith.
The term "Christian" itself is however not really recognized until the first
century AD at Antioch as recorded in Acts 11:26.
By way of secular history, Christianity began among a small number (about
120, see Acts 1:15) of Jews and Jewish Proselytes. By the 3rd century AD,
Christianity had grown to become the dominant religion of the northern
Mediterranean world. It also gained important extensions to the east and
south of the Mediterranean. The core history of the Roman Catholic Church
is said to extend in an unbroken timeline from this period. This section will
examine those first 300 years.
Earliest Church
Main article: Early Christianity
The term "Early Jewish Christians" is often used in discussing Early
Liberation theology his Twelve Apostles, his relatives, the Elders, and
Christianity. Jesus, is an important, sometimes controversial school of all or
essentially all of his At its followers were Jewish or Jewish found in the Hence
theological thought. early inception, it was predominently Proselytes.
the 3,000 converts on the Pentecost following the Crucifixion described in
Roman Catholic Church after the Second Vatican Council; although some
suggest that it Jews and Proselytes. Dietrich Bonhoeffer during the late
Acts 2 were all was first articulated by All converts to Christianity were non-
Gentile It is often cited as a form the Roman Centurion Cornelius by Simon
1930s. prior to the conversion of of Christian socialism, and it has had
Peter (Kephas) in Acts 10, who is traditionally considered the the Jesuits,
particularly widespread influence in Latin America and among first Gentile
although its influence has diminished within Catholicism in the that time
convert to Christianity. The major division in Christianity prior topast decade.
was between Hellenisticof its non-Hellenistic Jews or Koine Greek (Acts 6)
Though important parts and teachings were rejected by the Vatican,
and Aramaic growth1:19) speakers. However, after the conversion of
curtailing its (Acts in some sectors, within Protestant circles it is
recognized as an acceptance as a Christian, of equal now another group
Cornelius and his important school of thought,there wasstanding with neo-
— Gentile Christians.Theology, Process Theology, and others.
Orthodoxy, Feminist As an eschatological movement, they anticipated that
the GentilesPope, Benedict XVI, has also been as for example an opponent
The current would turn to the God of Abraham long known as prophesied in
Isaiah 56:6-8. The New Testament does not use the terms "Gentile- the
of liberation theology, when he headed the Sacred Congregation for
Christians" the"Jewish-Christians". Rather, Paul of Tarsus wrote against
Doctrine of or Faith.
those who were circumcised, who separatedrelationship between Christian
In essence, liberation theology explores the themselves from the
uncircumcised: Catholic) and political activism, study of thein areas of In
In Christian theology, pneumatology refers to the particularly Holy Spirit.
theology (usually
social justice, poverty,doctrine, circumcised or uncircumcised, barbarian,
"Here there is no Greek or Jew,the rights. The main methodological God in
mainstream Christian and human Holy Spirit is the third person of
the Trinity. Unitarian forms Christ to do theology (i.e. speak Spirit is
innovation of liberation but of Christianity deny that the Holy of God) from the
Scythian, slave or free,theology is is all, and is in all." Colossians 3:11
viewpoint of and uncircumcised are generally interpretedhuman people. and
Circumcisedthe economically poor and in some sense, influencecommunity.
personal, although holding that it may, oppressed of the to mean Jews In
the Gospel of John, pneuma is However, it a privileged and spirit, God's
According to Jon Sobrino, S.J.,linked to areis an water channel of as 1st
Greeks, who were predominate. the poor re-birth inoversimplification which
grace. According to Phillip Berryman Jews bibliography), circumcised,
century Iudaea Provincebe baptism. (see the who no longer liberation
has been suggested to also had some
theology is "an interpretation of Christian faith through others such as
and some Greeks (called Proselytes or Judaizers) andthe poor's suffering,
Egyptians, Ethiopians, and Arabs whoof society and the Catholic faith and
their struggle and hope, and a critique did.
For 250 years it wasthemartyrs' church; the persecutions were fueled by the
Christianity through a eyes of the poor."
Liberation theology to worship the state a liberator. Emphasis is There
refusal of Christiansfocuses on Jesus as and the Roman emperor.placed on
were persecutionsBible where Jesus' mission is and the otherterms of
those parts of the under Nero, Domitian, Trajan described in Antonines,
Maximinus Thrax,a bringer Valerian, Diocletian and Galerius; Deciusarms to
liberation, and as Decius, of justice. This is interpreted as a call to ordered
carry out this mission of justice -- In 313, Constantine I and Licinius
the first official persecution in 250.literally by some. A number of liberation
announced toleration of Christianity in the Edictdoctrine ofIn the Eastclass
theologians add Marxist concepts such as the of Milan. perpetual the
church passed from persecution directly to imperial control (caesaropapism),
Liberation theology also emphasizes individual self-actualization as always
inaugurated by Constantine, enshrined later in Justinian's laws, and part of a
problem for the Orthodoxhumankind.In the West the church remainedso that
God’s divine purpose for churches. In other words, we are given life
independent because offull potential. Obstacles, or oppressions, put in our
we may pursue it to its the weakness of the emperor and the well-
path must therefore be the bishop of Rome.
established authority offought against.
Liberation theologians usually do not teach in Roman Catholic universities
and seminaries, but can often be found in Protestant-oriented schools. They
tend to have much contact with the poor, and interpret scripture partly based
on their experiences in this context -- what they label praxis.
Salvation refers to deliverance from an undesirable state or condition. In
theology, the study of salvation is called soteriology and is a vitally important
concept in several religions. Christianity regards salvation as deliverance
from the bondage of sin and from condemnation, resulting in eternal life with
Salvation is arguably one of the most important Christian spiritual concepts,
perhaps second only to the deity of Jesus Christ.
