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					                         CULTURAL RESOURCES OVERVIEW

                         FOR THE PROPOSED BOUNDLESS ENERGY

New York Branch
                         PROJECT, NEW YORK SEGMENT,
2390 Clinton Street
Buffalo, NY 14227
Tel: (716) 821-1650      RENSSELAER, ALBANY, COLUMBIA, GREENE,
Fax: (716) 821-1607

Alabama Branch
2301 Paul Bryant Drive
                         ULSTER, ORANGE, AND DUTCHESS COUNTIES,
Tuscaloosa, AL 35401
Tel: (205) 556-3096
Fax: (205) 556-1144      NEW YORK
Tennessee Branch
91 Tillman Street
Memphis, TN 38111
Tel: (901) 454-4733
Fax: (901) 454-4736
                         Prepared for:

Corporate Headquarters   ECOLOGY & ENVIRONMENT
P.O. Box 20884
Tuscaloosa, AL 35402
                         368 Pleasant View Drive
Tel: (205) 248-8767      Lancaster, New York 14068
Fax: (205) 248-8739




                         Prepared by:

                         PANAMERICAN CONSULTANTS, INC.
                         Buffalo Branch Office
                         2390 Clinton Street
                         Buffalo, New York 14227-1735
                         (716) 821-1650




                         September 2013
           CULTURAL RESOURCES OVERVIEW

FOR THE PROPOSED BOUNDLESS ENERGY PROJECT

                     NEW YORK SEGMENT,

RENSSELAER, ALBANY, COLUMBIA, GREENE, ULSTER,

  ORANGE, AND DUTCHESS COUNTIES, NEW YORK


                              Prepared for:

                      ECOLOGY & ENVIRONMENT
                        368 Pleasant View Drive
                       Lancaster, New York 14068


                              Prepared by:

 Michael A. Cinquino, Ph.D., RPA, Principal Investigator/Project Director
                Mark A. Steinback, M.A., Senior Historian
    Donald A. Smith, Ph.D., RPA, Senior Archaeologist/GIS Specialist
 Frank J. Schieppati, Ph.D., RPA Preservation Planner/Sr. Archaeologist
         Christine Longiaru, M.A., Senior Architectural Historian



                  PANAMERICAN CONSULTANTS, INC.
                       Buffalo Branch Office
                        2390 Clinton Street
                         Buffalo, NY 14227
                          (716) 821-1650


                             September 2013
Table of Contents
List of Figures and Tables .......................................................................................................... iii

1.0    Introduction .....................................................................................................................1-1
       1.1 Project Description .................................................................................................1-1

2.0    Background Research .....................................................................................................2-1
       2.1 Cultural Background ...............................................................................................2-1
            2.1.1 Prehistoric Summary ...................................................................................2-1
            2.1.2 Historic Summary ......................................................................................2-12
       2.2 Documentary Research ........................................................................................2-32
            2.2.1 Site File Data ............................................................................................2-32

3.0    Proposed Construction and Cultural Resources Sensitivity Assessment by Section........3-1
       3.1 Cultural Resources Investigation Level of Effort .....................................................3-1
       3.2 Construction and Cultural Resources Sensitivity Assessment by Section ...............3-1
            3.2.1 Section 1: Reynolds Tap to New Scotland, MP 0 to MP 8.65 ......................3-1
            3.2.2 Section 2: Knickerbocker to Leeds, MP 8.66 to MP 32 ................................3-2
            3.2.3 Section 3: Leeds to Rock Tavern, MP 32 to MP 101.17 ..............................3-5
            3.2.4 Section 4: Roseton to East Fishkill, MP 101.17 to MP 109.57 .....................3-7

4.0    Conclusions and Recommendations ...............................................................................4-1
       4.1 Cultural Resource Sensitivity ..................................................................................4-1
       4.2 Assessing Proposed Project Activities ....................................................................4-1
       4.3 Native American Consultation ...............................................................................4-1
       4.4 Summary of Recommendations .............................................................................4-2
            4.4.1 Section 1: Reynolds Tap to New Scotland, MP 0 to MP 8.65 ......................4-2
            4.4.2 Section 2: Knickerbocker to Leeds, MP 8.66 to MP 32 ................................4-2
            4.4.3 Section 3: Leeds to Rock Tavern, MP 32 to MP 101.17 ..............................4-4
            4.4.4 Section 4: Roseton to East Fishkill, MP 101.17 to MP 109.57 .....................4-4

5.0    References .....................................................................................................................5-1




Panamerican Consultants, Inc.                                        ii                                            Boundless Energy
List of Figures and Tables
FIGURE                                                                                                                    PAGE

1.1   Approximate location of the Leeds Project West (LPW) project area in the Hudson
      Valley of New York State .................................................................................................1-3

1.2   Approximate location of the LPW project area between MP 0 and MP 44 in the
      Hudson Valley of New York State....................................................................................1-4

1.3   Approximate location of the LPW project area between MP 44 and MP 81 in the
      Hudson Valley of New York State....................................................................................1-5

1.4   Approximate location of the LPW project area between MP 74 and MP 109.57 in
      the Hudson Valley of New York State ..............................................................................1-6

2.1   Manor of Rensselaerswyck in 1767. The red square is the approximate location of
      what is now the City of Albany .......................................................................................2-18

2.2   Sections of the project area with previously-recorded archaeological sites ....................2-35

2.3   Approximate location of NRL resources in relation to the propose LPW project area ....2-36


TABLE                                                                                                                     PAGE

2.1   Archaeological sites within or adjacent to the project area ............................................2-32

2.2   National Register-Listed sites within or adjacent to the project area ..............................2-34




Panamerican Consultants, Inc.                                   iii                                        Boundless Energy
1.0 Introduction
Panamerican Consultants, Inc. (Panamerican) was contracted by Ecology and Environment, Inc.,
to conduct a Desktop Cultural Resources Study for the New York segment of the Boundless
Energy (Boundless) Leeds Project West (LPW) Transmission Project (Project) in Rensselaer,
Albany, Columbia, Greene, Ulster, Orange, and Dutchess counties (Figure 1.1). Boundless
proposes to construct new 345-kilovolt (kV) transmission lines and to reconductor 1 existing 345-
kV lines in Rensselaer, Albany, Columbia, Greene, Ulster, Orange, and Dutchess counties, New
York. Figure 1.1 shows the LPW project location within New York’s Hudson Valley. The Project
will use new 345-kV lines in existing transmission corridors to connect clean and efficient sources
of energy in upstate New York with southeastern New York. New transmission conductors will be
installed primarily on new steel monopoles approximately 130 feet (ft) high in Sections 1, 2, and 4.
H-frame structures will only be removed in Section 1. Reconductoring will be done on H-frame
structures in Section 3. There will also be segments of underground construction in Sections 2
and 4, as well as horizontal directional drilling (HDD) under the Hudson River. The Project also
includes construction of switching stations and a new substation, as well as expansion of the
existing corridor.

Section 1 (Reynolds Tap to New Scotland, Mile Post [MP] 0 to MP 8.65) of the proposed LPW
project will tap into the existing 345-kV line in the Town of East Greenbush in Rensselaer County
(Figure 1.2). From there, new line will extend west approximately 8.65 miles within an existing right-
of-way (ROW) as an overhead line across the Hudson River to connect with the New Scotland
substation in Albany County. New monopole towers will be built to replace existing H-frame poles
within an existing ROW, but additional area may need to be added to the ROW in places.

Section 2 (Knickerbocker to Leeds, MP 8.66 to MP 32) of the proposed Project will connect with
the 345-kV lines of the existing interconnection with the New England region between New
Scotland and Alps (see Figure 1.2). A new substation (Knickerbocker) will be constructed near the
intersection of Knickerbocker and Muitzeskill roads in the Town of Schodack, Rensselaer County.
Approximately three acres of land will be required for construction of the new substation. A new
345-kV line will extend approximately 23.3 miles south from the new substation to the Hudson
substation near the City of Hudson, Columbia County. Approximately 18.6 miles will consist of
new overhead lines within existing transmission-line corridors. A transition station will be
constructed near the Hudson substation at which point the line will be constructed underground
for approximately 2.75 miles, passing through the city as a buried cable. From MP 30, the Project
will continue underground, crossing under the Hudson River by HDD. The line would continue
approximately one mile underground in Greene County to connect to the Leeds substation.

Section 3 (Leeds to Rock Tavern, MP 32 to MP 101.17) of the proposed Project comprises a new
345-kV circuit, which would be added to an existing line starting at the Leeds substation (Figures
1.3 and 1.4; see Figure 1.2). The existing line would be reconductored with minimal or no
modifications to existing tower structures. This section will extend approximately 55 miles south
through Ulster County and connect to a new switchyard near East Road in the Town of
Marlborough, just north of the Orange County line in Ulster County. Approximately three acres of
land will be required for construction of the new substation. From the switchyard, the line extends
west for approximately five miles before turning to the south, ending at the Rock Tavern
substation in the Town of New Windsor, Orange County. Existing lines running east from the East
Road switching station to the Roseton substation will connect Section 3 to Section 4.
1
 To replace the cable or wire on an electric circuit, typically a high-voltage transmission line, usually to
 afford a greater electric-current carrying capability.
Panamerican Consultants, Inc.                         1-1                                Boundless Energy
Section 4 (Roseton to East Fishkill, MP 101.17 to MP 109.57) of the proposed Project consists of
approximately 8.4 miles of new 345-kV line hung on steel monopoles extending east from the
Roseton substation to a transition site on the west side of the Hudson River (see Figure 1.4). An
approximately 1.8-mile underground cable will be installed under the river by HDD to a transition
station on the east side of the river. From the transition station, approximately 6.6 miles of new
345-kV line will be hung on steel monopoles and extend to an expanded substation in East Fishkill
in Dutchess County. Approximately three acres of land will be required for the expansion of the
East Fishkill substation.

The objective of the desktop cultural resources study was to identify known cultural properties,
historic and pre-contact archaeological sites and historic structures, that are within or adjacent to a
300-ft corridor along the proposed transmission-line upgrade project, assess cultural resource
sensitivity along the route, and propose the appropriate level of effort that may be required to
assess any impact to cultural resources. The potential for visual impacts to historic structures was
also assessed largely based on the placement location of new 130-ft high monopoles.

The report includes:

   •   Identification of known prehistoric and historic archaeological sites within a 300-ft
       corridor;
   •   Identification of National Register of Historic Places-listed (NRL) sites including
       historic structures, historic districts, and National Historic Landmark (NHL) sites
       within a 300-ft corridor along the proposed route;
   •   Preparation of brief prehistoric and historic cultural summary overviews for areas
       where the proposed routes are located;
   •   Assessment of the prehistoric and historic archaeological sensitivity of the
       proposed project based on impacts associated with proposed construction
       activities;
   •   Preparation of a general approach for appropriate cultural resource investigations
       for the various types of construction activities proposed by the client (e.g., new
       transmission towers, cable replacement of existing cables, tower and pole
       replacement, substation construction, etc.);
   •   Discussion of potential visual impacts of the project
   •   Recommendations for Native American consultation


A literature and records search was conducted to identify previously recorded cultural resources
including National Register properties in the project study corridor. This research included desktop
review, site visits to review records at the New York State Historic Preservation Office (NYSHPO),
archival research, and literature review. Background research included summary discussions of
the prehistoric/pre-contact and historical periods in the general vicinity of the study corridor.
Background research and site file check determined if any previously recorded cultural resources
are present within the 300-ft study corridor and evaluated the potential for both unrecorded
prehistoric and historic cultural resources within the project area.

The potential for visual impacts to historic structures was also assessed largely based on the
placement location of new 130-ft-high monopoles. This included identifying NRL structures and
districts within the study corridor and assessing potential impacts to the viewshed within 0.5-mile
radius around the proposed monopole locations. Use of existing H-frame towers will have no
additional impact on cultural properties.


Panamerican Consultants, Inc.                    1-2                                 Boundless Energy
Figure 1.1. Approximate location of the Leeds Project West (LPW) project area in the
Hudson Valley of New York State.


Panamerican Consultants, Inc.           1-3                          Boundless Energy
Figure 1.2. Approximate location of the LPW project area between MP 0 and MP 44 in the Hudson Valley of New York State
(USGS 100K quadrangles: Albany, NY, MA, VT 1989, Amsterdam 1986, Pepacton Reservoir, NY 1986, Pittsfield, MA, NY, CT
1985[1989]).
Panamerican Consultants, Inc.                             1-4                                           Boundless Energy
Figure 1.3. Approximate location of the LPW project area between MP 44 and MP 81 in the Hudson Valley of New York State
(USGS 100K quadrangles: Monticello, NY, PA 1986 [1987], Pepacton Reservoir, NY 1986, Pittsfield, MA, NY, CT 1985[1989],
Waterbury, CT, NY 1986).

Panamerican Consultants, Inc.                             1-5                                           Boundless Energy
Figure 1.4. Approximate location of the LPW project area between MP 74 and MP 109.57 in the Hudson Valley of New York
State (USGS 100K quadrangles: Monticello, NY, PA 1986 [1987], Bridgeport, NY, CT, NJ 1986, Middletown, NY, NJ, PA 1986,
Waterbury, CT, NY 1986).




Panamerican Consultants, Inc.                              1-6                                            Boundless Energy
2.0 Background Research
2.1   CULTURAL BACKGROUND

2.1.1 Prehistoric Summary. The three major cultural traditions manifested in eastern New York
State during the prehistoric era were the Paleo-Indian, Archaic, and Woodland. Cultural
evolution of the area can be summarized as a gradual increase in social complexity, marked by
several important cultural and/or technological innovations. The earliest of these traditions is the
Paleo-Indian, which lasted from ca. 12,000 to 8000 BC. Subsisting through hunting and
gathering activities, Paleo-Indians lived in seasonal camps near freshwater sources (Ritchie
1957, 1980; Ritchie and Funk 1973). The Upper and Mid-Hudson areas of eastern New York
may not have been hospitable for aboriginal groups prior to 11,000 BC, when glacial ice began
to recede from the area.

The subsequent Archaic period (8000 to 1500 BC) was characterized by seasonally occupied
campsites and, later, by seasonal villages. Changing environmental conditions required an
adaptation of the economy, resulting in a shift to more efficient exploitation of temperate forest
resources by Archaic hunter-gathers. The Archaic subsistence system included hunting and
gathering and possibly incipient horticulture toward the end of the period (Curtin 1998; Funk
1988, 1993; Tuck 1977). In many areas of eastern North America, the Archaic is followed by a
Transitional period (ca. 1500 to 1000 BC) that bridges the Archaic and Woodland periods.
Although not representing a departure from Archaic social and economic patterns, this
Transitional period is marked by important changes in the artifact assemblage and burial
practices (Ritchie 1955, 1980; Nichols 1928).

Beginning around 1000 BC, the Woodland period is marked by the development of pottery,
agriculture, fortified villages, and burial mounds, and resulted in a plethora of new and very
different social and economic adaptations. While changes occur in burial practices and the artifact
assemblage, the Woodland does not represent a departure from Archaic social and economic
patterns, although the Early Woodland is poorly understood in the Hudson Valley (Ritchie 1955;
Funk 1976). Native Americans of this period lived in seasonally occupied campsites and villages,
subsisting through hunting, gathering, and horticulture (Granger 1978b; Ritchie 1980; Smith 1992;
Dragoo 1963; Cassedy et al. 1993). The period lasted until the first contact between Europeans
and New York’s aboriginal inhabitants ca. 1600 (Funk 1976; Bender and Curtin 1990).

During the Woodland period, external influences began to have an increasingly greater effect as
groups associated with the Algonquian Mohican occupied the majority of the region. Culturally,
these groups shared much with groups in northern New Jersey and the lower Hudson Valley. In
addition, the introduction of corn horticulture ca. AD 1000 seems to have encouraged population
growth, village life, and warfare in some areas of New York State. To the west, tribes that
eventually formed the Haudenosaunee or Iroquois Confederacy evolved from antecedents in
the central sub-area between the Genesee River and the Tug Plateau. Prior to the time of
European contact Mohican hunting territory comprised lands on both sides of the Hudson River,
with the Mohawk occupying areas well west of the present-day cities of Albany and
Schenectady. There was probably very little interchange between the groups prior to European
contact (Tuck 1978b; Tooker 1978; Brasser 1978a). At the time of Henry Hudson’s voyage in
1609, the Hudson Valley was within territory traditionally occupied and utilized by the Mohican
and Algonquian-speaking groups allied or nominally allied with them (Brasser 1978b; Goddard
1978; Dunn 1994). The arrival of European commercial interests, missionaries and, finally,


Panamerican Consultants, Inc.                   2-1                               Boundless Energy
settlers profoundly changed the use of the land. The Native population was essentially removed
from the land prior to the Revolutionary War (Trigger 1978).

