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					         Lead Prevention
         Measures in the
              Home

Lois J. Shapiro-Canter, J.D.
President and CEO, Saratoga
Foundation for Women WorldWide,
Inc.
April 10, 2006
INTRODUCTION
n   Lead in food and drink lowest in
    history
n   90% lower than 12 years ago
n   Due to U.S. food industry’s
    voluntary elimination of lead
    solder to seal seams of food cans
    and removal of lead from
    gasoline
n   Thousands of children and adults
    accidentally poisoned by lead
n   Tragedy is that all lead poisoning
    is preventable
HOME-BASED LEAD
EXPOSURE
n   Prior to 1950, lead-based
    paint used on inside/outside
    of homes
n   1977 federal regulations
    eliminated lead from paint
    for general use
n   Still buildings with lead paint
n   Old paint flakes off/lead dust
    on babies’ hands/toys
n   Lead paint banned in NYS
    since 1978
n   Most older homes have some
    old layers of lead paint
n   Lead paint on sliding parts of
    windows ground into dust
    when opened/closed
n   Any lead-painted surface that
    gets worn away (door edges,
    jambs, cabinet door edges)
    source of lead house dust
ROUTES OF EXPOSURE:
n Babies/toddlers put

  toys/hands in mouth
n Inhalation of dust raised by

  dry sweeping/dusting
n Ingestion of dust settled on

  food left uncovered
n Chewing on painted

  windowsills/doors/chairs,
  rails, etc.
LEAD PIPES
n Lead leaches from plumbing

  pipes/fixtures that contain
  lead
n Longer lead stands in contact

  with lead-contaminating
  plumbing materials, higher
  lead level in water
n Water standing in pipes

  overnight most contaminated
n   Flush 1-2 minutes/use only
    cold water
n   Never use hot water/hot
    dissolves much more lead
    out of plumbing materials
    than cold water, even after
    pipes flushed
n   Leaching rates accelerate
    when water is acidic or hot
n   Lead in water cannot be seen,
    tasted, smelled
n   Boiling water will not get rid of
    lead
n   Sources of lead contamination
    include brass fixtures, older
    drinking water coolers, older
    coffee urns
n   Yale-90% of lead blood levels in
    children linked to sources other
    than drinking water
HOW DO WE CLEAN UP LEAD
  FROM OUR HOME?
n Remove all personal

  belongings:furniture, drapes,
  carpets, cooking/eating
  utensils
n Cover floors, counters,

  cabinets/radiators with
  plastic
n   Close off work area with 6
    mil plastic sheeting to protect
    heating/ventilation systems
n   Provide workers with
    protective equipment,
    overalls, shoe/hair coverings,
    gloves, goggles/respirators
n   Keep residents, especially
    children/pregnant women
    out of the home
n   Before repainting, clean the
    area thoroughly by
    vacuuming with high
    efficiency air filter (HEPA
    filter), followed by a
    thorough wet-washing
    followed by a repeat HEPA
    filter vacuuming
n   Follow EPA guidelines on
    lead paint repairs
RENTAL HOMES
n Ask your landlord whether

  paint has been tested
n Ask to see results or have it

  tested yourself
FOOD
n FDA estimates 20% of all

  dietary lead comes from
  canned food (2/3 from lead
  solder in cans)
n Acidic foods leach lead from

  solder in the can seams
n Number of food cans lead

  soldered has declined, does
  not apply to imported foods
n   Contaminated flour and food
    coloring from Middle East
n   Candy packaged in jars from
    South America
CANDY
n Mexican candies-chili

  powder/tamarind
n Lead gets in candy during

  drying, storing, grinding
  ingredients improperly
n Lead in candy wrappers-ink

  contains lead which leaches
  into candy
FOOD BAGS
n Bright red and yellow paint

  on bread bags
OTHER SOURCES
n Colored bread bags may contain
  lead pigments which leach into
  food when turned inside out
n Natural calcium supplements
  derived from animal bone may
  contain lead if animal exposed
n Waterfowl may ingest leaded
  shot, consumed by unsuspecting
  hunters/families
n   Wine and homemade alcohol
    distilled/stored in leaded
    containers
n   Smoking cigarettes/breathing
    second hand smoke
    increases exposure since
    tobacco smoke contains lead
CERAMIC TABLEWARE
n Lead used in glazes for

  ceramic dishware
n If not fired to a high enough

  temp for a long time, lead
  released from glaze into food
n Acidic foods: tomato juice,