Among many Christians, the primary goal of religion is to attain salvation.
Others maintain that the primary goal of Christians is to do the will of God, or
that the two are equivalent. In many traditions, attaining salvation is
synonymous with going to heaven after death, while most also emphasize
that salvation represents a changed life while on Earth as well. Many
elements of Christian theology explain why salvation is needed and how to
attain it.
The idea of salvation rests upon there being some sort of unsaved sinful
state from which the individual (or mankind) is to be redeemed by a Savior.
Systematic Christians the study of Christian theology organized
This Savior, theology isbelieve, is Jesus Christ.
thematically (as opposed to historically, just negative Theology or Biblical
For the Catholic Church, salvation is not as inaHistorical deliverance from sin
(original sinaccording tosin) and its effects:latter saves us not just from
Theology - and actual some uses of the God term).
There are three overlapping uses of the term 'systematic theology' in
something, but for something. God’s action is a positive liberation that raises
contemporary to a supernatural status, to eternal life on a higher plane than
human beings theology.
• In evangelical circles, is used to with Christ, one of the three and
earthly life, to union in aitsingle bodyrefer to the topical collection Persons of
the Trinity, to the dignity of not only beingwhich abut actually being adopted
exploration of       content of the Bible, in called different perspective is
provided on the to seeing God "as he is" garnered simply by reading the
children of God,Bible's message than that(1 John 3:2) in communion of life
biblical narratives, poems, proverbs, and letters as a story of redemption or
and love with the Trinity and all the saints (Catechism of the Catholic
as a manual for how to live a godly life. One
Church, 1023-1025, 1243, 1265-1270, 2009).advantage of this approach is
These allows oneman could that the Bible says regarding some subject (e.g.
that it blessings to see all never merit. Indeed, in the strict sense, man can
the attributes of God), and one the creature has received everything,
never merit anything from God: danger is a tendency to assign technical
definitions to terms based on a few from the and then read that meaning
including abilities and potentialities,passagesCreator. The possibility of
everywhere the term is eyes of God derives entirely from a as Paul uses it
meriting anything in theused in the Bible (e.g. "justification" free gift or grace
of God. Salvation or justification can by no means be merited, buthis letter).
in his letter to the Romans is different from how James uses it in once God
• The term can we be then, through theology which self-avowedly and
has justified us,also canused to refer tothe influence of the Holy Spirit seeks
dup merit gracesclassical traditions of thematic exploration of theology
to perpetuate the useful for sanctification, for growth in grace and love and
for reaching the eternal life means of God destinesuponWe can merit of those
described above - often by for which commentary us. the classics even
tradition: Damascus, Aquinas, Calvin, Melanchthon and others.
material benefits, such as health and friendship (Catechism of the Catholic
Church, 2006-2011). main ecclesiastical theology, the term can be used to
• Normally (but not exclusively) in liberal meanings, described in Webster's
Catholicism has two
Dictionary as: (1) even in in orthodox Christian church, and reinterpret
Christians receive"the wholeSchleiermacher's footsteps,or adherence a
refer to attempts to follow this life, as it were in incipient or seed form,
pledge and a hope in order is to or faithfrom blessings of salvationor principles.
Christian and (2) "the what to derive it the a core setCatholic Church,are to
thereto"; theology of doctrines come, of the Roman of axioms that or
adherence thereto." 1
be given fully and definitively in the afterlife. Thus the Catholic Church sees
The term even for the derived from something for God, we can use
salvation, Catholicism, individual, as the Greek adjective καθολικός creation
• Topics often covered in systematic theology are:which revelation, both
and providence, Theological Anthropology, Theodicy, Christology,
past, presentmeaning "general" or "universal", is widely understood to refer
(katholikos), and future tenses:
soteriology, church,already the Bishop of Rome and the bishops in
to the Church, has sacraments, Pneumatology, Christian life, Heaven, and
• Our salvation governed by been achieved in principle and in hope, since
other religions.all him. However, other Churches that trace their historic
communion with on the cross and since we accepted Christ by faith and
Christ died for
Harmatology the apostolic succession — such as the Oriental Orthodox
episcopate to
baptism: "When the kindness of God our Saviour, and his love towards man,
appeared, not aEastern Orthodoxrighteousness, which context, and todaybut
Sin has been by works done in Churches, the Assyrian did ourselves, East,
Churches, the term most usually used in a religious we Church of the
the Churches lack Anglican Communion, of God; especially, any willful
according to his theof conformity us, through the washing of regeneration and
describes anyof mercy he saved to the will and the Old-Catholics — consider
disregard for the norms revealed by God is a out upon word is from the old
themselves to be branches of the he poured sin. The us richly, through
renewing of the Holy Spirit, which Catholic Church. Neo-Lutheranism argues
that Lutheran presumed that, being Protestant his grace, we might true").
Jesus Christ our Saviour;to be froma justified by reform movement that
English synn, Churches are simply Germanic *sun(d)jō (literally "it isbe
madeis recorded in greater Church of eternalcentury. The most common
[1] It heirs according toas early as the 9th life" (Titus 3:4-7).
remains within the use the hope catholic.