Paleo-Indian Period (ca. 12,000-8000 BC). In New York the last glacial retreat occurred
approximately 14,000 years ago, followed by a series of changing environmental conditions.
The earliest dated Paleo-Indian site in New York is the Dutchess Quarry Cave in southern
Orange County (10,580 BC +370). At this time, Lake Ontario and the St. Lawrence River were
locked in ice, but it is possible that the environmental fluctuations that occurred during this early
period were conducive to periodic forays by the Paleo-Indian groups into the region when
conditions were suitable. As the climate gradually became more temperate, these forays may
have become more extended. Prior to 10,000 years ago, the ice had not retreated very far north
of Lake Ontario and the area around what is now the City of Albany was subsumed under the
waters of glacial Lake Albany (Funk 1972; Funk and Steadman 1994).

Paleo-Indians were highly mobile people who traveled over long distances to obtain resources
such as food and lithic raw materials. Paleo-Indian cultures were adapted to a late Pleistocene
tundra or park tundra environment similar to that of northern Canada today. A band-level social
organization is attributed to Paleo-Indian groups, with each band consisting of 25 or 30 people,
their movements controlled mainly by game and the availability of other food resources (Snow
1980:150). At the end of the Pleistocene, the Hudson River valley provided an important habitat
for large mammals and other game potentially significant for human subsistence. The Paleo-
Indian subsistence strategy has traditionally been viewed as one that emphasized hunting big
game. These species, many of which are extinct, included mastodon, mammoth, caribou, and
moose-elk, along with a variety of smaller game (Funk 1972, 1976; Ritchie 1980:10-11; Salwen
1975; Eisenberg 1978). Although no Pleistocene megafauna have been recovered in
Rensselaer County, two mastodon and the remains of individual bison, deer and horse have
been found in Albany County, and mastodon remains have been identified throughout Orange
County, southern Ulster County, and western Dutchess County (Ritchie 1980:11).

Technologically, the Paleo-Indian has been associated with the fluted point industry. These
points closely resemble the Clovis point, first discovered in the Southwest, and are generally
classified as that type (Funk and Schambach 1964). The points are generally large (2.5 to 10
centimeters [1 to 4 inches] in length), with a flute on each face, probably to facilitate hafting
(Snow 1980). Other items in the Paleo-Indian tool kit included leaf-shaped and ovate bifacial
knives, end-scrapers, often equipped with graving spurs, and unifacial side-scrapers, knives,
and retouched flakes. Drills, awls, and gravers are also diagnostic Paleo-Indian tools. Few tool
associations have been made with aquatic resources remains. However, it is difficult to imagine
these people not utilizing such a diverse and abundantly available food source once water
conditions allowed (Salwen 1975:45; Kauffman and Dent 1982). With deglaciation, the
megafauna declined and were replaced by more temperate species that migrated into the area.
Caribou herds probably survived in eastern New York beyond the time of the megafauna
extinction. Fluted points and Paleo-Indian components have been identified on the west side of
the Hudson River at the West Athens Hill and Kings Road sites near the Hudson River in
eastern Greene County and in northern Orange County west of the Wallkill River (Ritchie
1980:5).

Ritchie and Funk (1973:333) classified Paleo-Indian sites into two main categories: quarry
workshops and camps. These categories are further subdivided into large, recurrently occupied
camps, small special-purpose camps, and caves or rockshelter sites. Chert quarrying and the
preliminary stages of tool production were carried out at the tool workshops. Settlement models
include Paleo-Indian quarry and workshop sites at or near significant chert resources, kill-
Panamerican Consultants, Inc.                   2-2                                Boundless Energy
butchery sites, burials or caches, and isolated finds (Gramly and Funk 1990:13) as well as
campsites on elevations overlooking valleys and in lowlands near water and aquatic resources.
Fluted points gradually decreased in size as larger game animals moved north or became
extinct (Kraft 1986:47).

Archaic Period (ca. 8000-1500 BC). The Archaic period is differentiated from the Paleo-Indian
period by a stylistic shift in lithic assemblage, an apparent increase in population, changes in the
subsistence strategy, and a less nomadic settlement system. Three subdivisions are generally
recognized for the Archaic: Early, Middle, and Late (or Terminal). These divisions generally
coincide with distinctive artifacts, especially projectile point types.

Early and Middle Archaic (ca. 8000-4000 BC). Settlement data for Early Archaic cultures in the
Hudson Valley is scant (Ritchie and Funk 1973:337). Research in the upper Susquehanna
drainage (Funk 1993) has shown a succession of Early Archaic occupations beginning no later
than 7500 BC. Although archaeological sites from the Early and Middle Archaic are rare and
poorly understood in this region, important sites from this period have been found in eastern
New York in Ulster County and near Sylvan Lake (east of Poughkeepsie, Dutchess County), as
well as western Connecticut, the upper Delaware drainage, and the Susquehanna River (Dent
1991; Funk 1991, 1993; Nicholas 1988). Early Archaic sites have been found on Green Island
and in West Albany.

The Early Archaic population is usually regarded as relatively small and mobile, adapted to an
environment with fewer nut-bearing trees and fish-poor waters. Aside from occasional
technological changes and gradual environmental transformation, life continued much the same
as it had in the previous era. Hunter-gathers of the Early Archaic period subsisted on fish,
berries, roots, tubers, eggs, nuts, and deer, probably moving when food supplies dwindled (Kraft
1986:51), probably moving when food supplies dwindled. The Early Archaic tool kit consisted of
Hardaway Dalton points, Palmer corner-notched, Kirk corner-notched, and bifurcate base points
like Amos corner-notched and LeCroy, both of which frequently had serrated edges. People of
the Early Archaic also used end-scrapers, side-scrapers, spokeshaves, drills, gravers,
choppers, hammers, and anvil stones.

Although Early Archaic data is scant, it appears that big-game hunting was no longer central to
subsistence and band movement was less erratic. It has been suggested that groups began to
settle into territories and that camp movement adjusted to a seasonal round (Snow 1980). Floral
resources, fish, and other aquafauna began to play a more significant role in subsistence. A few
technological changes, such as the production of ground and polished stone tools, serve to
identify the Middle Archaic period. The bannerstone, probably used as an atlatl weight, and the
bell pestle were Middle Archaic innovations (Kraft 1986:51; Griffin 1967; Funk 1993:172).
Changes in the cultural system were not qualitative, however; more elaborate planning seems
to have been devoted to seasonal scheduling: "The ranges of activities carried out on special-
purpose sites continued to narrow while the numbers and kinds of such sites utilized within a
round continued to increase" (Snow 1980:183). The territorial "settling in" process begun during
the Early Archaic continued into the Middle Archaic, stimulating a process of group isolation.
Since qualitative changes cannot be seen between the Early and Middle Archaic periods,
Mason (1981) does not distinguish them as separate periods. Instead, he views them as a
single transitional period between the Paleo-Indian and the Late Archaic.

During the Middle Archaic, the climate was warm and moist, and water levels continued to rise
forcing groups to move inland. Middle Archaic cultures occupied a land richer in resources as
deciduous forests became more fully established. People of the Middle Archaic subsisted on
Panamerican Consultants, Inc.                   2-3                               Boundless Energy
chestnuts, acorns, and fish, as well as the abundant forest animals. People began to develop
woodworking tools during the Middle Archaic, such as axes, adzes, gouges, and other rough
stone tools. These heavy woodworking tools may have been used for canoe building. The
Middle Archaic tool kit also included anvil stones, choppers, netsinkers, and an array of
projectile points. A Middle Archaic campsite, which produced a Neville point, was identified at
the Shaker Run development in the Town of Colonie, Albany County.

Late Archaic (ca. 4000-1500 BC). The Late Archaic is seen as the flowering of preceramic
culture in the Northeast (Snow 1980; Mason 1981). The period began about 6,000 years ago
and continued to the advent of pottery around 1500 BC. During this period prehistoric cultures
"fully adjusted to the humid Temperate Continental climate which, with its oak-chestnut-deer-
turkey biome, persisted to the present day" (Ritchie and Funk 1973). The increased carrying
capacity of this richer and more diverse biome is reflected by an increase in the number, size,
and kinds of sites documented in the archaeological record.

The relatively diverse and abundant biome provided a subsistence base that was much broader
than that of previous periods. Food resources consisted of large game (deer and bear), small
game, fish, shellfish, waterfowl, birds, insects, vegetables, and fruits. This diversity not only
allowed for greater procurement efficiency, it also provided a cushion against seasonal failures
of any single resource. The general increase in numbers of milling and fishing tools suggests a
shift away from red meat as a preferred resource. Most sites of the Late Archaic period were
seasonal, special purpose habitation sites, and included winter hunting camps, spring fishing
stations, fall nut-gathering and processing stations, and shellfish-processing areas. Principal
settlements, such as those at the Weir (northern Rensselaer County), River (southern Saratoga
County), and Dennis (northern Albany County) sites, were located near the Hudson River and
were multi-activity spring and summer villages (Ritchie 1969; Funk 1976; Ritchie and Funk
1973).

While increased territorialization occurs during the Late Archaic, group isolation decreases.
Communication and trade networks, which characterize later periods, have their developmental
roots in this period. Burial ceremonialism, established in northern New England a few thousand
years earlier (Tuck 1978a), is conspicuously absent in some areas of New York and well
developed in others.

In New York, two contemporaneous Late Archaic cultural traditions predominate: the Narrow
Point tradition, generally restricted to western and central New York, and the Laurentian
tradition, evident through all of New York. The Narrow Point tradition is recognized as the
Lamoka phase. Most Lamoka phase sites are small, open camp sites, although large near-
permanent base camps have also been identified (Ritchie 1980; Ritchie and Funk 1973). As
with other Archaic peoples, Lamoka groups relied on hunting, fishing, and gathering. Deer and
turkey were the preferred game, while in the floral group acorns and hickory nuts were
impressively evident. However, the primary orientation of the culture was toward aquatic
resources caught mostly with nets.

In contrast to the Lamoka, the Laurentian tradition is characterized by a primary reliance on
hunting. This tradition, which is associated with the Lake Forest Archaic of eastern New York,
Vermont, and New Hampshire (Snow 1980), is represented in this area by the Brewerton phase
(3000-1720 BC). While some base camps are known for the Brewerton phase, the majority of
sites are small, temporary hinterland camps on streams, marshes and springs. The emphasis
on hunting is reflected by assemblages having large proportions of points and hunting gear.

Panamerican Consultants, Inc.                 2-4                               Boundless Energy
Fishing gear and nutting stones are also present, but not in the quantities known from Lamoka
sites.

Brewerton and Lamoka peoples occupied similar environments, and contact between the two
groups is evident in central New York. Brewerton mortuary customs were somewhat more
complex than Lamoka, although neither group featured regular cemetery areas. Grave goods
were confined to utilitarian objects and there is no hint of the mortuary ceremonialism of the
following Early Woodland period (Ritchie 1980).

Transitional Period (ca. 1500-1000 BC). The Transitional period features a continuation of Late
Archaic cultural and economic patterns, with only a few innovative traits. Among these are a
developing burial/ceremonial complex and, toward the end of the period, the introduction of
ceramics. In New York, the Transitional period is manifested by the Orient and Frost Island
phases. Because of their close association with cultural developments in the Susquehanna
drainage, they are known as aspects of the Susquehanna tradition. The primary importance of
the Orient phase is in its highly developed mortuary ceremonialism. However, the Orient phase
culture was native to Long Island and generally restricted to the southeastern portion of New
York. Carved steatite, or soapstone (talc schist), was important stone material exchanged over
long distances during the Transitional period. It was made into usually flat-bottomed, lugged
bowls that facilitated cooking and food preparation. The Transitional period has been
radiocarbon dated between 1200-1100 BC in the Town of Colonie, immediately west of
Watervliet Arsenal (Curtin 1991).

The Frost Island phase culture was generally situated in central New York with extensions into
western and northern New York. Recognized by the Susquehanna Broad projectile point,
numerous Frost Island sites have been found throughout this portion of the state, although few
have been systematically investigated (Ritchie 1980; Trubowitz 1978; Curtin 1984).

Frost Island burial practices are not well known. Indirect evidence suggests the practice of
cremation, heavy use of red ochre, and deposition of caches of projectile points in graves.
Ritchie (1980) has characterized the Frost Island settlement system as riverine. This hypothesis
was supported in the Genesee Valley where these sites were located no farther than one mile
(1.6 kilometers) from the river (Trubowitz 1978). This phase has been tentatively dated to 1595-
1220 BC. This later date roughly corresponds to the beginning of the Early Woodland
Meadowood phase and to the displacement of steatite vessels by Vinette I pottery.

Woodland Period (1000 BC-AD 1600). The definitive characteristic of the Woodland period in
New York State is the adoption of pottery technology, a development that occurred at different
times from one location to another (Feder 1984:101-102; Sears 1948; Snow 1980:262; Hoffman
1998). Native groups also became more dependent on domesticated plants—including maize,
beans, and squash—during the Woodland in the Northeast, although this change does not
seem to have significantly altered subsistence and settlement patterns until the Late Woodland,
after AD 1000 (Ritchie and Funk 1973:96). In the meantime, hunting and gathering continued to
be important elements of Native lifeways for much of the period, and people likely still employed
these strategies, at least part time, at the time of contact with Europeans. The Woodland period
in New York witnessed significant cultural developments, most of which were related to the
adoption of agriculture. Among these were increasingly sedentary village life accompanied by
increases in population and population densities; technological changes, including the
refinement of pottery-manufacturing techniques and the adoption of small triangular projectile
points; and an intensification of warfare. Researchers have traditionally divided the Woodland

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into three phases: the Early Woodland (1000 BC–AD 1); the Middle Woodland (AD 1–800); and
the Late Woodland (AD 800–ca. 1600) (e.g., Funk 1993:Figure 40).

Early Woodland (1000 BC-AD 1). In Ritchie’s culture-historical framework, the Early Woodland is
defined as the time during which people manufactured Vinette I-type ceramic vessels, gorgets,
tubular smoking pipes, bar amulets, boatstones, birdstones, and copper ornaments (Ritchie
1980:194; Ritchie and Funk 1973:96). During this time, people throughout the Northeast and
Midwest interred the deceased with elaborate burial goods (Tuck 1978a:39-43). People almost
never placed ceramic vessels in Early Woodland graves. In central New York State, Ritchie
identified a distinct burial complex that he termed “Middlesex” in which burials resembled those
of people living in southern Ohio and represented archaeologically as Adena. These graves
included copper items, leaf-shaped cache blades, and shell beads, among others. Ritchie
divided the Early Woodland into two temporal phases: Meadowood and Middlesex.

In the Hudson Valley, as in other coastal and eastern valley areas (Kraft 1986), the Early
Woodland is dominated by the Orient phase culture, which has projectile points that are similar
to, although narrower than, the Transitional period Susquehanna Broad points. Orient Fishtail
points were used as knives and spears and were reworked into drills and scrapers, strike-a-
lights, and gravers (Kraft 1986:91-92). Orient Fishtail points were found at the Goat Island
Rockshelter and Grouse Bluff (Dutchess County) as well as at several Bear Mountain region
rockshelter sites. Orient points are found in association with early (Vinette I-type) pottery at the
Dennis site (Funk 1976) near Menands, as well as the Menands Bridge site (Johnson 1979),
and at Grouse Bluff (Lindner 1992). A Vinette I pot, now restored, was recovered from the Bear
Mountain Railroad Station Rockshelter (Funk 1976:175). The Goat Island Rockshelter site,
located in the Town of Red Hook near the east shore of the Hudson River, produced diagnostic
artifacts of the Late Archaic and Early Woodland periods: Three Rossville points were found
clustered around a burial in association with dentate-stamped, fabric-impressed, and rocker-
stamped pottery (Chilton 1992:53).