  fruit juice, coffee, wine,
  vinegar in poorly fired
  ceramics can leach lead
n   FDA toxicologists agree
    pregnant women should not
    drink these beverages from
    lead-glazed ceramic cups
n   Responsible manufacturers
    of ceramic ware take all
    precautions, however, even
    with properly glazed pieces,
    low amounts of lead may
    migrate into food
n   FDA scientists found 80% of
    adult exposure to lead from
    food in ceramics comes from
    frequent use of mugs/hot
    beverages
n   Dishwashing lead glazed
    pottery, especially imported
    could result in
    chipping/wearing off
    protective glaze and expose
    people to lead-containing
    pigments
USE EXTREME CAUTION
  WHEN PURCHASING
  IMPORTED CERAMICS:
n Japan/UK have good quality
  procedures similar to U.S.
n FDA recommends ceramics
  purchased in Mexico, China,
  Hong Kong, India be tested
  for lead release by
  commercial laboratory/use
  for decorative purpose
PRECAUTIONS:
n Never store food in pewter,

  lead crystal or glazed pottery
  containers
n Never store acidic foods in

  glazed pottery (tomato juice,
  fruit juice, wine, coffee)
n Dishes/pottery made in U.S.

  since 1971 generally safe
n   Lead-free glaze should be used
    on ceramics
n   Antiques, collectibles, pieces
    made by amateurs for gifts or
    craft fairs may contain lead that
    could leach into food
n   To obtain test kits for ceramic
    ware contact FDA office listed in
    blue pages phone book
JEWELRY HISTORY
n 1994 Consumer Product Safety
  Commission (CPSC) recalled lead-
  tainted jewelry from vending
  machines nationwide
n CPSC recalled 2.8 million pieces
  of children’s jewelry March 3,
  2005 sold under name “Charming
  Thoughts” nationwide in
  Michael’s Arts & Crafts Stores and
  Hancock Stores
n   Metal charms sold as
    decorations for greeting
    cards, scrapbooks/gifts
    attached to
    bracelets/necklaces
n   Michaels-over 800
    stores/largest specialty
    retailer arts/crafts materials
CENTER FOR
  ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH
  (www.cehca.org)
n Tested hundreds of pieces of
  costume jewelry
n Found Disneyland had 275
  times legal limit lead in paint
  (labeled lead-free)
n 2004 CEH filed lawsuits
  under California’s Proposition
  65
n   Proposition 65 (CA) allows
    citizen enforcement when
    companies fail to warn
    consumers their products
    expose people to illegal
    levels of toxic chemicals
n   Under Prop 65, CEH sued
    Jordache, Macy’s, J.C. Penny,
    Kmart, Nordstroms, Sears,
    Target, Walmart and others
    for selling lead-contaminated
    jewelry
n Most of the jewelry is
  imported costume jewelry
  marketed to children/women
  of child-bearing age
Jewelry found with high levels
  of lead include:
1- necklaces made with plastic
  cords;
2- metal jewelry made with tin
3-Poly vinyl chloride (PVC) plastic in
  the cords leaches lead and low
  grade tin in pendants/clasps is
  lead-contaminated
4- Brand Names include: Orion
  (Burlington); Claire’s Forever 21,
  Worthington (J.C. Penny),
  Juststyle (Kmart), Lane Bryant,
  Nairi (Nordstrom), Eitienne V
  (Nordstrom), Aprostrophe
  (Sears), Mainframe (Sears) and
  Zhiliration (Target)
n   According to CEH, CPSC does
    not take a proactive
    approach to jewelry/awaits
    until child is harmed by lead
    exposure AND fails to
    establish requirements for
    the industry to test children’s
    jewelry
n   Parents must be proactive
    and buy only lead-free
    jewelry and/or have it tested
PROACTIVE MEASURES:
n Examine all jewelry for
  children/young adults
n Ask retailer if lead-free

n Buy lead free or have it tested if
  in doubt (home lead test kit
  www.leadcheck.com)
n Avoid jewelry with plastic cords,
  dull metallic components or fake
  white pearls-often test lead-
  positive
n If not sure, don’t buy it!!
TOYS
n Lead toy soldiers

n Old painted toys/furniture

n Soft vinyl lunch boxes contain
  dangerous amounts of lead (Toys
  “R” Us, Warners Brothers, DC
  Comics, Time Warner, Walgreens
  (Superman, Tweety Bird,
  Powerpuff Girls, Hamtaro)
n www.cecha.org/lunchboxes.htm

n See list recalled items
MEDICINAL/PERSONAL CARE
  PRODUCTS
Do not use these Cosmetics:
n Traditional Kohl (surma,

  kajal) eye cosmetic-Middle
  Eastern, Asian and North
  African societies
n Khojati -- India

n Unlabelled kohl –Morocco

n Hashmi Kohl Aswad-Pakistan
SKIN DEEP PRODUCTS WITH
  LEAD ACETATE
n Grecian Formula 16 Liquid

  with Conditioner (Hair
  coloring and bleach)
n Inman Oil Free Cleanser

  (facial cleanser)
n EBL GreyBan Restores

  Natural Hair Color (hair color
  and cleaning)
FOREIGN DIGESTIVE
  REMEDIES
n Unapproved foreign digestive