• The process ofis an infraction against God's work in those who accept the
formal definition salvation continues in religious or moral law. Colloquially,
Catholic Churches or the present tense in this regard: "To us to oneself or
Gospel. St Paul uses act certain essential distinctive beliefs and practices
any thought, word, share considered faulty, shameful, harmful who are being
saved, (the word of alienates self the power of and especially from God, can
to others, or which the cross)Lutherans differ in regardCorinthians 1:18). The
(though some Anglicans and is from others God" (1 to emphasis and
text in Greek has present-tense σῳζομένοις (beingaccording to guilt,
be called a sin. Through sin, guilt is incurred; and saved) in this passage,
particular pieties):
• Papal Infallibility (Only Compare Impiety and Crime.
punishment is deserved.the Roman Catholic Church) Atonement is a
not perfect-tense σεσῳσμένοις (having been saved) or past-tense (aorist-
tense) σῳθεῖσιν (saved);organizational descent from the original example is
concept and continuous ambiguous translations such as "usAn church
• Direct of justice and mercy, and "payment" for one's sins. which are
saved" (KJV) cover up this fact.16:18). found in early Judaism, for
found in traditions (see e.g. Mt
founded by Jesus of animal sacrifice (as
  Possession of the "threefold sins thought through the agency of reach
example). Atonement for one'sordained ministry" saving work in us a
• Only on completion of our earthly life will God’s of Bishops, Priests and its
final stage. There is no magicidea of many forms of experience that will
Messiah became the central formula or emotional Christian theology.
Christian literature is writing that deals Christian themes. This constitutes a
huge body of extremely varied writing.
Letters, theological treatises and other instructive and devotional works have
been produced by Christian authors since the times of Jesus. For early
Christian times almost all writing would be non-fiction, including letters,
biblical commentaries, doctrinal works and hagiography. See Patristics.
Since the invention of the printing press non-fictional literature has been used
for the dissemination of the Christian message, and also for disseminating
different viewpoints within Christianity. The tract (a small pamphlet containing
an explanation of some point, or an appeal to the reader) was in use at the
time of the Reformation and continues to be used as a part of
Christian art is art that spans many segments of Christianity. Per each
religious sect, art mediums, style, and representations change; however, the
unifying theme is ultimately the representation of the life and times of Jesus
Christ and in some cases the Old Testament.
Each Christian religious sect has its own rules defining what is an
appropriate way to represent the life and times of Jesus. Differences between
mediums and style can typically be attributed to various interpretations of
the Bible (the leading Christian religious text) and local cultural influences.
Traditional Christian art mediums include architecture (cathedral, church),
iconography (icon, painting, fresco, mosaic), sculpture (Byzantine ivory
statues, Catholic plague columns), wood carving, manuscript miniature, and
stained glass.
A work of Christian art, whatever the medium, usually portrays a specific
person or religious event. Each masterpiece usually presents symbolism
native to that religious sect. There is no unifying or defining "Christian"
symbol; for example, the Christian Cross does not look the same throughout
The word orthodoxy, from the Greek ortho ('right', 'correct') literature
Christian denominations, nor is the Bible the same work ofand doxa for each
sect. However, the following are general symbols thatto refer to the correct
('thought', 'teaching' , 'Glorification'), is typically used are replete throughout
most Christian works: observance of religion, as determined by some
theological or doctrinal
• Jesus : the central individual in Christianity : Images of Jesus
overseeing body. The term did not conventially exist with any degree of
• The Christian cross: represents the life,used) prior to the advent of of
formality (in the sense in which it is now death, and the resurrection
Jesus Christ as well as human salvation because of His sacrifice
Christianity in the Greek-speaking world, though the word does occasionally
• The Human condition
show up in ancient literature in other, somewhat similar contexts. Orthodoxy
o Sexuality to heterodoxy ('other teaching'), heresy and schism. People who
is opposed
deviate Agape
o Love :from orthodoxy by professing a doctrine considered to be false are
o Life often called heretics, while those who deviate from orthodoxy by
o Death themselves from the perceived body of believers, i.e. from full
communion, are much schismatics. Not by the term Fine occur together.
The Arts include called of what is coveredinfrequently these art (and some
would generalize to Art) and also includes the Liberal matter; if one is
The distinction in terminology pertains to the subject arts taught in medieval
universities corporate unity, the emphasis may be Architecture. one is
addressing of the Trivium and the Quadrivium and on schism; if
The term "Arts and Sciences" includes even more. be on heresy.
addressing doctrinal coherence, the emphasis may
A precise definition of the Arts can be contentious, but the following areas of
Derived from late classical and medieval Christian apologetics for orthodoxy,
activity are usually included: when defending a claim to orthodoxy or
more specifity is often applied
• Art / Visual arts
refuting heresy. Apostasy, for example is a violation of orthodoxy that takes
• Architecture
the form of abandonment of the faith, be it for some form of atheism or for
• Crafts
some other faith, a concept largely unknown before the adoption of
• Comics as the official religion of Rome. The first well-known apostate is
• Dance Julian, the last pagan emperor of Rome. A lighter deviation from
• Drama than heresy is commonly called error, in the sense of not being
• Interactive arts/Videogames
grave enough to cause total estrangement while yet seriously affecting
• Drawing Sometimes error is also used to cover both full heresies and
• Film errors.
The Pentecostal movement within Protestant Christianity places special
emphasis on the gifts of the Holy Spirit, as shown in the Biblical account of
the Day of Pentecost. Pentecostalism is similar to the Charismatic
Movement, but developed earlier and separated from the mainstream church.
Charismatic Christians, at least in the early days of the movement, tended to
remain in their respective denominations.
Pentecostals believe that you must be saved by believing in Jesus as Lord
and Saviour for the forgiveness of sins and to be made acceptable to God.
Pentecostals believe in water baptism as an outward sign of conversion, and
that the baptism in the Holy Spirit is a distinct spiritual experience that all
who have believed in Jesus should receive. Some Pentecostals believe that
the baptism in the Holy Spirit is always accompanied initially by the outward
evidence of speaking in tongues. This is a major difference between
Pentecostal and Charismatic Christians who believe that a Christian who is
baptized in the Holy Spirit may exhibit other physical signs instead of
Protestantism is one of three primary branches is not saved unless one
speaking in tongues. However, the idea that oneof Christianity. The term
"Protestant" represents a diverse range of theological and social
speaks in tongues is rejected by most major Pentecostal denominations.