However, the Early Woodland period is generally thought to have begun with the Meadowood
phase about 3,000 years ago. Meadowood sites are found throughout the Northeast, and
particularly New York, although traces of this culture are slim in eastern New York (Funk 1976;
Granger 1978a). Meadowood bifacial blades were recovered at the Shaker Run No. 1 site,
Town of Colonie, Albany County (Curtin and Kramer 1990). Meadowood people hunted,
gathered, and fished, although it is believed their subsistence strategy east of the Finger Lakes
involved a higher degree of mobility than people of the Orient culture (Kraft 1986:95).
Meadowood people cremated their dead and buried them in cemeteries away from habitation
sites in northern New York, or at burial grounds in western New York (Granger 1978b).
However, no Meadowood cemeteries have been found in eastern New York. The Meadowood
phase seems to post-date the Orient phase at the Dennis site, just south of Watervliet Arsenal
(Funk 1976). But on a broader geographic scale, radiocarbon dates associated with both
phases overlap significantly, indicating that these cultures were at least partly contemporaneous
(Snow 1980).

While the previous hunting and gathering economy continued as a means of subsistence during
the Woodland period, Native groups became more and more dependent on domesticated plants
for food. The period is identified by the introduction of pottery. The significance of pottery is that it
improved the efficiency of food preparation, helping to buffer against subsistence stresses
possibly caused by the cooling climate, or population growth, an effect of increasingly settled life.
Early pottery has been radiocarbon dated to about 700 BC at Menands north of Albany (Funk
1976). This gradual shift to domestication is in itself less important than the ramifications of the
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shift. Agriculture brought with it a score of new problems that required new adaptations, and every
aspect of Native culture was transformed. With agriculture came settled village life, a general
increase in population, technological changes, warfare, and a litany of social and political
changes.

Mortuary ceremonialism, which had its roots in the Archaic and continued to develop through
the Transitional period, became more developed during the Early Woodland. Typically, the dead
were placed on scaffolds or in charnel houses, and were cremated after decay. Flexed, bundle,
and multiple burials also occurred. Grave offerings were numerous, consisting of cache blades
(sometimes numbering in the hundreds), smoking pipes, gorgets, birdstones, copper, fire-
making kits, and a generous sprinkling of red ochre. Often the grave offerings were purposefully
"killed" (broken). Meadowood and Orient cemeteries were generally situated on knolls, a
fundamental concept which may have been a precursor of the Middle Woodland artificial burial
mound (Ritchie 1955, 1959; Granger 1978b).

Cultural manifestations of the latter part of the Early Woodland in New York have been grouped
into the Early Point Peninsula tradition. This tradition is somewhat vaguely defined and is
primarily recognized by the presence of Vinette pottery. In some areas of New York, Point
Peninsula traits are found in conjunction with elements of the Ohio Adena tradition, comprising
the Middlesex phase in New York.

This Adena-Middlesex culture lasted from 800-300 BC, and Adena-Middlesex sites are more
common than Meadowood phase sites in eastern New York. The Middlesex phase is poorly
delineated in New York, and is primarily known from burial sites. Typical Middlesex-Adena burial
offerings consist of stone blocked-end pipes, cache blades, copper celts and awls, points,
copper and shell beads, amulets, pendants, birdstones, and red ochre. These graves generally
contain up to 30 percent Adena-inspired artifacts. Although Middlesex phase components are
often found in association with Meadowood phase materials, the connection between the two is
presently unclear. Moreover, explanations regarding the presence of Adena traits in New York
are controversial. It has been postulated that Adena burial customs were the result of migrations
of Adena peoples from central Ohio, forced from their homeland by the expansion of Hopewell
Culture (Ritchie and Dragoo 1960; Dragoo 1963). It can generally be said that sites farthest
away from the Ohio Adena heartland will contain the fewest Adena traits (Ritchie and Dragoo
1960). Adena-Middlesex burials have been found at the Van Orden (Greene County) and
Barton (southern Washington County) sites in the Hudson Valley (Funk 1976; Ritchie 1969).

Middle Woodland (AD 1-900). The temporal boundaries of the Middle Woodland are largely
defined by changes Ritchie perceived in the relative frequencies of pottery types and diversified
techniques by which the ceramics were decorated (Ritchie and Funk 1973:117; Ritchie and
MacNeish 1949). The end of the period, which Ritchie argued came around AD 1000 (or shortly
thereafter), occurred when people in New York adopted the suite of characteristics he
associated with the Late Woodland: primarily agriculture based on maize, beans, and squash;
Owasco-style pottery (collarless vessels with elongate bodies, conoidal bases, slightly everted
rims, and cord-wrapped-stick impressed exterior decoration confined largely to their necks); and
house structures resembling historical Haudenosaunee longhouses. Recent studies, however,
have demonstrated that none of these developments occurred at AD 1000, nor did they happen
together at any other single time (Hart 1999, 2000; Hart and Brumbach 2003; Hart et al. 2003;
Prezzano 1988; Schulenberg 2002). Moreover, this research has altered how events during the
Middle Woodland are interpreted. The direct dating of maize using the accelerator mass
spectrometry (AMS) technique, for example, has demonstrated that people in southern Ontario
and central New York were growing the crop before AD 700 (Crawford et al. 1997:114-115; Hart
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et al. 2003:634). Meanwhile, Hart et al. (2003:624-625) and Schulenberg (2002:160-164) have
obtained AMS dates from charred residue on the interiors of Owasco vessels that indicate
people were manufacturing those pots as early as the seventh century AD (see also Hart and
Brumbach 2003:743-744). Beyond this, Hart has demonstrated that people did not contruct
longhouses in central New York before the beginning of the thirteenth century AD and that they
did not likely grow beans until a even later date (Hart 1999, 2000).

The Middle Woodland shows continued long-distance exchange, although perhaps with varying
strength at different times. Certain occupation sites were becoming larger during this period
(Funk 1976; Johnson 1979), and thicker middens were developing (such as at the Ford site,
Columbia County). In addition, food storage was becoming a common practice along the
Hudson River at such locations as the Dennis, Menands Bridge, and Black Rock sites. Fresh
water mussel shells and sturgeon plates are found at several Middle Woodland sites, notably
the Tufano site in Greene County, suggesting that people were exploiting a greater variety of
foods, perhaps as another response to stress induced by increasing settlement stability and
residential sedentarism (Reifler and Lindner 2000). These factors could favor population growth
due to decreased mobility and shorter intervals between births.

This period was characterized by at least two cultural phases and a variety of interactions with
other coastal and interior cultures. The earlier part of the Middle Woodland until approximately
AD 500 is included in the Fox Creek phase throughout the Hudson Valley. Sites of this culture
are often located near streams and are associated with fishing. Diagnostics of this period
include net-marked pottery and Fox Creek lanceolate and stemmed projectile points (Funk
1976). Bolas, celts, pitted stones, hammer stones, anvil stones, and pestles are frequently
found on Fox Creek sites (Kraft 1986). An innovation of the period was the Petalas blade, which
was identified at the Petalas site near Athens in Greene County in the mid-Hudson Valley (Funk
1976; Reifler and Lindner 2000). Made from high quality local chert in the Hudson River valley,
Petalas blades are thought to be fish-butchering knives due to their frequent association with
sturgeon remains. Interregional exchange during the Fox Creek phase is revealed in the high
frequencies of New Jersey argillite in the Hudson Valley and New York cherts distributed well
south of their sources. Petalas blades have been recovered from numerous riverside middens,
refuse pits, and caches at sites ranging from Green Island in Albany County to Saugerties in
Ulster County, including the Joy, Dennis, Barren Island, Black Rock, Bronck House Rockshelter,
LSR, and Rocky Point sites (Funk 1976; Reifler and Lindner 2000).

After AD 500, northern sections of the Hudson Valley were influenced by local expressions of
the Point Peninsula tradition, including the Burnt Hill and Four Mile phases. The Point Peninsula
tradition, expressed primarily by ceramic traits, notably dentate stamped and corded, collared
pottery, includes Jacks Reef Corner-Notched and Pentagonal projectile points. Jacks Reef
points were probably arrowheads, which suggests that the bow and arrow had come into use
(Kraft 1986:114). Platform pipes, antler harpoons, and beaver-tooth incising tools were found at
the Faucett and Minisink sites in the upper Delaware River valley, along with decorative artifacts
like stone pendants, shark-tooth beads, and bone combs (Kraft 1986:114), similar to Point
Peninsula finds in upstate New York (Ritchie 1980). Similar artifacts were found at the Dennis
and Tufano sites in the Hudson Valley, and included stone and bone pendants, clay pipes, and
bone tools.

Late Woodland (AD 900-1600). The Late Woodland is identified as the period between AD 900
and the time at which Native people traded for or otherwise obtained European goods, the
precise timing of which varied throughout the region. In the 1930s, Ritchie (1937 [1936])
proposed dividing the Late Woodland into two shorter periods: the Owasco and the Iroquois
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(see also Ritchie 1944). At the time, he believed Iroquoian groups migrated to the New York
State area and replaced the Algonquian Owasco people already living there (see Tuck 1971:11-
14). Although, since the 1950s, researchers have generally accepted that Iroquoian speakers
did not immigrate to the Northeast at the beginning of the Late Woodland, the distinction
between Owasco and Iroquois periods has remained. Also, with the development of radiocarbon
dating, the two have acquired distinct temporal boundaries, with the Owasco lasting from AD
900 to 1300, and the Iroquois spanning the years thereafter (Hart and Brumbach 2003:747). In
terms of material culture, the primary differences between the two entities are related to ceramic
vessel form and decoration. While Owasco series pots tend to be collarless, decorated with a
cord-wrapped paddle or stick, and have elongate bodies surmounting conoidal and subconoidal
bases, Iroquois vessels generally have collars, are decorated with incised designs, and have
globular bodies (MacNeish 1952; Ritchie and MacNeish 1949).

Although, as outlined above, some of the cultural developments Ritchie associated with the Late
Woodland did not occur between AD 900 and 1100, some—particularly those related to the
development of an agricultural system based on maize, beans, and squash—did happen in the
succeeding years. In fact, several developments appear to cluster around AD 1200 to 1300: the
earliest evidence for longhouses and multiple-household villages is from the thirteenth century
AD and people added beans to their diets around AD 1300 (Hart and Brumbach 2003:744-746).
In addition, Snow (2000:30) notes that groups in central New York began surrounding their
settlements with defensive palisades after AD 1200. During the later years of the Iroquois period,
people in some areas began clustering their villages within the territories occupied by historically
known nations (Snow 2000:46-51). During this time, the techniques people (probably women)
employed to decorate pottery diversified across space, probably reflecting concomitant changes
in the ways and frequencies with which people interacted (MacNeish 1952; Whallon 1968).
Likely in part because of the large amounts of wood consumed during the construction and
maintenance of these settlements, as well as that needed for firewood, inhabitants periodically
relocated their villages roughly every 10 to 20 years (Engelbrecht 2003:101-103). In several
cases, researchers have reconstructed parts of the resulting sequences of settlements and
produced detailed data concerning local culture change and the effects thereon of contact with
Europeans (e.g., White 1961). However, as suggested by the results of Engelbrecht’s (2004)
recent work comparing late prehistoric Jefferson County ceramics with those of other Iroquoian
groups indicates, there are many questions regarding New York State’s Woodland inhabitants
that remain unanswered.

In the Hudson Valley, the transition between the Middle and Late Woodland periods is marked by
the Hunter's Home phase, an aspect of the terminal Point Peninsula tradition and sometimes
designated Late Woodland (Mason 1981; Funk 1976). According to Ritchie and Funk (1973),
most Hunter's Home sites are moderately large with heavy refuse concentrations, storage pits,
house patterns, and a wide range of artifacts. The phase, which has been dated as late as 1000,
is often difficult to distinguish because of the presence of both Kipp Island phase and later
Owasco traits. The notched projectile points common in Kipp Island are less popular in Hunter's
Home, and are generally replaced by the triangular Levanna points, which became commonplace
during Owasco times and foreshadow the triangular Iroquois points (Mason 1981).

In the Hudson valley, however, the Owasco traditional does not occur in a pristine state (Ritchie
1969; Funk 1976). Instead, the prehistoric cultures of eastern New York developed under heavy
influence from “resident Late Woodland groups, probably ancestral to the historic Algonkian [sic]
tribes of this area” where potential hostile relations may have existed between the Owasco and
Algonquian cultures (Ritchie 1980:273-274). Owasco or Owasco-like ceramics have been
recovered from the middle and upper Hudson Valley and have been accompanied by other
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Owasco artifacts, such as Levanna points, scrapers, incised clay pipes, and strike-a-lights.
However, sizable Owasco village sites have not been identified. Pottery was manufactured
using the paddle and anvil technique as opposed to the coil or fillet method used prior to this
time. Most tools were made from Onondaga chert; points were trianguloid, similar to Levanna
points. Some antler points and bone awls have also been recovered. Late Woodland pottery
found along the Hudson River in southern Orange County and northern Rockland County shows
cultural relationships with the East River tradition of the New York coast, as indicated by pottery
found at the Denniston site, the Riverbank Rockshelter, the Navy Rockshelter, and Iona Island
Rockshelter.

Another important feature that marks the Hunter's Home phase is a decrease in elaborate
mortuary ceremonialism. Both single and multiple in-the-flesh interments and bundle burials
occur, but the presence of grave offerings is sporadic. The predominance of secondary burials
seems to indicate that corpses were left above ground, possibly in charnel houses, for a
considerable time before interment (Ritchie 1980).

Hunter's Home phase economy can generally be characterized as a hunting-fishing-collecting
system. Increases in both social complexity and population are evident, leading to the
hypothesis that "maize horticulture was already being practiced as an important aspect of the
Hunter's Home economy" (Ritchie and Funk 1973:356). This hypothesis is partly founded on
Ritchie's contention that some horticulture was practiced in the earlier Kipp Island phase
(1980:240). However, most of the evidence for maize (Zea mays) horticulture up to this time is
indirect; cultivated plant remains are rarely found archaeologically in New York State because of
generally poor conditions for preservation of organic materials. The precise timing of this
innovation is not known, but certain discoveries, such as at the Hurley site in Ulster County
(Funk 1976), suggest that an agricultural adaptation which included food storage was underway
by AD 1300. The earliest corn in the region (ca. AD 900) has been found at a transitional, Middle-
Late Woodland period site on the Roeliff-Jansen Kill (Cassedy et al. 1993). Recent research in
the Finger Lakes region of the state suggests that maize was consumed by the seventh century
AD (Hart et al. 2003).

Corn horticulture actually became possible in the Northeast following the development of a cold-
resistant strain, Northern Flint Corn, sometime between AD 500 and 1000. Northern Flint Corn
diffused broadly after its first appearance in eastern North America, possibly in the northern
Midwest or the Northeast (Fritz 1990). Corn horticulture seems to have encouraged population
growth, village life, and warfare among some cultures, such as the Iroquois west of the Hudson
valley (see Hart et al. 2003). It is not known whether similar effects occurred in the Hudson
Valley, but since fortified Late Woodland village sites have not been documented by
archaeologists in this region, chances are that such large, aggregated communities were not
often established by the Mohican or their ancestors. It seems more likely that the late prehistoric
peoples of the upper Hudson Valley lived in small, dispersed farmsteads or hamlets, in similar
fashion to many of the New England and upper Delaware Indians (Bender and Curtin 1990;
Cronon 1983; Kraft 1986).

The Late Woodland witnessed significant change: the subsistence system shifted emphasis
from gathering wild foods to growing domesticated plants. Early maize cultivation began about
AD 900 in the mid-Hudson drainage, and corn associations with radiocarbon mean dates
between AD 850 and 950 are reported from coastal Connecticut and the Susquehanna and
Hudson drainages (Cassedy et al. 1993). Along with corn horticulture came settled village life,
population growth, an enriched religious and ceremonial life, and warfare among some cultures,
such as the Haudenosaunee in New York. Between AD 1300 and 1600, ceramics with well-
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defined collars with incised linear geometric designs appear in the lower Hudson Valley
correlating the local cultural history with the Minisink phase of the Proto-Munsee (Delaware)
people (Kraft 1986:120). The cultural changes of the late prehistoric period have been cited as a
possible movement of Munsee populations into the lower Catskills (Funk 1976:300; Snow
1980). Eventually, Delaware (Proto-Munsee)-speaking people emerged along the Delaware
drainage. Other cultural groups included the Algonquian populations of the upper Delaware
Valley, the Susquehannock of southeastern Pennsylvania, and the Haudenosaunee of upstate
New York.