  remedies containing lead
  include: Alarcon, Azarcon,
  Coral, Greta, Liga, Maria
  Luisa, Rueda
n Greta is 99% lead oxide
BABY POWDERS/CREAMS
n CEH filed lawsuits in 1999 against
  large manufacturers of baby
  powders/creams high in lead
n Defendants-Block Drug, Bristol-
  Meyers Squibb Co., Clairol, Inc.,
  Chattem, Inc., Diamond Products
  Co., Insight Pharmaceuticals
  Corp, Johnson & Johnson,
  Personal Care Products, Pfizer,
  Playtex, Schering-Plough
  Healthcare Products, Warner-
  Lambert
CEH CASE SETTLED IN 2003:
1- Countered assertions by
  manufacturers lead not absorbed
  by the skin
2- Forced companies to implement
  health-protective standards/
  drastically reduce dangerous lead
  exposures for children
3- Reduction of zinc oxide allowed
  in product to no more than 10%
  by weight/reduction for lead in
  zinc oxide to no more than 10
  ppm
ELECTRONIC PRODUCTS
n Lead estimated to be in
  90% of electronic
  components produced
  worldwide, primarily in form
  of solder
n China is considering banning
  lead in consumer products
n Many Japanese companies
  have voluntarily eliminated
  lead from their products
UNUSUAL SOURCES OF LEAD
  EXPOSURE:
n Folk medicines

n Calcium supplements from

  bonemeal
n Contaminated flour and food

  coloring from Middle East
n Candy packaged in jars from

  South America
n    Pottery/cookware from
    around the world
n    Lead-based artist paints
n    Lead crystal baby bottles
n    Fishing weights
n    Stained glass
n    Candles with leaded wicks
n    Vinyl mini and vertical blinds
n    Car keys
n    Bullets
n    Curtain weights
n    Imported crayons
n    Pewter
n    Buttons
n   Products built pre-1978:
    toys, playground equipment,
    furniture
INDUSTRIAL SOURCES:
n Smelters

n Battery production/recycling

n Some paint pigment

  production facilities
n Solid waste sites

n Small garages work with old

  car batteries
n Municipal incinerators
n   Lead is also present in
    incinerator ash
n   Municipal waste-to-energy
    incinerators and hazardous
    waste incinerators release
    lead into atmosphere (occurs
    when air pollution control
    devices not
    maintained/operated
    improperly)
n   Community exposed to these
    emissions through ingestion
    or inhalation of lead-
    contaminated dust, soil, air
n   Abandoned industrial sites
    (old mines or lead smelters)
    and hazardous waste sites
    (Superfund sites) continue to
    pose a potential health
    hazard
OCCUPATIONAL LEAD EXPOSURES
n Workers in up to 100 industries,
  and indirectly their families, may
  have occupational exposure to
  lead
n Auto Repairers, Battery
  Manufacturers, Battery Recyclers,
  Bridge Construction/Maintenance
  Workers, Construction Workers,
  Firing Range Instructors, Gas
  Station Attendants, Glass
  Manufacturers, Lead Mining,
Manufacturing Industry,
 Municipal waste Incineration
 Workers, People who work
 with Lead Solder, Plastic
 Manufacturers, Plumbers,
 Pipe Fitters, Police Officers,
 Pottery/Ceramic Industry
 Employees, Printers, Radiator
 Repair Mechanics, Rubber
 Product Manufacturers, Ship
 Builders, Smelting, Steel
 Welders/Cutters
Major Exposure Pathway:
n Inhalation and ingestion of

  lead-bearing dust and fumes
n Occupational exposures

  result in secondary
  exposures for workers’
  families- workers bring home
  lead-contaminated dust on
  skin, clothes, shoes
n   Prevent secondary exposures
    by showering/changing
    clothing before coming home
n   Children may be exposed if
    allowed to visit worksite
n   Many “cottage industries”
    located in the home
RECALLS
n Consumer Product Safety

  Commission (www.cpsc.gov
  or 800-638-2772)

n   LEAD INFORMATION
    RESOURCES
WHAT YOU CAN DO TO
  PROTECT AGAINST LEAD
  POISONING:
n Test Yourself

n Test Your Home

n Keep Your Home Clean

n Keep a Healthy Diet

n Test Your Water

n Educate Yourself
FEDERAL LEGISLATION
n National Uniformity for Food Act would
  make all food labeling uniform (pushed
  by food industry)
n Passed House, facing opposition in US
  Senate
n Would preempt existing state
  consumer protection laws
n In NYS, would effect 7 laws, one that
  bans lead or mercury in quantities
  above state standards
n Contact your Senator to oppose this
  legislation as contrary to family health
n   Bush Administration
    proposed $119 million for the
    Office of Healthy Homes and
    Lead Hazard Control, down
    from $167 million in 2005
    and $174 million in 2004 for
    Healthy Homes and Lead
    Hazard Control
n   Bush proposal would
    eliminate grants targeted for
    cities with worst lead
    poisoning problems

				
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