Pentecostals also believe thatindividuals, and related authority in matters of
perspectives, denominations, the Bible has the final organizations. While no
particular belief or practice can be said to define this branch of Christianity,
those denominations considered to be well within the realm of Protestantism
Theologically, most Pentecostal denominations are aligned with
all have firm roots in the Protestant Reformation in Europe Bible the
Evangelicalism in that they emphasize the reliability of the duringand the
sixteenth century.
need for the transformation of an individual's life with faith in Jesus. Most
Protestants often adhere to the doctrine of Biblical inerrancy. Pentecostals
Pentecostals alsorefer to specific Protestant churches and groups as
denominations to imply that they are differently named parts of the spiritual
differ from Fundamentalists by placing more emphasis on personal whole
experience. "invisible unity" is assumed to be imperfectly displayed, visibly:
church. This
Pentecostals have a transrational worldview. Although Pentecostals are
some denominations are less accepting of others, and the basic orthodoxy
concerned with orthodoxy most of the others. Individual denominations also
of some is questioned by (correct belief), they are also concerned with
have formed over very subtle theological differences. Other or action).
orthopathy (right affections) and orthopraxy (right reflection denominations
are simply regional or ethnic expressions of the same beliefs. The actual
Reason is esteemed as a valid conduit of truth, but Pentecostals do not limit
truth to thedistinctof reason.
number of realm denominations is hard to calculate, but has been
Dr. Jackie to be over thirty his work on Pentecostal formational leadership,
estimated David Johns, in thousand. Various ecumenical movements have
attempted the Scriptures reorganization place in the analyzes interpretive
Comparative religion is a hold a special studies that churches, according
states thatcooperation or field of religiousof ProtestantPentecostal worldviewto
because the Holy union,is always active in the Bible. world's religions. This
various models of Spiritthemes and ideas among the For him, to encounter
differences of common but divisions continue to outpace unions. Most
denominations share common God. examination of myth, derivingChristian
field of study relies encounter beliefs in the major aspects of the essential
the Scriptures is to heavily upon the For the Pentecostal, the Scriptures are a
primary reference point for communion with God and a template for reading
faith, while differing in many secondary doctrines.
themes from religious metaphor, and tracing in various ways a possible
the world. to the World Christian Encyclopedia (2001) by David B. Barrett, et
direct cultural connection between them. It also makes comparisons
between the rituals and other aspects of characteristics of Pentecostalism
One of the most prominent distinguishingvariouscountries". Every year there
al, there are "over 33,000 denominations in 238 faiths besides just the
fromnet increase of around 270 to 300 denominations. Holy Spirit.
is a Evangelicalism is its emphasis on the work of the
Pentecostals believe that everyone who is genuinely saved has the Holy
Humanists, in particular, favour through them. comparative religion.
Spirit living families of denominations
Protestant in them and workingthe teaching of But unlike most other
Christians they believe that there is a second work of (tens of thousands of
Please note that only general families are listed here the Holy Spirit called
the baptism of the Holy Spirit which opens a believer up to a closer
individual denominations exist); some of these groups do not consider
fellowship with the Holy Spirit and empowers them for Christian service. as
themselves as part of the Protestant movement, but are generally viewed
Speaking in tongues, alsopublic at large:
such by scholars and the known as glossolalia, is the normative proof, but
dupthe only proof, of the baptism with the Holy Spirit. Most major
• Anabaptist
Pentecostal Episcopal also accept the corollary that those who don't speak
• Anglican / churches
• tongues
inBaptist have not received the blessing that they call "The Baptism of the
Holy Spirit".Reformed/Congregational and Presbyterianone of the few
• Calvinist / This claim is uniquely Pentecostal and is
consistent differences from Charismatic theology.
• Lutheran
Some ministers and members admit that a believer might be able to speak
• Methodist / Wesleyan and the Holiness movement
inPentecostal and Charismatic
• tongues, but for various personal reasons (such as a lack of
understanding) might not. This would be the only case where a believer
• Quakerism
would be filledmovement
• Restoration with the Holy Spirit, but not exhibit the so-called "initial
physical evidence" of speaking in tongues. This, however, would be a
• Non-denominational
minority perspective.
Pentecostals believe it is essential to repent for the remission of sins,
believe in Jesus as Savior and be baptized in order to obtain salvation. They
believe that the Baptism of the Holy Spirit is an additional gift that is



The word "ecumenism" (also oecumenism, œcumenism) (IPA: /
ɛkˈjuːmɛˌnɪzəm/) is derived from the Greek oikoumene, which means "the
inhabited world". In its broadest meaning ecumenism is the religious initiative
towards world-wide unity. A more limited goal of ecumenism is the promotion
of co-operation and improved understanding between distinct religious groups
or denominations within the same religion.
The word is used predominantly with reference to (and by) Christianity,
regarding movement toward unity (although not necessarily union), of
Christian denominations separated by doctrine, history and practice.
Christian ecumenism is the promotion of unity or cooperation between
distinct religious groups or denominations of the Christian religion, broadly
defined. Ecumenism in this sense is distinguished from interfaith pluralism.
Because Christianity is diverse, so is the definition of Christian ecumenism.
The interfaith movement strives for greater mutual respect, toleration, and co-
operation among the world religions. Ecumenism in this sense is called
religious pluralism, as distinguished from ecumenism within a faith
Ecumenism as interfaith dialogue between representatives of diverse faiths,
does not necessarily intend reconciling their adherents into full, organic unity
with one another but simply to promote better relations. It promotes
toleration, mutual respect and cooperation, whether among Christian
denominations, or between Christianity and other faiths.