A lack of modern archaeological excavations hampers a more detailed understanding of the
Late Woodland period in the Hudson Valley, while sparse information on prehistoric chronology
and the initial contact period limit the interpretation of available information. Future research
may show how the archaeology of the Late Woodland period in the Hudson Valley can aid
understanding of cultural diversity in comparison to other Algonquian populations of the upper
Delaware Valley or Iroquoian cultures of upstate New York.

Contact Period (AD 1500–1650). During the late prehistoric and Contact periods, tribal clusters
of Iroquoian-speaking peoples were distributed throughout New York State and lower Ontario,
Canada. Comprising several thousand people in at least one, and usually several, villages in
proximity to one another, each tribal cluster was separated from the others by extensive and
widespread hunting and fishing areas (Trigger 1978:344; Engelbrecht 2003). Further,
Algonquian-speaking peoples were located along both sides of what is now the Hudson River,
extending westward into the Highlands of New York and New Jersey and eastward into New
England (Goddard 1978). Native American groups in eastern New York were profoundly
affected by the introduction of the fur trade, long before the arrival of a permanent European-
American population in the area. This period dates the beginning of the end of traditional Native
American cultural patterns due to ever-increasing political, military, religious and economic
interactions with Europeans.

The period conventionally begins in 1524 when Giovanni da Verrazano, a Florentine mariner in
the service of the King Francis I of France, sailed up the eastern seaboard of North America and
met groups of Native Americans at several locations, including North Carolina, New York Bay,
and Narragansett Bay. He account describing the lower portion of the Hudson River valley as a
“river of steep hills” is the earliest reference to the region (Rieth et al. 1995). However, there is
some evidence that Basque, Portuguese, and Breton fishermen were traveling to the region and
making sporadic contacts with Native groups somewhat earlier (Hoffman 1961; Brasser 1978a;
Trigger 1978). This period dates the beginning of the end of traditional Native American cultural
patterns as a result of ever-increasing political, military, religious, and economic interactions
with Europeans.

Beginning in the last decades of the sixteenth century, the increasingly regular encounters
between Europeans and Native Americans incubated a pandemic of European diseases among
unprepared Native populations, which decimated many Native groups. The presence of typhus,
smallpox, measles, and others ravaged Native communities. “According to a 1640 statement by
Hudson River Indians, their numbers had decreased by disease to less than one-tenth of the
original population since the arrival of the Dutch” (Brasser 1978a:83).

In addition to the tensions and population loss introduced through simple contact with
Europeans, trade has been recognized as having a major impact upon traditional aboriginal
cultural patterns. The most immediate changes were due to the introduction of a superior
material culture. Once the fur trade was established, assuring a stable supply of these goods,
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the manufacture of Native goods rapidly declined until they were entirely replaced by European
manufactured implements. Finally, changes occurred in sociopolitical relationships after 1640 as
the fur trade intensified and the supply of furs declined. The most important of these changes
was the formation of confederations such as the Haudenosaunee or Five Nations Confederacy
of New York State, the Neutral Confederacy and the Huron Confederacy.

An important catalyst for these sociopolitical changes was the European policy of supplying
guns and ammunition to Native groups as part of a strategy to enlist the various tribes and
confederacies as proxies in the European struggle for control over the continent. The
introduction of firearms in some quantity led to a major adjustment in traditional warfare and
upset the traditional balance of power in the region. That the Haudenosaunee of central and
eastern New York State were the first to exploit this upset in the balance of power, and
eventually proved to be victorious, is thought to be the result of their geographical location
(Trigger 1976). Unlike their major competitors, the Haudenosaunee were surrounded on all
sides by sedentary agricultural groups and, therefore, had no direct access to the fur resources
of the interior of the continent. The Huron Confederacy geographically straddled the major
transportation networks and was able to exploit their hunter-gatherer neighbors' need for
agricultural commodities by trading corn and other products for furs, thereby securing the
advantage of access to the vast supplies of the interior. The “Iroquois wars” of the mid-
seventeenth century were aimed at eliminating the Huron and other agricultural groups as
middlemen to obtain direct access to fur supplies (Trigger 1976; White 1971; Hunt 1940). By the
mid-seventeenth century, the Haudenosaunee or Iroquois Confederacy of New York emerged
as a politically, militarily, and economically united league with sole access to both the land and
resources surrounding the lower Great Lakes and the Mohawk River.

2.1.2 Historic Summary. Despite the explorations of the lower Hudson River by Verrazano,
and possibly Esteban Gómez (or Estêvão Gomes, Portuguese captain who sailed for Spain ca.
1525), the historic period in New York State generally begins in AD 1609, with the first significant
European record of exploration and settlement of the region by the French in the St. Lawrence
Valley and the Dutch in the Hudson Valley. While exploring the streams and rivers of the St.
Lawrence drainage, Samuel de Champlain and a small party ventured inland until they reached
what is now Lake Champlain. They encamped on the western shore where the French would
much later establish Fort Saint-Frédéric (called Crown Point by the British), and where he would
forever engender the enmity of the Haudenosaunee by engaging them in bloody skirmish. Also
in 1609, the English navigator Henry Hudson, in the service of the Dutch East India Company,
sailed up the river that Dutch cartographers labeled “Noort-Rivier” (i.e., North, later Hudson,
River), reaching as far north as what is now the City of Albany. Near the site of present-day
Castleton (south of Albany), Mohicans living in a village along the river provided food and
entertainment to Hudson and his crew (Brasser 1978a:79-82, 1978b:200-203; Ellis et al.
1967:18-25; Gehring and Starna 1988:xiii-xxiv).

Dutch ships arrived soon after to trade with the Native groups they encountered, while the
French remained preoccupied with their territories in what is now Canada. Ca. 1614, two
employees of the Dutch Van Tweenhuysen Company—Captain Hendrick Christiaensz and
Jaques Eelckens (sometimes Jacob Eelkens)—negotiated a treaty with the local Mohican and
Mohawk that allowed for the establishment of a short-lived trading post (called Fort Nassau).
This post was erected on Castle Island south of present-day City of Albany. A confluence of
difficulties, including squabbles between the Dutch traders and their Native American
customers, conflicts between the Mohawk and the Mohican, and seasonal flooding of the fort,
forced the abandonment of this post prior to 1618. In 1621, the Staten Generaal of the United
Provinces organized the West India Company and granted the company a monopoly to trade
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along the shores of the Americas for a period of 24 years (Brasser 1978a:79-82, 1978b:200-
203; Gehring and Starna 1988:xiii-xxiv; Jacobs 2009:19-31; Dunn 1994:13-30).

Beginning with the establishment of the West India Company and during the next forty years,
the Hudson River valley gradually became incorporated as part of the Dutch colony of New
Netherland. At its height New Netherland comprised sparsely settled clusters scattered along the
North River, extending from present-day Albany, New York, and its satellite at Schenectady, in
the north to what-is-now Delaware in the south, and encompassed parts of what are now the
states of New York, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, Maryland, Connecticut, and Delaware. The
Dutch prosecuted the prized pelt trade from their base in New Netherland, competing with the
English in the Connecticut River valley and the Swedes in the Delaware River valley. While the
Dutch claimed both regions, only the Delaware valley would actively feel their influence
(Gehring and Starna 1988:xiii-xxiv; Kim 1978:3-5; Shorto 2004).

Amsterdam merchants recognized the potential value of the Hudson Valley for the trade in furs,
and established a fortified trading post on the west bank of the Hudson River at what would
become the City of Albany in 1624. This location, called Fort Orange, would become the first
permanent European settlement along the Hudson River (Ellis et al. 1967:18-25; Gehring and
Starna 1988:xiii-xxiv; Burke 1991:3-18; Kim 1978:3-5).

At the time of the Dutch arrival at beginning of the seventeenth century, Algonquian-speaking
Mohican hunting territory spanned both sides of the Hudson River, with Iroquoian-speaking
Mohawk occupying lands well to the west and north (Dunn 1994:45-62). As the seventeenth
century progressed, the Hudson roughly divided the territories utilized by the two nations,
although the Mohican still hunted areas on the west side of the river. Mohican villages were
situated near the rich alluvial flats and islands along the east banks of the Hudson (such as
Papscanee Island south of Albany), while Mohawk castles laid some 30 miles west near the
Schoharie Creek. The Albany-Rensselaer area was Mohican territory during the early Dutch
period. However, after 1620, the Mohawk, protective of their position as suppliers of pelts to the
traders at Fort Orange, expanded the range of their trading efforts into the traditional areas of
other Native groups. The relationship between the Mohawk and the Mohican, as a result,
became increasingly hostile during the seventeenth century (Dunn 1991; Brasser 1978b:198,
202-203; Fenton and Tooker 1978:466-469). While Dutch traders attempted to peacefully
patronize both Native groups, tensions between the two escalated into bloodshed as the
Mohawk attempted to prohibit Mohican access to both their traditional hunting grounds on the
west side of the river and Dutch trade goods at Fort Orange. From about 1624 to 1630, the
Mohican became embroiled in a losing war against the Mohawk over the beaver trade, resulting
in Mohawk dominance of the territory around Fort Orange. The Mohawk became de facto
middlemen between Dutch merchants at Fort Orange and other Native American groups (Dunn
1994:13-30; Fenton and Tooker 1978:466-469; Burke 1991:3-4; Trigger 1978:348-355; Gehring
and Starna 1988:xix).

At the time of Hudson’s voyage, the Hudson-Leeds area was utilized by Algonquian-speaking
Mohican or Mohican-related Catskill Indians, although the Esopus, related or allied with the
Algonquian Delaware, are also referred to as living in the vicinity of Catskill Creek (Brasser
1978a:198; Goddard 1978:213-214). During the early Dutch period, Native Americans lived on
the plain near the confluence of Catskill and Kaaterskill creeks, and cultivated maize and
tobacco on the plains. Moreover, they maintained their “wigwams” on high ground above to
Catskill and a burial area on the high ground overlooking the north bank of the creek (J.B. Beers
and Co. 1884:89).

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In the area around what is now the City of Kingston, Dutch traders interacted with Native
Americans related to or allied with the Algonquian Delaware, which included the Esopus, who
occupied the west bank of the Hudson River between the Catskills Mountains and the Highlands
near West Point, and the Wappinger, who occupied the east bank. The middle and lower
Hudson areas were occupied by Munsee-speaking groups (related to Algonquian), such as the
Wappinger (the Dutchess-Putnam area), and the Kichtawink (northern Westchester), although
the internal politics and external boundaries of these groups are uncertain (aboriginal groups in
the mid-Hudson are discussed generally as “Delaware Indians”). Although the Mohawk were
dominant force at Fort Orange, the Mohican remained in authority in the Hudson Highlands. By
1675, the Mohican were the leaders of a confederacy of Highlands Indians which included the
Wappinger, the Housatonic (western Massachusetts area) and the the Wyachtonok (western
Connecticut) (Brasser 1978b:198, 202-204; Goddard 1978:213-214; Burke 1991:3-4; Trigger
1978:348-355; Gehring and Starna 1988:xix).

The fur trade not only motivated Dutch interactions with these groups, but also influenced the
eventual attempts at colonization. Land grants in the Hudson River valley began in 1629 when
the Staten Generaal encouraged settlement in New Netherland by offering large grants of land
with feudal privileges and the title of Patroon to any person who established a settlement of
more than fifty families on any of the lands in the colony. This led to the creation of large
patroonships on both sides of the Hudson River; the most successful of which was
Rensselaerswijck in the area around Fort Orange and Beverwijck (present-day Albany; which
was laid out by the company in 1652). An Amsterdam diamond merchant and one of the
directors of the West India Company, Kiliaen van Rensselaer purchased in 1630 an extensive
tract covering the west side of the Hudson surrounding Fort Orange extending from
approximately Cohoes Falls near the Mohawk-Hudson confluence south to below the present-
day Normanskill. Small areas on the east side of the Hudson were included in his tract. This
parcel was later expanded in the 1680s after the English takeover of New Netherland to
encompass approximately 850,000 acres on both sides of the river (i.e., the Manor of
Rensselearwyck) (Kim 1978:4-8; Ellis et al. 1967:18-25, 74-76; Burke 1991:3-4; Gehring and
Starna 1988:xiii-xxiv; Dunn 1994:13-14, 1991).

As expected, settlement of the Hudson Valley occurred first along the river and adjacent
lowlands since the mountainous interior was considered impenetrable wilderness until after the
Revolutionary War. While the manor comprised lands on both sides of the Hudson, settlement
clustered along the flat alluvial lands along both banks of that river, especially near Fort Orange
and Beverwijck. By the early 1650s the population of Beverwijck had increased to 230 people
with 18 farms under cultivation (Burke 1991:18-19). As early as 1643, the Patroon and Adrian
Van der Donck, a governmental official in Beverwijck, both wanted to establish a settlement
near the confluence of Catskill Creek and the Hudson River, but neither did. Three years later
Cornelius Antonissen Van Slyck acquired a grant for lands along the Catskill, but never claimed
it. In 1649, Brandt Van Slechtenhorst purchased a large tract in this area from the Indians, but
since his purchase had been obtained without the permission of the West India Company,
Pieter Stuyvesant, the Direct General of New Netherland, had him arrested and voided the
purchase by 1652. Farmers who had previously leased lands from Van Slechtenhorst were
allowed to remain without feudal burdens (Vedder 1927:52; J.B. Beers and Co. 1884:90).

As population slowly increased throughout New Netherland, settlements were established in the
mid-Hudson Valley (notably Wiltwijck and Nieuw Dorp, present-day Kingston and Hurley), in
what would become northern New Jersey, and on western Long Island (Burke 1991:18; Blumin
1976:2). Although the Dutch ostensibly controlled the area along both banks of the river, they
continued to have difficulties with the local Native American groups with whom they traded.
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These difficulties were exacerbated by the increasing number of Europeans and slaves entering
New Netherland. These settlers were encouraged by Dutch officials to establish farming
communities within the colony. Not unexpectedly, violence erupted between the Native
Americans and the Dutch in the 1640s and 1660s over conflicting land issues. In 1643,
Algonquian Delaware living either on or near what is now Constitution Island (east of West
Point) retaliated against abuses inflicted by Dutch traders and farmers as part of what became
two years of bitter conflict. As a result of that incident, Constitution Island was referred to as
both "Murderer's Island" and “Martyr’s Island” (Headley 1908:263).

Farmers from Rensselaerwijck established bouweries (farmsteads) in the Esopus Creek valley
beginning in 1652. This community was called Esopus and did not possess a true village. Later,
when tensions arose between the Dutch and the Esopus Indians, Director General Pieter
Stuyvesant order the erection of fortifications along the river in 1658. The area of fortifications
(the present-day Rondout area) was called Rondhuit (Dutch for standing timbers); the village
that developed around the stockade was called Wiltwijck (Dutch for wild place; the present-day
City of Kingston). Several years later overcrowding at Wiltwijck led to the founding of Nieuw
Dorp (Dutch for “new village”) near what is now the Village of Hurley. In 1663 the Esopus
destroyed the newly established farming community at Nieuw Dorp and burned houses at
Wiltwijck, killing at least 18 people and taking at least nine prisoners. While Dutch proprietorship
of New Netherland ended when the English peacefully seized control of the colony in 1664,
land-use and settlement patterns established in the region by the Dutch remained largely the
same (Blumin 1976:2; Brasser 1978b:204; Goddard 1978:220-222; Kim 1978:4-8; Greene
1931:I:92: Gehring and Starna 1988:xiii-xxiv; Burke 1991:349, 66-67).