Alternatively, ecumenism can have the goal of reconciling all who profess
Christian faith into a single, visible organization, for example, through union
with the Roman Catholic Church, or the Orthodox Church. Ecumenism in
this sense focuses on the special problem of the relationship between
Christian denominations, where Christianity is dogmatically defined. The
World Council of Churches is an instrument in both the unifying ecumenical
movement and the interfaith movement.
For a significant part of the Christian world, the highest aim of the Christian
An ethnic group is a human population whose members identify with each
other, usually on the basis of a presumed common genealogy or ancestry
(Smith 1986). Ethnic groups are also usually united by common cultural,
behavioural, linguistic, or religious practices. In this sense, an ethnic group
is also a cultural community.
From an objective standpoint, an ethnic group is also an endogamous
population, that is, members of an ethnic group procreate primarily with other
members of their ethnic group, something which is measureable in terms of
characteristic average genetic frequencies. These differences, however, may
not approach the magnitude of racial difference in that the genetic differences
within an ethnic group are greater than the difference between any two ethnic
groups. The characteristic of endogamy is reinforced by proximity, cultural
familiarity, and also social pressure (in extreme cases, by legal command)
to procreate within the ethnic group.
In general, two types of ethnic groups have arisen in human history. The
earliest form is the kinship-based ethnic group most closely corresponding
to the term "tribe". As human populations became more mobile, another
type of ethnic group arose, most closely associated with the evolution of the
state ("country"), as the opportunity to procreate outside the old kinship
systems presented itself. Invasion, migration, and pan-ethnic religions have
contributed to a further evolution of new ethnic groups out of the mixture of
older ethnic groups. At the same time, ethnic distinction can persist, even
within the bounds of a single country as long as members of an ethnic group
procreate primarily among themselves, for various reasons.
Members of an ethnic group generally claim a strong cultural continuity over
time, although historians and anthropologists have documented that many of
the cultural practices on which ethnic groups are based are of recent
invention (Friedlander 1975, Hobsbawm and Ranger 1983, Sider 1993). On
the political front, an ethnic group is distinguished from a nation-state by the
former's lack of sovereignty.
While ethnicity and race are related concepts (Abizadeh 2001), the concept
of ethnicity is rooted in the idea of social groups, marked especially by
shared nationality, tribal affiliation, religious faith, shared language, or
The History traditional refers and backgrounds, whereas race a Nineteenth
cultural and of religionsorigins to the Religiongeschichteschule, is rooted in
the idea German schoolclassification of Homo sapiens to systematically
century of a biological of thought which was the first according to chosen
genotypic and/or a socio-cultural phenomenon.
study religion as phenotypic traits.
The nineteenth century a person (for example, a tribal chief), a culture (i.e.
"Tribal" can describe to saw a dramatic increase in knowledge about other
cultures and culture) and also the establishment of economic and social
the Cherokeereligions, or a society (for example, the Inuit tribal government)
histories of or relating to, tribes or clans. Tribalist as sought to emphasizes
based uponprogress. The "history of religions" school an attitudeaccount for
ethnic identity or prideby a cultural sense, as opposedandfolkish ideologies
this religious diversity in connecting it with the social to economic
situation of a particular group.
focused on race.
Typically culture, are divided to a type of design or image that is loosely
In popularreligions tribal refers into stages of progression from more simple to
influenced by artwork of indigenous peoples. Often "a to monotheistic and to
more complex societies, especially from polytheistic tribal" has reference
from extempore to organised.
a tattoo.
Thus, the also refer to is the tribal a subgenre religion music and and
Tribal can starting pointtribal house, band whose of houseis animistic to
American Tribal Style Belly Dance. the group is tribal, there is no
involves shamans and totems. Since
permanent sanctuary. Cultic rites centre on identification with wild animals
Retrieved from "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tribal"
The word culture, from often of the hunted. with its root meaning "to
and appeasing spirits, the Latin colo, -ere,
As society developed into Chiefdoms of human kingdoms, the symbolic
cultivate", generally refers to patterns and small activity andreligious rites
began to serve different functions. Agriculture Different definitions of so
structures that give such activity significance. became important and"culture"
reflect different theoretical bases forfemale, as it is the criteria for evaluating,
fertility gods were introduced (often understanding, or woman who has the
power activity. Anthropologists most commonly use chief) was supported
humanto produce life). The status of the "Big man" (orthe term "culture" to
with to the tales of human capacity to classify, he may be descended
refer mythicuniversalheroes and demigods, whomcodify and communicate
their experiences symbolically. This capacity is taken as a defining feature
When these Homo, though Jane Goodall larger groups (often through
of the genus small kingdoms merged into (The Chimpanzees of Gombe:
conquest), Behavior, 1986) identified aspects of of one among our closest
Patterns of different cults merged. The conquest culturegroup by another is
relatives. recorded in an epic tale of the conquest of the conquered group's
god by as victor's (e.g. some artifacts
Culture the values, norms, and Hinduism and the Babylonian Marduk).
Christmas (literally, the Mass of Christ), also known as Noël, is a traditional
holiday celebrating the birth of Jesus with both religious and secular
aspects, commonly observed on 25 December. In most Eastern Orthodox
Churches, even where the civil calendar used is the Gregorian, the event is
observed according to the Julian calendar, which coincides with the
predominant reckoning of 7 January. Celebrated mostly by Christians, the
holiday is based on the traditional —though not accurate— birth of Jesus, as
25 December 1 BC. Recent data has concluded that Jesus was likely born
earlier, circa 8 BC – 2 BC. Christ's birth, or nativity, was said by his followers
to fulfill the prophecies of Judaism that a messiah would come, from the
house of David, to redeem the world from sin. Efforts to decide upon a date
on which to celebrate his birth began some centuries later.
The word Christmas is a contraction of Christ's Mass, derived from the Old
English Cristes mæsse. It is often abbreviated Xmas, probably because X
resembles the Greek letter Χ (chi) which has often historically been used as
an abbreviation for Christ (Χριστός in Greek).
Christmas has acquired many secular aspects, which are sometimes
celebrated as often—or more—than the birth of Jesus. Many Christmas
traditions originated with pre-Christian observances that were syncretised
into Christianity. Examples of this process are the northern European Yule,
Christian holidays
and the Winter Solstice celebration found in many older as well as recent
See also: liturgical year
pagan celebrations.
All Saints' countries, Christmas has become the most economically
In WesternDay
All Souls' holiday of the year. It is largely characterized by gifts being
exchanged Day (Ascension and family members, and the appearance of
Ascension between friends of Jesus into Heaven)
Santa Claus. Various local and regional Christmas traditions are still
Ash Wednesday
practised, despite the widespread of the Virgin American and British
Assumption of Mary (Assumption influence of Mary)
Christmas motifs disseminated by globalization, popular literature, television,
and other media.
The religious celebrations begin with Advent, the anticipation of Christ's birth,
Christmas (Birth of Jesus)
around the start of December. (In most western churches, Advent starts the
Corpus Christi
4th Sunday before Christmas Day, and thus can last for 21 to 28 days.)
(Sacrifice of Jesus)
These observations may include Advent carols and Advent calendars,
Easter (Resurrection of Jesus)
sometimes containing sweets and chocolate for children. Christmas Eve and
Easter Triduum
Christmas Day services may include a midnight mass or a Mass of the
Easter Vigil
Nativity, and feature of Jesus) carols and hymns.
Good Friday (Death Christmas
Advent (from the Latin Adventus, sc. Redemptoris, "the coming of the
Holy Saturday
Saviour") is a holy season of the Christian church, the period of preparation
Holy Thursday (Celebration of The Last Supper)
for the celebration of the Nativity of Christ, or Christmas. It is the beginning of
the Christian year (except in the Eastern churches, whose year begins on
Septemberor Whitsun (Descent of the Holy Spirit upon the disciples of
Pentecost 1).
In Eastern Orthodox churches — where it is also called the Nativity Fast,
Winter Lent, or the Mardi GrasLent — it lasts forty days, beginning on
Shrove Tuesday or Christmas (last day of Carnival)
November 15 (for those churches using the Julian calendar this is equivalent
Winter Lent
to November 28), and in other churches from the Sunday nearest to St.
Watch Night
Andrew's Day (30th of November) until Christmas. It is place's patron saint's
The Catholic fiestas patronales are celebrated in each uncertain at what date
the season beganthebe observed.saints. of a council at Saragossa in 380,
day, according to to Calendar of A canon
forbidding the faithful to be absent from church during the three weeks from
the 17th of December to the Epiphany, is thought to be an early reference to
Advent. The first authoritative mention of it is in the Synod of Lerida (524),
and since the 6th century, it has been recognized as the beginning of the
Western ecclesiastical year.
In Western Christianity, Advent begins on the fourth Sunday before
Christmas. The earliest Advent can begin is November 27 and the latest is
December 3. Very often Advent begins on the Sunday after the American
Thanksgiving. Technically speaking, Advent ends on December 23. However,
if December 24, Christmas Eve, should fall on a Sunday (as in 2006), the
Sunday obligation for Catholics to attend Mass still applies, and it is treated
Easter is the most important religious holiday of the Christian liturgical year,
observed in March, April, or May to celebrate the resurrection of Jesus,
which Christians believe occurred after his death by crucifixion in AD 27-33
(see Good Friday). Easter can also refer to the season of the church year,
lasting for fifty days, which follows this holiday and ends at Pentecost.
Western Christianity
The Easter festival is kept in many different ways among Western
Christians. The traditional, liturgical observation of Easter, as practised
among Roman Catholics and some Lutherans and Anglicans begins on the
night of Holy Saturday with the Easter Vigil. This, the most important liturgy
of the year, begins in total darkness with the blessing of the Easter fire, the
lighting of the large Paschal candle (symbolic of the Risen Christ) and the
chanting of the Exsultet or Easter Proclamation attributed to Saint Ambrose
of Milan. After this service of light, a number of readings from the Old
Testament are read; these tell the stories of creation, the sacrifice of Isaac,
the crossing of the Red Sea, and the foretold coming of the Messiah. This
part of the service climaxes with the singing of the Alleluia and the
proclamation of the gospel of the resurrection. A sermon may be preached
after the gospel. Then the focus moves from the lectern to the font.
Anciently, Easter was considered the most perfect time to receive baptism,
and this practice is alive in Roman Catholicism, as it is the time when new
members are initiated into the Church, and it is being revived in some other
circles. Whether there are baptisms at this point or not, it is traditional for
the congregation to renew the vows of their baptismal faith. This act is often
sealed by the sprinkling of the congregation with holy water from the font.
The Catholic sacrament of Confirmation is also celebrated at the Vigil. The
Easter Vigil of religion is the the celebrationof the meaning and justification of
Philosophy concludes with rational study of the Eucharist and Holy
Communion. religious claims, particularlyusuallythe nature and existence of
fundamental Additional celebrations are about offered on Easter Sunday
itself. Some churches prefer to keep this vigil very early on the Sunday
God (or gods, or the divine).
morning instead of theas a part of metaphysics the gospel account of the
Philosophy of religion Saturday night to reflect
women coming to the has classically been regardedof thepart of Some
Philosophy of religion tomb at dawn on the first day as a week.
metaphysics. the Old Testament lessons before the procession of as
churches readIn Aristotle's, Metaphysics, he described first causesthe one
Paschal candle, and then read the gospel immediately after the Exsultet.
of the subjects of his investigation. For Aristotle, God was the first cause:
In predominantly Roman Catholic Philippines, thenatural theology by (known
the unmoved mover. This later came to be called morning of Easter
rationalist philosophers as "Pasko ng 18th centuries. Today, the Pasch of
in the national languageof the 17th andMuling Pagkabuhay" or philosophers
the Resurrection) term 'philosophy of religion' for the subject, being the dawn
have adopted the is marked with joyous celebration, the first and typically it
"Salubong",as a separate field of specialization, Mary are brought still treated
is regarded wherein large statues of Jesus and though it is also together to
by some, particularly Catholic philosophers, as a mother Mary after Jesus'
meet, imagining the first reunion of Jesus and his part of metaphysics.