Despite increasing competition with the local Indians over land and resources, Dirck Teunisse
Van Vechten acquired a tract of land near the confluence of Catskill and Kaaterskill creeks in
1681 and received a formal patent for the area in 1686. Van Vechten operated a sawmill and a
flour mill on the Vosenkill, as well as purveyed molasses, rum and lumber. The gristmill was in
operation until at least 1741. His farm produced maize, tobacco, wheat, flax, and wool. A wharf
had been erected near the confluence by 1715 (Vedder 1927:43, 52-53, 1922:41-42; J.B. Beers
and Co. 1884:90-91). Samuel Van Vechten, heir of Dirck Teunisse Van Vechten, erected a dam
across the Catskill in 1715, and operated grist and saw mills as well as a general store. Teunis
Van Vechten, nephew of Samuel, built new grist and sawmills as well as a new mill-dam in 1770
at a cost of £1,000 (Vedder 1922:46).

English takeover of New Netherland—renamed New York, for James, Duke of York and Albany
(later, king)—did nothing to reduce the importance of the fur trade, which remained an essential
imperial concern. Subsequent competition between the English and the French in New France
(Canada) resulted in the erection of fortified trading posts within the frontier. Moreover, the
economic rivalry between England and France over the fur trade affected their Native American
clients, who continued to be drawn into the episodic conflicts that marked the European struggle
for empire. With the Dutch excluded from New World influence, the strategic importance of New
York as a nexus of trade and commerce increased as the area became enmeshed in the power
struggle between the two European kingdoms for control over North America during the
eighteenth century. As the limits of settlement extended westward with the construction of Fort
Oswego (1727) and Fort Stanwix (1755), the established areas in the east along the Hudson
River, developed into staging areas for the military or semi-industrial and agricultural areas
producing matériel for the incessant conflicts generally fought on the frontier (Abler and Tooker
1978:506-507; Burke 1991:95-110; Ellis et al. 1967:52-59).


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In 1683, the province of New York was divided into ten counties—Albany, Dutchess, Kings, New
York, Orange, Queens, Richmond, Suffolk, Ulster and West Chester. Albany included all of the
northern part of the state including present-day Vermont. By the beginning of the eighteenth
century territory on the east side of the Hudson River from Albany to New York City had been
patented to rich, politically-connected entrepreneurs and divided into large manors or patents.
The Van Rensselaers controlled Rensselaerwyck Manor (1685); Francis Rumbout and Gulian
Verplanck acquired Rumbout’s Patent (1685); Robert Livingston established Livingston Manor
(1686); Stephanus Van Cortlandt established Cortlandt Manor (1697); Adolph Philipse
purchased Philipse Highland Patent (1697); Henry Beekman obtained Beekman’s Patent
(1697); and nine investors combined to purchase the Great Nine Partners Patent, among others
(Kim 1978). The west side of the river, more rugged and less hospitable, was also patented, but
in smaller parcels and settled with less initial success.

At the time of their creation in 1683, the dividing line between Albany and Ulster counties stood,
at first, at Murderer’s Creek near what is now the Village of Athens (Vedder 1927:4) and then,
after 1733, readjusted to present-day Saugerties Creek in the Town of Saugerties (J.B. Beers
and Co. 1884:30). The Catskill Creek area originally was included within Albany County. On
March 24, 1772, Albany County was divided into districts or precincts; the districts pertinent to
present-day Greene County were the districts of “Coxsacky” (numerous spellings) and Great
Imboght (also numerous spellings). These precincts were transformed into the towns of
“Cocksackie” and “Cats-Kill” in Albany County on March 7, 1788. In April 1798 the Town of
Catskill was annexed to Ulster County (Vedder 1927:37; J.B. Beers and Co. 1884:31, 119).

Ulster County upon its creation included the towns of Kingston, Hurley, Marbletown, New Paltz,
and Fox Hall and by 1733 comprised land between Murderers Creek near the Highlands on the
south (present-day Orange County) and Saugerties Creek on the north (Brink 1906:227). Ulster
County attained its present size in 1809 when sections were removed for the creation of
Sullivan County and a piece was added to Orange County. Sections of Ulster County had been
removed earlier: taken for the creation of Delaware County in 1797, and for Greene County in
1800.

The Catskill Patent was “the largest and most valuable patent ever granted for lands now
entirely within [Greene C]ounty. It embraced five ‘great plains,’ called by the Indians,
Wachachkeek, Wichquanachtek, Pachquiack, Assiskowacheek, and Potick, with all the land
included in a sweep of four miles from the outer edge of the plains in all directions” (J.B. Beers
and Co. 1884:25). Containing in excess of 35,000 acres, the patent comprised the flats at what
is now Leeds. The land was purchased from the Indians by Silvester Salisbury and Marte
Gerritse Van Bergen on July 8, 1678, with the formal patent granted by Provincial Governor
Edmund Andros on March 27, 1680. “A confirmatory purchase was made of the Indians by
Cornelius Van Dyke and Martin Gerritse June 13th 1684, and a corresponding patent was issued
by Gov[ernor Thomas] Dongan April 29th 1688. Several small tracts that fell within its limits were
excepted” (J.B. Beers and Co. 1884:26, 93-96; see also Vedder 1927:39-40; Gallt 1915:122-
124). Settlement in the Catskill Creek area increased slowly after 1675. Early industry in the
area included tanning (using hemlock trees), sawmilling, and creating charcoal pits. Later
industry included brick-making, and cement after 1900. The Catskill Cement Company founded
in 1899 and produced 1,000 barrels of Portland cement a day by 1909 (Vedder 1927:39-50,
1922:21-22; J.B. Beers and Co. 1884:94-97; Gallt 1915:151-152).

Although the first slaves were brought into New Netherland as early as 1626, private ownership
was not customary until the 1650s. During the early decades of the colony slaves were owned
for the most part by the West India Company. However, in the 1660s, while New Amsterdam
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remained under Dutch control, at least 400 slaves were landed in New Netherland by the
company (Burke 1991:123-125). Prominent Dutch landowners usually owned several slaves,
who were passed on to heirs. Under the British during the late seventeenth century and early
eighteenth century, the incidence of slavery increased in the New York colony in general (Burke
1991:193, 210; Davis 1991:83). For example, Ulster County as a whole had a population of
2,923 (including 566 slaves, 19.4 percent of the population) in 1723. In 1746, the county had
5,265 inhabitants including 1,111 slaves (approximately 21 percent of the population). However,
on the eve of the American Revolution (1771), the population of Ulster County had risen to
13,950, which included 1,954 slaves (constituting approximately 14 percent of the population)
(Davis 1991:88-89). English and Dutch farmers in the Hudson valley apparently relied heavily
on slave labor, although the more steeply slopes areas were likely lightly populated.

Settlement of what is now Ulster County increased in the late seventeenth century after the
English takeover of New Netherland. Although settlement focused on the Kingston-Hurley area,
pioneers gradually filtered down the Rondout Creek and Wallkill River valleys so that most of
the rest of the county was divided among colonial patentees between 1665 and 1715. For
example, the New Paltz Patent covered 92,126 acres and was granted by Provincial Governor
Edmund Andros to a group of French Huguenots that included Louis du Bois, Christian Deyo (or
Doyou), Abraham Hasbrouck, Pierre Doyou, Louis Bevier, Antonie Crespel, Abraham du Bois,
Hugo Freer, Isaac du Bois, and Simon Le Fevre (Ruttenber 1907:52; Clearwater 1907:265,
306).

The nearby Hurley Patent (from which much of the present-day Town of Rosendale was
formed) was granted to Philip P. Schuyler, Matthew Blanchar (or Blanshan), Cornelius
Wynkoop, Anthony Crespel, Roeliff Swartout, Thomas Hall, Heynear Albertse Roore, Louis du
Bois, Jan Valckert, Goossen Gerritse, and Jan Thommassen, among orthers (Clearwater
1907:262). Marbletown was granted from Queen Anne in 1703 (Clearwater 1907:275; Sylvester
1880b:66-67). Early villages in what is now Ulster County included the renamed Dutch
settlements of Kingston and Hurley as well as Marbletown (1667) and New Paltz (1679)
(Ruttenber 1907:49-56).

In addition to Dutch and British settlers, German immigrants from the Palatinate arrived in the
mid-Hudson Valley in the early eighteenth century. More than 3,000 German refugees left
England for the Province of New York in January 1710 (more than 700 died on the journey over
or while in quarantine on Nutten [later Governor’s] Island). They were initially settled in the
Hudson Valley to work, serf-like, for the British government in order to “raise hemp for cordage,
and to manufacture tar and pitch, so that the government would no longer be obliged to buy
these much-needed commodities for ship-building from other countries” (German American
Corner 2000; Benton 1999 [1856]). Robert Hunter had devised a scheme to supply necessary
products to the British Navy and petitioned the Board of Trade to provide a labor force for his
project. As a result, Palatine refugees, who had flocked to London to escape dire economic
conditions in their homeland, would be resettled in the colonies to provided labor under Hunter’s
"Naval Stores" project, among other locales in the British New World (Witthoff 1999). In 1710,
while Hunter was appointed Governor of New York, the Germans were resettled on lands
purchased from Robert Livingston of Livingston Manor (in exchange for the contract to provision
the immigrants) as well as on tracts on the west shore of the Hudson River, such as West
Camp, Kaatsbaan and Saugerties in what is now Ulster County (J.B. Beers and Co. 1884:24;
Witthoff 1999). For a variety of reasons, the project was a total failure and the Palatines were
forced to fend for themselves. Nearing starvation, 50 families relocated to the Schoharie Creek
area, with consent of the Indians in October 1712 (Witthoff 1999). Despite the failure of the
“Naval Stores” project, the fertility and availability of land near the Wallkill and Rondout Creek
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beckoned settlers during the eighteenth century as farming was the primary economic activity in
the area (Sylvester 1880b:229-231).

What is now Rensselaer County was initially part of van Rensselaer’s Patroonship, the Manor of
Rensselaerswyck. Later, this manor was part of a much larger Albany County from 1683, when
the ten original counties of the colony of New York were created, until 1791 (Sylvester
1880a:11-12). For the most part, settlement of the lands on the east side of the river
commenced in the 1630s by tenants of the Patroon and filtered eastward at a glacially slow
pace as the Patroon purchased land from the Mohican. For the longest time settlement hugged
the alluvial lands along the shore (Sylvester 1880a:11-12, 398; Dunn 1991:13-14; Figure 2.1).
Although areas in the present-day City of Rensselaer had European residents in the 1630s and
1640s, the eastern towns of Sand Lake, Nassau, and Stephentown were not permanently




           Figure 2.1. Manor of Rensselaerswyck in 1767. The red square is the
           approximate location of what is now the City of Albany (Bleeker
           1767).


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settled by European-Americans until after the 1750s. As late as 1714, the manor contained a
total population of 427, while Albany County had a population of around 1,708 (Kim 1978:235-
236). As early as 1642 ferry service was operated between the east and west side of the river
(Sylvester 1880a:333; Anderson 2009 [1897]).

Prior to the Revolutionary War, much of present-day Orange County was parceled out to
numerous patentees. During the eighteenth century, Orange County began the process of
organizing into precincts and towns. By the beginning of the Revolutionary War, the Precinct of
New Cornwall included the present-day towns of Blooming Grove, Cornwall, Highlands,
Woodbury, and Monroe, as well as parts of Chester and Hamptonburgh (Eager 1846:29-30,
584). While increasing in Ulster County, the incidence of slavery under the British decreased in
Orange County. In 1723, Orange County had a population of 1,244, including 147 slaves
(approximately 12 percent of the population). In 1756, the county had 4,886 inhabitants
including 430 slaves (approximately 9 percent of the population). On the eve of the American
Revolution (1771), the population of Orange County had risen to 10,092, which included 662
slaves (6.6 percent of the population; Davis 1991:90). Vincent Matthews was the earliest settler
in the Town of Blooming Grove. He purchased land, part of the Rip Van Dam patent, in 1721,
and established a mill there. For a number of years the developing settlement where he lived
was known as Matthews Field.

The ancient rivalry between the British and the French intensified during the course of the
eighteenth century, reaching a crescendo during the 1750s, when the two kingdoms resumed
active warfare (i.e., the French and Indian War). While the British controlled much of the Hudson
Valley, the French commanded the Lake George area with Fort Saint-Frédéric at Crown Point
and Fort Carillon at Ticonderoga (Starbuck 1999:54-57). A map of the east part of the Manor of
Rensselaerswyck prepared by John R. Bleeker in 1767 showed structures or residences in the
upper Hudson Valley within what is now Albany and Rensselaer counties (Sylvester 1880a:26-
27; Figure 2.1). In March 1772, what would become Rensselaer County was divided into four
districts within Albany County: Rensselaerswyck, Hoosick, Pittstown, and Schaghticoke. These
districts, as well as the new Town of Stephentown, were organized as towns within Albany
County in March 1788. Rensselaer County was created from Albany County in February 1791
and contained seven towns: the four former districts as well as Troy, Petersburgh, and
Stephentown. One act created the Town of Greenbush from the Town of Rensselaerswyck in
April 1792 and another act created it in March 1795 (Anderson 2009 [1897]; Sylvester
1880a:12-13, 397).

During the American Revolution, British General John Burgoyne traversed northern New York
during his ill-fated plan to divide the rebellious colonies. Part of this campaign, the Battle of
Bennington was fought in what is now Walloomsac in the Town of Hoosick in the eastern part of
Rensselaer County, less than ten miles northwest of Bennington, Vermont. The battle was
fought prior to the decisive Battle of Saratoga in late summer 1777 and resulted in the death or
capture of a significant portion of Burgoyne’s Hessians, undermining the strength of his
offensive firepower. Without the Patriot victory at Bennington, the outcome of Saratoga may
have been different.

During the war, both sides of the Hudson River became the focus of Patriot defenses. The
strategic importance of the river was immediately recognized by both American and British
strategists (Diamant 1994:2-5; Muller et al. 1988:6-9). By controlling the river and Lake Champlain
the British could sever the physical link between the New England colonies and the “bread-
basket” colonies of the Middle Atlantic. Defending the river thus was essential for Patriot military
planners. During this time, the advent and development of American defenses resulted in the
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establishment of military posts. In Orange County, these military posts would eventually become
the U.S. Military Academy in 1802. The fortification system was designed to prevent the British
from sailing up the Hudson River (Diamant 1994:85-132; Muller et al. 1988:20-22, 50-52).

Relative peace of the Hudson Valley ended in October 1777, when British Major General Sir
Henry Clinton successfully dispersed the American defenses at Fort Montgomery, resulting in
the evacuation of American forces from the Hudson Highlands. The British overran West Point
and burned the fortifications on Constitution Island. British forces continued to burn and pillage
the larger farms and river towns as they moved northward up the Hudson. Upon reaching
Kingston, Clinton's forces received news of Burgoyne's defeat at Saratoga and, after torching
the village, quickly returned to New York City, leaving the mid-Hudson Valley to the colonials.
With the return of the Orange County Highlands to American control by early November 1777,
American military planners devised a stronger system of defense for the region (Diamant
1994:115-120, 131-132; Muller et al. 1988:50-52). After the American victory at the Battle of
Stony Point in July 1779, the Highlands fortifications went militarily unchallenged by the British
for the rest of the war; although the desire to capture West Point played a significant role in the
treachery of Benedict Arnold during his command of the facility. The inhospitable mountains
surrounding West Point were abandoned by the Army at the war’s conclusion, and the outlying
fortifications were dismantled and sold or fell into ruin (Muller et al. 1988:201-202, 205).

During the Revolution, local residents were terrorized and subjected to attacks and thefts by
Tory supporters. Claudius Smith, known as the “Cowboy of the Ramapose [sic],” and his sons
were outlaws who stole horses and cattle, invaded and robbed homes, and even murdered
some of the residents. Smith killed Major Nathaniel Strong in his home, which resulted in the
Governor of New York posting a reward of $1,200 for his capture. Smith fled to Long Island and
supposed British safety, but was caught and taken to Goshen where he was hanged on January
22, 1779. During the Smith gang’s tenure they hid in several caves and rockshelters. One of
their main hideouts was a rockshelter located southwest of Oxford, about one mile from the
project area (Eager 1846). Smith’s Clove is named for him.

Antislavery sentiments in the northern colonies emerged during the American Revolution.
Despite these sentiments, between 1786 and 1790, the number of slaves increased from
18,998 to 21,329. Emancipation acts in the New York legislature were established in 1799 and
1817 (Davis 1991:80-83). In 1803, blacks in New York City rioted, burning parts of the city and
destroying homes. Finally, in 1827, slavery was abolished in the state (Harper 2003; Becker
1999).

Rensselaer County. For the most part, settlement of the lands on the east side of the Hudson
River commenced in the early 1630s by tenants of the Patroon and filtered eastward at a
glacially slow pace. For the longest time settlement hugged the alluvial lands along the shore.
As late as 1714, the eighty-year-old manor contained a total population of 427, while Albany
County had a population around 1,708 (Kim 1978:235-236). After the Revolutionary War, New
Englanders began migrating into and through Rensselaer County, resulting in conflict between
the Massachusetts and New York over the area’s boundary (Kim 1978).

In March 1772, what would become Rensselaer County was divided into four districts:
Rensselaerwyck, Hoosick, Pittstown, and Schaghticoke (at that time they were still part of
Albany County). These districts, as well as the new Town of Stephentown (which had been
removed from the eastern part of Rensselaerwyck), were organized as towns within Albany
County in March 1788. Rensselaer County was created from Albany County in February 1791

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and comprised seven towns: the four former districts as well as the towns of Troy, Petersburgh,
and Stephentown (Sylvester 1880a:12).

The earliest public roads in the county date prior to the Revolution and include the “Old Post
Road,” that ran along the river and connected Troy to New York City, and paths that
approximate the current Routes 9 and 2. The Farmers Turnpike along the river and the Boston-
Albany Turnpike were utilized prior to 1800 (Sylvester 1880a:402). Once roads in the area had
developed, settlement and growth followed. While the landowners worked the land in
preparation to sow their crops or graze their animals, an abundance of wild animals provided
options as a source of food. Deer, bear, raccoon, rabbit, partridge and wild turkey populated the
area’s forests, as did dangerous competition from wildcats and wolves (Meinig 1966a:165-166).

During the War of 1812, troops were housed at the Greenbush Cantonment, which was
approximately two miles southeast of what is now the City of Rensselaer. The cantonment was
erected on a 400-acre farm initially leased by Christopher Yates from Stephen Van Rensselaer
and later purchased outright by the government. It served as the headquarters for the Northern
Division of the U.S. Army. Eight two-story, wood structures with stone foundations were erected
to house the 4,000 soldiers stationed at the property, which also included a parade ground
(Anderson 2009 [1897]). Declared surplus in May 1819, the complex was purchased in May
1831 by Hawthorne McCulloch. At present one of the Officer’s Barracks remains; the Red Mill
School occupies the former parade grounds.

The present-day City of Rensselaer was formed by the merger of three villages—Bath-on-the-
Hudson, East Albany, and Greenbush—and a portion of the Town of North Greenbush (Sinclair
1976:40-44). This area was part of the Town of Greenbush when it was created in 1792 (or
1795) from the Town of Rensselaerswyck. At formation, Greenbush included the towns of East
Greenbush and North Greenbush as well as a part of the Town of Sand Lake. The Sand Lake
portion was removed in June 1812. The area was originally settled by the Dutch by the early
1630s. A ferry connecting the town to Beverwijck (Albany) had been established by 1642 by
Hendrick Albertson. Although a grist mill and a sawmill had been erected by 1806, the general
lack of water power (i.e., adequate rivers and streams) retarded the town’s growth. The Village
of Greenbush was surveyed in 1810 and incorporated in 1815 (Sylvester 1880a:334-339;
Anderson 2009 [1897]). The village had a population of 3,303 in 1860. The upper or northern
portion of the village where a railroad bridge crosses the Hudson River was referred to as East
Albany and supported the depots, machine shops, and freight houses of several railroads
(French 1860). Nineteenth-century storeowners included Henry Starks, John Smith, Richard P.
Herrick, James Lansing, and Sheppard & Tufts.

The Village of Greenbush was surveyed and incorporated by 1815 (Sylvester 1880a:334-339).
Settlement near the Village of Bath emerged around a mineral spring spa during the eighteenth
century. The village was also organized ca. 1815. During the nineteenth century, industry began
to develop. A tannery was established by Job Gould in 1818 which was operated by J. Royter
and sons in the 1880s. This factory was joined by a boot and shoe factory. William Irwin and
Company founded a grist mill prior to the Civil War which was later operated by William Magill
and Charles C. Ludewick. During the last half of the nineteenth century T. Miles and Company
and Warren and Wilber ran steam saw mills in the town. The village was also home to the East
Albany Railroad and Machine Shops, which serviced the area’s numerous railroad lines
(Sylvester 1880a:341). The Town of Greenbush became conterminous with the Village of
Greenbush on February 23, 1855, when the towns of East Greenbush and North Greenbush
were created. In 1875 the town/village had a population of 7,066 (Sylvester 1880a:12-13, 333).
The present-day City of Rensselaer was formed in 1897 (Sinclair 1976:40-44).
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East Greenbush was originally called the Town of Clinton, but adopted its present name in April
1858 (Sylvester 1880a:12-13, 344). Henry Frazee and Henry Kinney ran taverns in the village of
Wynantskill in the early 1800s. Jonas Smith, Martinus Lansing, John Mason, and Cornelius
Witbeck were early storekeepers in Blooming Grove. Since the Patroon’s time, a ferry had
operated at various intervals between Albany and the Village of Bath. Population of the town in
1875 was 3,936 (Sylvester 1880a:344-347). Agriculture, sawmilling, and potash manufacture
were the town’s primary economic activities (Sylvester 1880a:346).

In 1868, Albany Aniline and Chemical Company erected a factory to make fuchsia and aniline
blue dyes in the southern part of the town, near the port. By the turn of the nineteenth century,
this company was part of the Hudson River Aniline & Color Works, which subcontracted with the
Friedrich Bayer Company and was later purchased by it. In 1905, Bayer erected facilities at the
site for making aspirin, phenacetin, and other pharmaceuticals. The first commercial
manufacture of Bayer aspirin in the United States was made at this Rensselaer site (Ricard
1994:25). The American government seized the Rensselaer plant during World War I (Bayer, as
a German entity, was seen as a supporting the German government) and sold it at auction in
1918. Sterling Products, a maker of patent medicines, was the highest bidder and was awarded
the plant and the American rights to the Bayer name and trademark. More interested in the
pharmaceutical aspects of the company, Sterling Products sold the dye portion of the business
to Grasselli Chemical Company (ca. 1919). The chemical plant passed through several owners
during the twentieth century: American I.G. Chemical Corp. (1929), General Aniline & Film
(GAF) Corp (1939), GAF Corp (1964), and BASF (1978). BASF (Badische Anilin und Soda-
Fabrik Aktiengeschellschaft [AG]), which can trace its beginnings to 1865, shut down the plant
at the end of December 2000 (Ricard 1994:25-27, 2001:17; Sinclair 1976:33).

By the 1870s, two railroad lines traversed the western portion of the county. The Boston-Albany
Railroad and the New York Central-Hudson River railroad ran in a southerly direction through
the then-Town/Village of Greenbush and the towns of East Greenbush and Schodack, with the
Hudson River line hugging the riverbank (Beers 1876; Sylvester 1880a).

By the turn of the nineteenth century, the cities of Albany, Troy, and to a lesser extent
Rensselaer had become industrial centers linked to the nation by a ribbon of rails. New
industries, powered by steam and coal, propelled the region into the forefront of the Industrial
Revolution. The variety of goods produced in these factories included textiles, stoves, bells,
furniture, iron products, weapons, crockery, beer and tin products. The variety and availability of
work attracted immigrant laborers to the region, especially Irish, German, British and French-
Canadians (Walkowitz 1981:3-12). The western portion of the project area nearest the Hudson
river was part of this industrialized area, although areas of agriculture were also present. The
areas further east were either part of a generalized rural village/farming community or were
utilized for stock-raising and lumbering-related industries during the nineteenth century as
properties along the project area were parceled out to individual landowners. Agricultural
activities continued to focus on dairying, cheese-making, poultrying, and potato cultivation with
little market gardening. A few farms utilized fruit crops such as apples, cranberries, and cherries
to supplement their incomes. Most of the industries in the towns were situated along the Hudson
or along streams and rivers (Meinig 1966b:177-178; Sylvester 1880a).

The twentieth century brought the area infrastructure improvements, including the widening and
paving of streets and roadways, and the erection of bridges. Other public services began to
improve living conditions at the turn of the century: gas lines and water mains were laid starting
in the 1890s and electricity was made available ca. 1900 (Meinig 1966b). These improvements
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were usually initiated along the more industrialized and populated area along the Hudson River.
Gradually, these changes filtered into the eastern hills and valleys. With improved
transportation, the rural parts of the county became increasingly attractive to people seeking
more bucolic lifestyles. As the cities of Troy and Albany, and areas along the waterfront,
attracted business and industry, nearby towns experienced growth as developments in
transportation (e.g., the automobile, paved roads, bridges over the Hudson) improved access to
jobs and resources for people who chose to live in less urban settings. The project area
remained largely undeveloped although residential and commercial establishments have
developed since World War II.

Albany County. Albany County was one of the original counties created by the English in the
Province of New York in 1683; it attained its present geographic extent in 1809. Originally
subsumed in the seventeenth-century Manor of Rensselaerswyck, the Town of Bethlehem in
Albany County was established on March 12, 1793 from the Town of Watervliet. The Town of
New Scotland was created from the Town of Bethlehem in April 1832. The Dutch were the initial
European settlers of the town, establishing a short-lived trading post—Fort Nassau—on
Westerlo (or Castle) Island at the mouth of the Normanskill in 1614. Mohicans may have farmed
the Castle Island prior to the arrival of the Dutch, as they did Papscanee Island to the east.
Located on the Hudson River flood plain, the fort was abandoned ca. 1617. Permanent
settlement began by tenants of the Patroon in the 1630s along the area’s creeks and streams,
as well as the flood plain. Growth of the future town was slow until after the American
Revolution (French 1860).

During the nineteenth century, what is now Glenmont emerged at the present intersection of
Glenmont Road and Route 144, which was identified as Frazertown in the 1850s. The Abbey
Hotel was a local landmark constructed ca. 1710. It was razed in 1961. In 1897, Glenmont
consisted of a West Shore Railroad station and post office. No other stores or businesses were
located in the hamlet, which served as a site for shipping molding sand (Schreyer and Curtin
2002:7). A variety of mills and factories were established along the town’s streams in the
nineteenth century. In the twentieth century, the area is largely a bedroom community for
workers in the cities of Albany and Troy and other suburban business parks (New York State
Museum 2001, 2002).

Areas along the Hudson comprise islands—Beacon, Cabbage, Castle Islands—which were
more likely sand or gravel bars rather than true islands. Areas near the junction of Normanskill
Creek and the Hudson once served as a coal ash dumping ground of Niagara Mohawk’s former
Albany steam generating station south of the junction (Curtin 2003:2). When the creek was re-
routed to the north, a ditch and an island between the ditch and the old shoreline were left
behind. Niagara Mohawk then filled in this valley with ash, eliminating the island. Coal fragments
can be found throughout much of the site (Ecology and Environment 2003).

Columbia County. Columbia County was settled from Albany through tenants of the great
landowners (Van Rensselaer and Livingston), Palatinate Germans, and New Englanders
beginning in the late seventeenth century. In 1685, the Patroonship of Van Rensselaer (1630)
was confirmed as Manor of Rensselaerwyck, and contained 170,000 acres in the future
Columbia County (The Hudson Gazette 1900:14-15). With a foothold along the river, settlement
was established on these Columbia County acres in what is now Claverack, which served as
the seat of the Lower Manor of Johannes Van Rensselaer and comprised approximately
170,000 acres. Further south, Livingston Manor contained 160,240 acres around the Roeliff-
Jansen Kill and covered a large portion of the present towns of Livingston, Clermont, Copake,
Ancram, Gallatin, Germantown, and Taghkanic. This manor was granted to Robert Livingston,
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an ally of the Van Rensselaers, by Governor Dongan in 1686 (and confirmed by royal charter in
1715) (Kim 1978:37, 284; Hughes 1887:iv-vi; The Hudson Gazette 1900:15-17, 24).

In 1710, New York Governor Robert Hunter purchased 6,000 acres of Livingston Manor for
settlement by Palatinate Germans who had served in the British Army. Later called
Germantown, this area contained 1,178 inhabitants engaged in tar-making and preparing “naval
stores” in 1711. By the middle of the eighteenth century New Englanders began to filter into the
eastern mountains of the future Columbia County, squatting in what are now the towns of
Canaan, New Lebanon, Chatham, and Austerlitz (Hughes 1887:iv-vi; The Hudson Gazette
1900:15-17, 24).

From 1683 to 1717, the Roeliff-Jansen Kill served as the boundary between Albany and
Dutchess counties. As a result, all of Livingston Manor north of the Roeliff-Jansen Kill was part
of Albany County and all of the manor south of the creek was part of Dutchess County. From
1717 to 1772, all of Livingston Manor was included within Albany County. In 1772 the area that
would become Columbia County was divided into four districts: the District of the Manor of
Livingston; the District of Claverack; the District of Kinderhook; and the King’s District. Between
1772 and 1786 (when Columbia County was created), two additional districts were formed—
Germantown (from Livingston Manor), and Hillsdale (from Claverack) (The Hudson Gazette
1900:34-35).

Columbia County was formed from Albany County in April 1786. Agriculturally-oriented, the
county’s farmers produced rye, oats, corn, potatoes, buckwheat, and some wheat and hay. The
eastern portion of the county specialized in stockraising and dairying (The Hudson Gazette
1900:1, 3). The seven towns erected at Columbia County creation were Canaan, Claverack,
Clermont, Germantown, Hillsdale, Kinderhook, and Livingston. Town division and creation
continued gradually between 1786 and 1837. For example, in the 1820s the Town of Stuyvesant
was created from the Town of Kinderhook (April 1823), and in the 1830s, the Town of Stockport
was created from the towns of Hudson (incorporated in 1785), Ghent, and Stuyvesant (April
1833), and the Town of Greenport from the Town of Hudson (March 1837) (The Hudson
Gazette 1900:35-36).

Within the county, the initial roads included the Albany-Boston Stage Road in northern part of
county (approximately Route 20) which followed the course of Wyomanock Creek in New
Lebanon; the Stockbridge-Albany Turnpike through Canaan (approximately path of Route 90);
the Hudson to Massachusetts Line Turnpike (1799-1800) through Taghkanic, Copake, and
Hillsdale (approximate path of Route 23); and the Rensselaer-Columbia Turnpike (1799). More
than six other routes were chartered before 1813 (The Hudson Gazette 1900:48). The earliest
railroad in the county was the Boston & Albany Road, which connected Kinderhook, Chatham,
and Canaan, (between 1838 and 1841). In 1852, the New York & Harlem Line (running
northerly through Ancram, Copake, Claverack, and Ghent) intersected the Boston & Albany
Road at Chatham. The so-called Harlem Extension (through New Lebanon into Rensselaer
County) was known at one time as the Lebanon Springs Road was completed through the area
to Vermont in 1869. The Poughkeepsie, Hartford & Boston line passed through Ancram by
1872, and the Rhinebeck to Connecticut Railroad (part of Philadelphia, Reading & New England
system in 1900) reached Ancram by 1874 and complete in 1875 (The Hudson Gazette 1900:3,
76-80).

In the twentieth century, eastern areas of the county in the Harlem Valley comprised parts of
generalized rural village/farming communities. Agricultural activities continued to focus on
dairying, cheese-making, poultrying, and potato cultivation with little market gardening. A few
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farms utilized fruit crops such as apples, cranberries, and cherries to supplement their incomes.
Most of the industries in the county were situated along the Hudson or along streams and rivers
(Meinig 1966b:177-178; Sylvester 1880a). As expected, the twentieth century brought the area
infrastructure improvements, including the paving of streets and roadways, and other public
services, such as gas lines, water mains and electricity (Meinig 1966b). Gradually, with
improved transportation, the rural parts of the county became increasingly attractive to people
seeking more bucolic lifestyles and nearby towns experienced growth as developments in
transportation (e.g., the automobile, paved roads, bridges over the Hudson) improved access to
jobs and resources for people who chose to live in less urban settings. Areas along the Hudson
River attracted residential developments and commercial establishments since before World
War II.