Resurrection. Thiswhy considerationsjoyous divine have been regarded as
It should be clear is followed by the of the Easter Mass.
metaphysical. God is usually conceived to be in a distinct category of being;
a being Christianity
Eastern different from those of the rest of the universe. For example, God in
Eastertraditions is conceived as not having a body. Metaphysics, andand
some is the fundamental and most important festival of the Eastern in
Oriental Orthodox. Every other religious festival on their calendars, including
particular ontology, is concerned with the most basic categories of
existence, is at things that cannot be explained the reference of the
Christmas, thosebest secondary in importance to withcelebrationto any other
Resurrection of theThus one might argue that the very notion of God (or gods,
type of existence. Lord. This is reflected in the cultures of countries that are
traditionally Orthodox Christian majority. Easter-connected social customsis
or the divine) cannot be reduced to human concepts of mind or body; God
a sui generis rich.
are native andentity.Christmas customs, on the other hand, are usually
foreign imports, either from Germany or concernedEastern Rite Catholics in
However, the philosophy of religion has the USA. itself with more than just
communion with the Pope of Rome have similar long involved their calendars,
metaphysical questions. In fact the subject has emphasis in important
questions of their such as epistemology, philosophy
and many in areasliturgical customs are very similar. of language,
This is not to say that Christmas and other elements of the Christian
philosophical logic, and moral philosophy.
liturgical calendar in philosophyInstead, these events are all seen as
Questions asked are ignored. of religion
One might think that philosophy full climax of the Resurrection, in the
necessary but preliminary to the of religion would be an inquiry intowhich all
that has come religions (as Philosophy X is typically Pascha (Easter) is the
foundations of before reaches fulfilment and fruition. an inquiry into the
primary act that fulfils the purpose of Christ's ministry on earth—to an inquiry
foundations of X). However, philosophy of religion is predominantly defeat
into the nature and to and religious belief (not religions per se). Thus, two of
death by dying of God purify and exalt humanity by voluntarily assuming and
overcoming human frailty. field are:
the main questions in the This is succinctly summarized by the Paschal
Troparion, sung repeatedly during Pascha until the Apodosis of Pascha
1. What is God?
The relationship between science and religion takes many forms. Generally
speaking, religion and science use different methods in their effort to
ascertain truth. The scientific method relies on an objective approach to
measure, calculate and describe the natural/physical/material universe.
Religious methods are typically more subjective (or intersubjective in
community), relying on varying notions of authority, through any combination
of: revelation, intuition, belief in the supernatural, individual experience, or a
combination of these to understand the universe. Science attempts to
answer the "how" and "what" questions of observable and verifiable
phenomena; religion attempts to answer the "why" questions of value and
morals. However, some science also attempts to explain such "why"
questions, and some religious authority also extends to "how" and "what"
questions regarding the natural world, creating the potential for conflict.
Historically, science has had a close and complex relationship with religion;
religious doctrines and motivations have often been central to scientific
development, while scientific knowledge has had profound effects on
religious beliefs. A common modern view, described by Stephen Jay Gould
Religious interpretations of politics
as "non-overlapping magisteria" (NOMA), is that science and religion deal
• How theologians separate aspects of domain, and how they so, when
with fundamentally interpret the political human experience andsuggest that
people should act its own domain, they co-exist peacefully.[1] Another view
each stays within within that domain (for example "Render unto Caesar what
is Caesar's and unto God what is God's). This can include withdrawing from
known as the conflict thesis—popularized in the 19th century by John
the world, quietism and political activity per se (for example moves toby
William Draper and Andrew Dickson White, but now largely rejected impose
historians of science—holds thattheology and religion inevitably compete for
Sharia Law), see also Liberation science
Believers in the political of reality,
authority over the nature domain so that religion has been gradually losing
• war with science as scientific explanations become more powerful and
a The activity of believers in politics can be varied - see Christian Right,
Christian Socialism, and a number of views adequately accounts for the
widespread. However, neither of thesefaith based parties. Some political
activity can be directed towards causes rather than party politics - for
variety of interactions between science and religion (both historically and
example the Anti-slavery movement.
today), ranging from antagonism to separation to close collaboration.[2]
Political perceptions of towards
The attitudes of religion religions science
• The interaction of various religions within the political domain, including
sectarianism. In many states the church and the state are formally separate,
Science, and particularly geometry and astronomy, was linked directly to the
divine for most medieval scholars. particular faith is given particular
in theory or in practice, even if oneThe compass in this 13th centurysupport.
manuscript is a symbol of creation.
Hinduism, Buddhism, Confucianism, Taoism, Judaism and Christianity all
developed many centuries before the existence of the scientific method,
followed by Islam about a thousand years prior to the modern era; their
classical works show an appreciation of the natural world, but express little
or no interest in any systematic investigation of it for its own sake.
Nevertheless, historians of science owe a debt to practitioners of religion,
who in many occasions collected and preserved early scientific texts. Islam,
for example, collected scientific texts originating from China to Africa, and
from Iberia to India.
Proponents of Hinduism claim that Hinduism is not afraid of scientific
explorations, nor of the technological progress of mankind. According to
them, there is a comprehensive scope and opportunity for Hinduism to mold
itself according to the demands and aspirations of the modern world; it has
the ability to align itself with both science and spiritualism. This religion uses
some modern examples to explain its ancient theories and reinforce its own
beliefs. For example, some Hindu thinkers have used the terminology of
quantum physics to explain some basic concepts of Hinduism such as the
Maya or the illusory and impermanent nature of our existence.
In the Medieval era some leading thinkers in Judaism, Christianity and Islam,
undertook a project of synthesis between religion, philosophy, and natural
sciences. For example, the Jewish philosopher Maimonides, like the
Christian philosopher Augustine of Hippo, held that if religious teachings
were found to contradict certain direct observations about the natural world,
then it would be obligatory to reinterpret religious texts to match the known
facts. The best knowledge of the cosmos was seen as an important part of
Orthodox and Catholic believers describe Christian worship in terms of the
seven sacraments or "mysteries." These include baptism, the Eucharist
(communion), matrimony, Holy Orders, confirmation or Chrismation,
penance and reconciliation, and the Anointing of the Sick.
Many Protestant groups, following Martin Luther, recognize the sacramental
nature of baptism and communion, but not usually the other five in the same
way. Anabaptist and Brethren groups would add feet washing. Pentecostal,
Charismatic, and Holiness Churches emphasize "gifts of the Spirit" such as
spiritual healing, prophecy, exorcism, and speaking in tongues. These
emphases are used not as "sacraments" but as means of worship and
ministry. The Quakers deny the entire concept of sacraments. Nevertheless,
their "testimonies" affirming peace, integrity, equality, and simplicity are
affirmed as integral parts of the Quaker belief structure.
In general, Protestants tend to view Christian rituals in terms of
commemoration apart from mystery. Orthodox, Roman Catholic, Old-
Catholic and many Anglican and Lutheran Christians hold the
commemoration and mystery of rituals together, seeing no contradiction
between them.
Virtually all Christian traditions affirm that Christian practice should include
acts of personal piety such as prayer, Bible reading, and attempting to live a
moral lifestyle. This lifestyle includes not only obedience to the Ten
Commandments, as interpreted by Christ (as in the Sermon on the Mount),
but also love for one's neighbor in both attitude and action — whether friend
or enemy, Christian or non-Christian. This love is commanded by Christ and,
according to him, is next only in importance to love toward God; which
includes obedience to such injunctions as "feed the hungry" and "shelter the
homeless", both informally and formally. Christianity teaches that it is
impossible for people to completely reform themselves, but that moral and
spiritual progress can only occur with God's help through the gift of the Holy
Spirit, who dwells within all faithful believers. Christians believe that by
sharing in Christ's life, death, and resurrection, they die with Him to sin and
can be resurrected with Him to new life.
Weekly worship services
Justin Martyr (First Apology, chapter LXVII) describes a second-century
church service thus:
And on the day called Sunday, all who live in cities or in the country gather
together to one place, and the memoirs of the apostles or the writings of the
prophets are read, as long as time permits; then, when the reader has
ceased, the president verbally instructs, and exhorts to the imitation of these
good things. Then we all rise together and pray, and, as we before said,
when our prayer is ended, bread and wine and water are brought, and the
president in like manner offers prayers and thanksgivings, according to his
ability, and the people assent, saying Amen; and there is a distribution to
each, and a participation of that over which thanks have been given, and to
those who are absent a portion is sent by the deacons. And they who are
well to do, and willing, give what each thinks fit; and what is collected is
deposited with the president, who succours the orphans and widows and
those who, through sickness or any other cause, are in want, and those who
are in bonds and the strangers sojourning among us, and in a word takes
care of all who are in need.
Justin's description, which applies to some extent to most church services
today, alludes to the following components:
• Scripture readings drawn from the Old Testament, one of the Gospels, or
an Epistle. Often these are arranged systematically around an annual cycle,
using a book called a lectionary.
• A sermon. In ancient times this followed the scripture readings; today this
may occur later in the service, although in liturgical churches, the sermon
still often follows the readings.
CPA only.

CPA only.
des author and context information and is arranged in the order of the Bible books. A handbook can also be called a companion.
man expression. It is most often a written or oral fragment and in such cases it is also called a quote. A typical, and perhaps ideal, quo
t, or simply to express one's thoughts and emotions. Books on the theory and practice of prayer prayers are included here. Books
control and immediate social environment. They usually concern more then a single individual and affect many individuals in a society. S
also be called a companion.
e. A typical, and perhaps ideal, quotation is usually short, concise and commonly only one sentence long. There are two broad categori
prayers are included here. Books of prayers will be found in REL052010 RELIGION / Prayerbooks / Christian.
ect many individuals in a society. Social issues, as contrasted with personal troubles of a given individual, can be explained in terms of
e long. There are two broad categories which most quotations fall into, beauty and truth, although some quotations fit equally well into bo
books / Christian.
vidual, can be explained in terms of individual shortcomings related to motivation, attitude, ability, character, or judgment.
me quotations fit equally well into both these groups. 'Beautiful' quotations are words remembered for their aesthetically pleasing use of
aracter, or judgment.
their aesthetically pleasing use of language, whereas many other quotations are remembered because they are thought to express som
use they are thought to express some universal truth. These latter quotations are often called maxims or aphorisms and they are highly
s or aphorisms and they are highly regarded for being pithy renderings of ideas that most people have but most have not been able to ex
e but most have not been able to express so clearly. A third type of quotation may be any line which merely reminds the person who qu
h merely reminds the person who quotes it of a particularly memorable work, sometimes making a subtle comparison to the situation or
ubtle comparison to the situation or topic at hand.

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