Founded by businessmen, whalers, and merchants from Rhode Island and Massachusetts, the
City of Hudson development as an important economic center in the area and was one of the
busiest ports on the Hudson River. What is now the City of Hudson was formed from the Town
of Claverack and was part of the land grant purchased from the Indians in 1662 by Jan Frans
Van Hoesen. This purchase was confirmed by Governor Richard Nicoll in May 1667. Emerging
as a local shipping center for area farmers during the eighteenth century, the developing
settlement and harbor were called Claverack Landing. New Englanders arrived after the
Revolution in 1783, and by April 1785 the settlement was incorporated as the City of Hudson,
and became the home port of 25 whaling ships. It attained its present size in 1837 (The Hudson
Gazette 1900).

However, international difficulties at the beginning of the nineteenth century followed by the War
of 1812 decimated Hudson’s whaling economy, from which it would not recover until the 1830s.
By the time the Hudson River whaling industry recovered, the City of Hudson was no longer the
lone whaling port in the Hudson River valley. In 1832, Matthew Vasser, Paraclete Potter, and
Alexander J. Coffin organized the Poughkeepsie Whaling Company, which operated between
1832 and 1837. A contemporary, the Dutchess Whaling Company operated between 1833 and
1844. In all, four Hudson River whaling companies operated at least 30 vessels, and the area
prospered with the flow of sperm whale oil. However, economic dislocations associated with the
Panic of 1837 undermined the whaling industry. Further, other options for artificial light were
developed during this period, and whaling died out in the Hudson valley by ca. 1845 (Levine
2012; Attafuah-Wadee 2013).

During the nineteenth century general economic activities in the Taconic Hills continued to focus
on hunting, trapping, lumbering, and limited agricultural production, as the rocky outcrops and
steep slopes surrounding the project areas generally precluded commercial agriculture. Despite
these obstacles, a few farmers devoted some of their activities to grazing livestock, including
sheep, poultry, and pigs, and to fruit crops (Meinig 1966a:165-166). The area remained part of a
generalized rural farming community during the nineteenth century as properties within the
project area were parceled out to individual landowners who established farmsteads or other
agricultural enterprises or left the land vacant. Agricultural activities continued to focus on
dairying, cheese-making, poultrying, and potato cultivation with little market gardening. A few
farms utilized fruit crops such as apples, cranberries, grapes and cherries to supplement their
incomes (Meinig 1966b:177-178). During the late nineteenth century, numerous and varied
small manufacturing plants flourished throughout the countryside in villages and small cities.

       [D]escriptions in the 1870's [sic] of Columbia County reported more than sixty factories,
       mostly in country villages, and it may be taken as fairly typical of the counties along the
       main Hudson-Mohawk axis. Products were principally cotton goods, paper (much of it

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       from raw straw), and agricultural equipment. ... This scale and variety of factories was
       partly a carry-over from an earlier era characterized by many small water-powered mills
       and partly of the newer era of larger steam-powered mills [Meinig 1966b:179].

Clusters of structures formed small villages in the vicinity of the route and transportation networks
allowed the transportation of goods and people to the larger cities and villages along the river.

The twentieth century has seen increasing activity in the vicinity of the project area. A period of
infrastructure improvements, including the widening and paving of streets and roadways, and
the erection of bridges also occurred. Around the turn of the century, other public services
began to improve living conditions in the area: gas lines and water mains were laid starting in
the 1890s and electricity had been available since ca. 1900 (Meinig 1966b). As the cities of
Hudson and Poughkeepsie and areas along the waterfront attracted tourists and businesses,
such as IBM, towns experienced growth as developments in transportation (e.g, the automobile,
paved roads, bridges over the Hudson) improved access to jobs and resources for the general
population. The project area remained largely rural although residential subdivisions and
commercial establishments have developed after World War II.

Greene County. Named for Nathaniel Greene, Major General during Revolutionary War,
Greene County was formed in March 1800 from Ulster and Albany counties. Two towns from
each county (Catskill and Windham [and a part of Woodstock] from Ulster and Coxsackie and
Freehold [later, Durham] from Albany) were included within the new county, although the third
‘e’ was intermittently applied during its first years of existence (Vedder 1927: 4, 5, 11-12, 37;
J.B. Beers and Co. 1884:30-32, 119; Gallt 1915:57, 369).

Lands within what is now Greene County were subject to numerous colonial patents during both
the Dutch and English settlement periods, but few pioneers settlers in this area prior to 1700.
Saw and grist mills were operated at what are is now Athens and Leeds during the early
eighteenth century. Ira or Stephen Day erected the first flouring mill in the hamlet of Leeds
(Vedder 1922:38, 39). The village of Catskill’s shipyards constructed brigs, sloops and
schooners for the Hudson River shipping industry and from 1792 to 1801 the number of
residences robustly increased from ten to 156 in the village (Vedder 1927:44, 47; J.B. Beers
and Co. 1884:138-139). The Village of Athens was a port on the Hudson-Athens ferry route and
was a thriving hub for shipbuilding, brick making and ice harvesting during the nineteenth
century. Prior to 1815, sloops dominated freighting industry and area leaders included Bogardus
& Cook (ca. 1800), the Day family, Donnelly, Cook & Co., F.N. Wilson, and Penfield, Day & Co.
With the coming of the steamboats in the early nineteenth century, Athens and Catskill became
ports of call with numerous docks and wharves. In 1814 three steamboats regularly traveled
past the region from New York. By 1828 steamboats began traveling between Catskill and New
York and continued to until at least 1884. The Hudson River Day line was founded in 1855 (J.B.
Beers and Co. 1884:139; Gallt 1915:75-76, 82).

Improvements in transportation infrastructure during the nineteenth century played an important
role in the economic prosperity of the area. Kings Highway, a north-south running road was
created along the west bank of the Hudson in 1703. Authorized in 1800 by the State Legislature,
the Susquehanna Turnpike (the present-day Mohican Trail [New York State Route 145]) ran
through the northern portion of Greene County from the Village of Catskill west to Wattles’ Ferry
on the Susquehanna River (J.B. Beers and Co. 1884:44; Gallt 1915:370; Vedder 1922:24). The
Town of Athens was created in 1830.



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Lumbering was leading industry in the town at first as most settlers in order to grow their crops
of corn, tobbaco, wheat or barley had to clear their lots of trees in this once heavily forested
area. Once cut and dried, timber, such as elm, beech and maple, was burned and processed by
asheries into either a white powder called “pearl ash” or potash, sometimes called “black salts.”
The sale of wood ashes was the only cash-producing crop for many early settlers during their
first years in New York. By 1796, potash and pearl ash were important commodities—“potash
sold for $175 a ton, and to produce a ton, from five to seven hundred bushels of ashes were
required. The ashes sold for one shilling a bushel” (Vedder 1927:38). Workers at this time
received about $13 a month and were hard to find (Vedder 1927:38). While the pioneers cleared
the land, an abundance of wild animals provided options as a source of food. Deer, bear,
raccoon, rabbit, partridge and wild turkey populated the area’s forests, as did dangerous
competition from wildcats, wolves and bears. Substantial bounties were advertised for killed
wolves (Gallt 1915:235; Ellis et al. 1967:78-79).

While the Towns of Athens and Catskill remained agricultural, the arrival of the railroads
contributing to the area’s subsequent industrialization, railroads traversed the town in the
nineteenth century. “The railroads of 1838 and [18]82 found footing along the banks of the
Catskill which has furrowed a channel and washed bare the rocky palisade along its course ...”
(Vedder 1922:55). The Catskill & Canajoharie Railroad was constructed to Cooksburgh in 1838,
then failed. And the Saratoga & Hudson River Railroad had a station at the Village of Athens,
but was abandoned in 1867. The West Shore, the Stony Clove, and the Catskill Mountain
railroads all opened in 1882. A new depot for the West Shore line was built in the Village of
Catskill in 1912 (Gallt 1915:88, 93). In 1882 the Catskill Mountain Railroad “was built to open up
the mountain section and operated to Palenville, Cairo, Leeds, South Cairo, Laurenceville and
the Mountain House on Otis Summit, Haines Falls, and Tannersville” (Gallt 1915:93). The
Catskill Street railroad (trolley) was built to Leeds in 1892 (Gallt 1915:89).

Aside from shipping and agriculture, manufacturing played an important part in the economic
growth of the Town of Catskill in the nineteenth century. A lime factory that began operation in
1833 was still active in 1884. While the Swartout tan-yard, which made harnesses and other
leather products went out of business ca. 1880, the Imperial Facing Mill (a foundry) was
established in 1880. B. Wiltse & Co. were plowmakers whose operation was founded in 1808 as
Dutchers. Other industrial operations included the National Register-listed Hop-o-Nose Knitting
Company (1881), the Harris Manufacturing Co. (LTD) (a woolen mill, established in 1864), and
the Excelsior Pottery and Drain Tile and Pipe Works (1865) (J.B. Beers and Co. 1884:100-101).
Improvements in communications occurred with the incorporation of the Catskill, Cairo, &
Windham Telegraph Company (1879) and the Catskill Telegraph & Telephone Company (1881)
(J.B. Beers and Co. 1884:138).

Prominent businesses in the mid-1920s were Catskill Hardware & Lumber Co., Welsh & Grey
Lumber Co., New Era Apple Products Co., Inc. (in Leeds, incorporated 1926), Mayone Brick
Co., (1916), Catskill Creamery (1925), Edison Post Apple Products Corp (sweet cider and
vinegar 1924), Rip van Winkle Golf and Country Club, Catskill County Club and Jefferson
Heights Improvement Co., (Vedder 1927:176). As the century progressed, a trend toward
suburbanization affected the area based on its location approximately 30 miles south of the City
of Albany and about 30 miles north of the City of Kingston. However, outside the larger villages
the majority of the town remained rural. The New York State Thruway was completed east of
project area in the 1950s and Route 23 has been during 1970s.

Ulster County. During the first half of the nineteenth century, the most important event in the
economic history of the county was the creation of the Delaware & Hudson (D&H) Canal in the
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1820s. Incorporated in April 1823, the D&H Canal Company broke ground for its venture in July
1825. The route of the canal nearly bisected Ulster County, connecting the Pennsylvania
coalfields around Honesdale to the Hudson River at Rondout, just south of Kingston. In 1826,
during the excavation of the canal through what is now the Town of Rosendale, D&H engineers
discovered a natural hydraulic cement (Rosendale cement) along Rondout Creek near what
was then known as the hamlet of Lawrenceville. As a result, the excavation of the 108-mile,
110-lock D&H led directly to the quarrying, burning and grinding of cement after 1826. John
Littlejohn held the first contract to provide cement for the D&H (Clearwater 1907:358; Blumin
1976:51-55). Completed in October 1828, the D&H canal was built to a depth of four feet and
was navigable by boats capable of holding 30 tons. The canal was enlarged in 1842 to
accommodate boats of 40 tons. The canal carried boats loaded with Pennsylvania coal and
Rosendale cement for the New York City market. By 1851 the canal was deepened again, and
could accommodate boats capable of carrying 120 tons (Sylvester 1880b:153-155; Blumin
1976:54-56).

After a short-lived decline in the demand for cement with the completion of the D&H, production
was revived by Judge Lucas Elmendorf (who was succeeded by Watson E. Lawrence) and
Jacob Snyder (Clearwater 1907:357-358). Watson E. Lawrence founded the Lawrenceville
Cement Works in 1828. The cement business boomed during the middle decades of the
nineteenth century in the entire county. As Rondout Creek valley became flushed with cement
money, the village of Rosendale changed from farming community to an industrial town. The
village had an important canal that carried the Pennsylvania coal trade to the Hudson River and
the burgeoning cement industry to the market of New York City. Economic prosperity brought
immigrant laborers as well as social and financial changes and problems. In an effort to contain
the cement industry within a single political entity, the Town of Rosendale was created from the
towns of Marbletown, New Paltz, and Hurley in April 1844 and covered the majority of the
cement deposit (Blumin 1976; Sylvester 1880b:15).

What is now Ulster County was settled initially during the middle of the seventeenth century by
the Dutch and concentrated along the creeks, especially along Rondout, Esopus, and Wallkill
(Clearwater 1907:268; Sylvester 1880b:125). In addition to Dutch and English settlers and their
slaves, German immigrants from the Palatinate arrived in the mid-Hudson valley in the early
eighteenth century as part of Governor Hunter’s “Naval Stores” scheme. Beginning in 1710, the
Germans were resettled on lands purchased from Robert Livingston of Livingston Manor (in
exchange for the contract to provision the immigrants) as well as on tracts on the west shore of
the Hudson River, such as West Camp, Kaatsbaan and Saugerties (Witthoft 1999). Ulster
County attained its present size in 1809.

Settlement in what would become the Town of Lloyd clustered around the future villages of
Highland and Centerville. In these areas were the early entrepreneurial activities included stores
and taverns. The first stores were located at what would be known as New Paltz Landing
(Sylvester 1880b:126). Mills were also established along the county’s numerous streams, and
were the area’s earliest industries. The earliest mills were operated by Solomon Ferris, Silas
Saxton (at Centreville), George Pratt, Arthur Doran, and Daniel Ostrom (Sylvester 1880:130).
The earliest roads were the post road along the Hudson River, the road to Modena, and the
road between New Paltz and the landing at the river. This later road was replaced in importance
by the improved New Paltz turnpike in 1832, traversing easier and more direct terrain between
New Paltz and the river (Sylvester 1880b:127).

The area was generally farmland during the nineteenth century, although farming would be
limited in the more steeply sloped areas. Agricultural activities consisted mainly of grain
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cultivation, potato-growing, sheep, horse, and cattle-raising and dairying, and general farming.
Many farmers cultivated apple and other fruit trees to supplement their income. Ancillary crops
included grape-growing and wine-making, honey production, and maple sugar and syrup
production (Sylvester 1880b:239; Ruttenber 1907:27).

In the mid-nineteenth century, peat harvesting in the northeastern portion of the Town of Lloyd
was practiced by the Hudson River Peat Company of New York. This business had been
abandoned by 1880. Over the course of the nineteenth century, various grist and woolen mills
were established by Charles White, A. Brinkerhoff, N.D. Elting, and Huram Hasbrouck.
Termiening & De Graw had a wagon-felloes and bent-wood factory, as did James Weismiller
(Sylvester 1880b:130).

Another industry in the town was the mining of bluestone, used for the bases of bridges,
abutments, and arches. The first quarry was owned and operated by Charles Woolley in 1820.
Another quarry was owned by J.I. Clearwater, beginning in 1845. This business eventually
developed into the Fuller, Clearwater & Co. quarry, opened around 1880. Bluestone from Lloyd
has been used for bridges in Poughkeepsie and Albany, the Odd-Fellows’ Hall on Centre Street
in New York City, and the Brooklyn Water-Works (Sylvester 1880b:130).

Over the course of the nineteenth century, New Paltz Landing developed as an important river
port. The first ferry across the Hudson River to Poughkeepsie was established by Abraham
Elting in the eighteenth century, using oars, and then sails. By the late nineteenth century, the
ships were powered by steam (Clearwater 1907:269; Sylvester 1880b:130). A trolley road was
built along the New Paltz turnpike between New Paltz and Highland Landing in 1897. This was
used for heavy freight and passenger traffic, and was the impetus for the development of
summer boarding houses in the area at the turn of the twentieth century. It remained in
operation until 1926 (Clearwater 1907:271; Greene 1931).

In the 1870s the Wallkill Valley Railroad was sited between the villages of New Paltz and
Rosendale in the Town of Rosendale. Connecting with the Erie Railroad at Goshen, the Wallkill
Valley line carried commuters, freight, and farm produce until the 1930s. The line eventually
went bankrupt in the 1970s and the rails were pulled up in the early 1980s (Sylvester
1880b:154-155; Clearwater 1907:359).

Orange County. Orange County incurred slow population growth during the period between the
mid-eighteenth century and the mid-nineteenth century as a result of the ruggedness of the
area's topography and the lack of adequate roads (Muller et al. 1988:8). Most population
centers were situated along the banks of the Hudson River prior to the American Revolution.
Orange County had a population of 44,175 in 1800, and achieved its current boundaries in
1801. At that time, there were ten townships, including the Town of Blooming Grove, which was
formed from Cornwall in 1799. The Town of Blooming Grove remained a largely rural township
and the Village of Blooming Grove was the largest settlement, including a small number of
houses and a church.

The establishment of the Wallkill Valley Railway in 1866 was a most important event for the
Town of Montgomery. Connecting with the Erie Railroad at Goshen, the Wallkill Valley line
carried commuters, freight, and farm produce until the 1930s. However, manufacturing
operations were also notable components of economy during the nineteenth century. The
Walden Woolen Factory was founded in 1823 and was a leading business in the village of
Walden during the mid-1900s. The New York Knife Company, organized in 1852 at Matteawan
in Dutchess County relocated to a former Walden cotton factory in 1856. It manufactured table
Panamerican Consultants, Inc.                 2-29                              Boundless Energy
and pocket cutlery of every kind. Other businesses included the Walden Condensed Milk
Company (organized in 1864 and later replaced by the Walden Soap Works); the Walden
Brickyard (1868); the Walden Knife Company (1870); the Schrade Cutlery Company (1904); the
Rider Ericsson Engine Company; the Wooster Manufacturing Company; and, the William
Crabtree & Sons (Headley 1908).

The Town of Blooming Grove was reduced in 1830 with the formation of Hamptonburgh, and
again in 1845 with the creation of Chester. Wineries developed in various parts of Orange
County during the nineteenth century. At Washingtonville, John Jacques established the
Americans Oldest Winery in 1839. Portions of the county expanded during the nineteenth
century after the New York, Lake Erie & Western Railway was built in 1850. The principal cities
in the county during the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries were, and are still, Newburgh,
Middletown, and Port Jervis. Newburgh became the largest city in the county and was
incorporated in 1865. Middletown was incorporated in 1888. Although located on the Wallkill
River, the city developed as a railroad hub, first with the Erie Railroad, and then also with the
Ontario & Western Railroad. With the railroad came the establishment of factories and settlers.
The population of the village was 433 in 1838, and increased to 12,000 in 1888. By 1920, there
were 18,420 residents in the city. Port Jervis, located on the Delaware River, became the third
largest city on the county. It was incorporated as a city in 1907 (Headley 1908).

At the beginning of the twentieth century, the City of Newburgh was the leading city of Orange
County, with a population of nearly 27,000, and was “the largest commercial city on the Hudson
between New York and Albany” (Headley 1908). The Newburgh area was patented to John
Evans in 1694, but was reconveyed in smaller tracts after 1700. The area was originally settled
in 1709 by a group Palatines, although the formal patent was not granted until 1719. After the
Revolution, what is now Newburgh became a shipping point of importance as a result of its
harbor, and the Village of Newburgh was incorporated in 1800. The lumber business was
especially valuable and large quantities of ship timber, planks and staves were sent south to
New York City. Shipbuilding was also conducted. During the 1830s, Newburgh's economy
thrived as a nexus of river and land trade, as well as supporting its own indigenous industrial
base. However, the completion of the Erie Canal, the D&H Canal, and, later, the Erie Railroad
diverted much of this trade away from the city (Newburgh was incorporated as a city in 1865)
(Headley 1908).

Between 1883 and 1885 John C. Rose acquired 300 acres of land approximately six miles north
of Newburgh on the route of the Hudson River & West Shore Railroad in order to open a brick
manufacturing establishment. At that time he also bought the Hudson River mansion and estate
of Bancroft Davis. Rose razed the mansion for a brickyard. The firm of Rose & Company was
incorporated in 1884. His 16 brick machines had a capacity of 24,000 bricks per day each; the
firm produced 40 million bricks annually for shipment mostly to New York City. The company
town that emerged around the brickyard was Roseton. At its peak, The Rose Brick Company
sold 400 million brick a year worldwide, and its bricks were used in the construction of the the
Empire State Building and the Waldorf Astoria, among other structures. The company filed for
bankruptcy in 1919. The site is now occupied by a terminal of the Hess oil company (Hutton
2003). North of The Rose Brick Company brickyard, the Arrow Brick Company was located on
Danskammer Point and produced five million brick annually during the early 1900s.

Dutchess County. When Dutchess County was formed in 1683, it included all of present-day
Putnam County and part of what is now Columbia County (south of the Roeliff-Jansen Kill). The
present-day towns of Germantown and Clermont (then part of Livingston Manor) were annexed
to Albany County on May 27, 1717. Putnam County was created June 12, 1812. The county
Panamerican Consultants, Inc.                 2-30                              Boundless Energy
was divided into 13 large patents owned by absentee landlords who lived in New York City,
including Rumbout’s patent (1685); the Pawling patent (1696); Beekman’s patent (1703); the
Great Nine Partners patent (1697); the Little Nine Partners patent (1706); and the Oblong
(1731). By 1714, “only 60 householders [were] established within these wide borders”
comprising 445 people (Hasbrouck 1909:34-42, 57-58; Bayne 1937:3). Despite the slow start,
population and increased rapidly in the years prior to the American Revolution. “In 1737
Dutchess ranked seventh in population among the counties of the state, and from 1756 to 1775
it ranked second only to Albany County. ... The growth was caused largely by the efforts of the
patent owners to split up their lands. Contrary to the pattern of settlement in New England,
Dutchess was settled by single families. Houses were widely separated, encouraged by
unusually friendly Indians, and few villages existed until after the Revolution” (Bayne 1937:3).

The county has gone through several phases of economic development and extensive political
subdivision. At its inception the economy was overwhelmingly agricultural. County farmers
produced primarily wheat as a cash crop and hay as well as meat and leather. These activities
were supplement by rural industries such as grist, saw, and fulling/carding mills. Each village
community had their own specialists, including blacksmiths, carpenters, chandlers, coopers,
harness makers, shoe makers, and wheelwright. Some towns also had a tanner or a hatter. The
earliest road (1731) in the eastern portion of the county connected Dover farmers to
Poughkeepsie. The completion of the Erie Canal in 1825 wrecked the wheat economy as better
agricultural lands in western New York and beyond provided more and cheaper grain (Bayne
1937:3-7, 36, 53; Hasbrouck 1909:60-65).

From 1825 to 1870, Dutchess farmers switched from wheat to meat. Eastern, Harlem Valley
farmers generally lacked sufficient transportation to make grain-growing profitable, so many
switch to cattle or sheep raising and dairying. As a result, Harlem Valley villages served
originally as watering or stopping points for cattle drovers on their way to the New York market.
In addition, the towns and cities along the Hudson, such as Poughkeepsie and Wappingers
Falls, developed textile industries where carding machines and other mills had the river route to
market. Several eastern towns with water access also developed cloth factories, including
Amenia and Stanford (Bayne 1937:7-8, 53). Railroad expansion during this period propelled the
economy. In 1851, the Hudson River line opened, and connected Poughkeepsie to New York
City. The Harlem line was completed through the county the following year, “providing the entire
eastern tier of towns with transportation to New York. The Dutchess & Columbia and the
Poughkeepsie & Eastern railroads were built between 1869 and 1873, opening up the central
portion of the county” (Bayne 1937:13).

While industrial development continued after 1870, however, location mattered in regards to the
type of activity conducted. Factories and urban areas in western Dutchess County continued to
grow as numerous railroad lines increased the area’s access to New York. After 1900 industrial
development became concentrated in larger villages and cities and larger factories instead of
small village shops. In the more rugged areas of eastern Dutchess, dairying became the leading
industry supplying cheese makers and the new Borden process for preserving (condensing)
milk with raw material. Between 1870 and 1930 the population of the county rose from 74,041 in
1870 to 105,462 in 1930. After 1920, refrigerated trucks cut into the dairying business in
Dutchess as western milk entered the market. In addition, suburbanization of rural areas began
as non-farming rural residents (not including those on Hudson River estates) utilized the
improving roads (such as the Eastern States Parkway (present-day Taconic Parkway) and
interurbans to get to their jobs in the larger villages and cities. This process has intensified over
the last 50 years (Bayne 1937:4-5, 17, 53).

Panamerican Consultants, Inc.                   2-31                               Boundless Energy
2.2   DOCUMENTARY RESEARCH

2.2.1 Site File Data. Access to the archaeological site files at the New York State Historic
Preservation Office (NYSHPO) was limited at the time research was conducted for this
investigation as a result of an on-going state digitizing project at NYSHPO. A review of available
archaeological site file data at the New York State Office of Parks, Recreation, and Historic
Preservation (OPRHP) identified 29 archaeological sites within or adjacent to the project area
(Table 2.1; Figure 2.2). Of these sites, 25 are prehistoric/precontact, nine are historic, and five
contained limited information regarding period, but are likely prehistoric (Parker 1922). In
addition, five cultural resources were identified as listed on the National Register of Historic
Places (NRHP) within or adjacent to the project area (Table 2.2) and shown on Figure 2.3.

           Table 2.1. Archaeological sites within or adjacent to the project area.
                                                         Distance
    Project       NYSOPRHP
                                  Additional Site #         to        Time Period          Site Type
  Component         Site #
                                                         Corridor
                                                                         th
                                                                      17 -century           Dutch
 Reynolds Tap
                                                                    Dutch, (ca. 1631);    house site;
    to New        08303.000009     Van Buren site         Within
                                                                    Woodland or early       Native
   Scotland
                                                                         historic          workshop
                                  New York State
 Reynolds Tap-                    Museum [NYSM]                                                No
                                                          Within     No information
 New Scotland                      355, Glenmont                                          information
                                  Abby, A:B 28-4
 Reynolds Tap-
                  00102.000206       TGP Site 4           Within       Precontact          Stray find
 New Scotland
                                                                                 th
 Reynolds Tap-                                                         Historic 20
                  00102.000407        Tel/Alb 41          Within                            Midden
 New Scotland                                                            century
 Reynolds Tap-
                  00102.000406        Tel/Alb 1          Adjacent      Precontact          Stray find
 New Scotland
 Knickerbocker                                                         Precontact,             No
                                     NYSM 8024            Within
   to Leeds                                                            Paleoindian        information
 Knickerbocker                                                                                 No
                  02111.000038      No information        Within       Precontact
   to Leeds                                                                               information
 Knickerbocker                    NYSM 3108, ACP
                                                          Within       Precontact           Camp
   to Leeds                          Cmba 8
 Knickerbocker                                                                                 No
                                     NYSM 9214            Within     No information
   to Leeds                                                                               information
 Knickerbocker                                                                                 No
                  03942.000601      No information       Adjacent      Precontact
   to Leeds                                                                               information
 Knickerbocker                                                                                 No
                  03942.000600      No information       Adjacent      Precontact
   to Leeds                                                                               information
 Knickerbocker                                                                                 No
                  03942.000265      No information       Adjacent      Precontact
   to Leeds                                                                               information
 Leeds to Rock                                                                                 No
                  03942.000249      No information        Within       Precontact
    Tavern                                                                                information
 Leeds to Rock                    NYSM 515, ACP                                                No
                                                          Within       Precontact
    Tavern                                9?                                              information
                                      NYSM 517,
 Leeds to Rock                     Wachachkeek*                                                No
                                                          Within       Precontact
    Tavern                        Site? Pachqueack                                        information
                                         Site?


Panamerican Consultants, Inc.                     2-32                               Boundless Energy
                                                        Distance
    Project       NYSOPRHP
                                 Additional Site #         to       Time Period         Site Type
  Component         Site #
                                                        Corridor
 Leeds to Rock                     NYSM 3386,
                                                         Within      Precontact          Village
    Tavern                        Wachachkeek*
 Leeds to Rock                   NYSM 5931, Van                     Precontact,             No
                                                         Within
    Tavern                          Vechten                        multicomponent      information
 Leeds to Rock                                                                              No
                  03904.000134    No information        Adjacent       Historic
    Tavern                                                                             information
 Leeds to Rock                                                                              No
                  03904.000135    No information        Adjacent       Historic
    Tavern                                                                             information
 Leeds to Rock                                                                              No
                                    NYSM 5041            Within     No information
    Tavern                                                                             information
 Leeds to Rock                                                                              No
                                    NYSM 8877            Within      Precontact
    Tavern                                                                             information
 Leeds to Rock                                                                              No
                                    NYSM 7491            Within     No information
    Tavern                                                                             information
                                                                    Orient, Narrow
 Leeds to Rock                                                                           Buried
                  11118.000017        Ulster I           Within       Stemmed
    Tavern                                                                              evidence
                                                                       Tradition
 Leeds to Rock                                                       Transitional,          No
                                    NYSM 8871            Within
    Tavern                                                              Orient         information
 Leeds to Rock
                                    NYSM 8869            Within      Precontact          Burials
    Tavern
 Leeds to Rock                                                       Transitional,          No
                                    NYSM 7227            Within
    Tavern                                                              Orient         information
 Leeds to Rock                                                       Transitional,          No
                                    NYSM 8878            Within
    Tavern                                                              Orient         information
 Leeds to Rock                                                       Unidentified       Traces of
                                    NYSM 5060            Within
    Tavern                                                            precontact       occupation
 Leeds to Rock                                                     Narrow stemmed
                  11114.000010    Prehistoric site       Within                         Stray find
    Tavern                                                             tradition
 Leeds to Rock                                                                              No
                                    NYSM 7824            Within     No information
    Tavern                                                                             information
 Leeds to Rock                   C. Lipsett House
                  07112.000059                          Adjacent      Pre-1856          Domestic
    Tavern                              site
 Leeds to Rock                                                         th              House site
                  07112.000058         Site 2            Within      20 century
    Tavern                                                                               (MDS)
 Leeds to Rock                                                       Unidentified         Brick
                  07112.000056   Brick Chimney site     Adjacent
    Tavern                                                             historic         chimney
                                  Site 16 Farm
 Leeds to Rock
                  07112.000057   Complex Fowler-        Adjacent    ca. 1840-1860      Foundation
    Tavern
                                      Kells
 Leeds to Rock                                                       Unidentified        Isolated
                  07112.000055    Prehistoric site      Adjacent
    Tavern                                                           precontact            find
 Leeds to Rock                                                       Unidentified           No
                  07115.000122   Rowe Potato site       Adjacent
    Tavern                                                           precontact        information
                                   NYSM 6860,
  Roseton to                                                         Unidentified
                                   Danskammer            Within                          Camp
  West Fishkill                                                      precontact
                                      Camp
  Roseton to                                                                                No
                  02719.000032    No information         Within        Historic
  West Fishkill                                                                        information
  Roseton to                                                         Unidentified       Traces of
                                    NYSM 6879            Within
  West Fishkill                                                      precontact        occupation

Panamerican Consultants, Inc.                    2-33                             Boundless Energy
   Table 2.2. National Register-Listed properties within or adjacent to the project area.
   Project                                                                                   Distance
                   NR Site #        Description                     Address
 Component                                                                                    M (ft)
                                                        Roughly bounded by Warren &
Knickerbocker                     Hudson Historic        State Sts., Eighth & Seventh
                  90NR00252                                                                   Within
  to Leeds                           District            Sts., E. Allen & Allen Sts. &
                                                        Penn Central Railroad, Hudson
Knickerbocker                    Dr. Oliver Bronson
                  90NR00247                               South of Hudson off of US 9        Adjacent
  to Leeds                       House and Stables
  Leeds to                       Rushmore Family
                  10NR06093                                   8748 US 9W, Athens             Adjacent
 Rock Tavern                    Farm, 03902.000279
                                                        Beginning at Catskill, follows the
  Leeds to                         Susquehanna           Mohican Trail (NY 145) and CR
                  90NR00552                                                                   Within
 Rock Tavern                         Turnpike            20 and 22 NW to the Schoharie
                                                              County Line, Catskill
  Leeds to                      Perrine’s Bridge over   Immediately east of I-87, Esopus
                  90NR01079                                                                   Within
 Rock Tavern                        Wallkill River              and Rosendale




Panamerican Consultants, Inc.                 2-34                                  Boundless Energy
Figure 2.2. Sections of the project area with previously-recorded archaeological sites.

Panamerican Consultants, Inc.              2-35                            Boundless Energy
Figure 2.3. Approximate location of NRL resources in relation to the propose LPW project
area (Inset base map: USGS 7.5-minute topographic quadrangles: Hudson North, New York
(1953 [1980]); Hudson South, New York (1963 [1980]).

Panamerican Consultants, Inc.             2-36                          Boundless Energy
3.0 Proposed Construction and Cultural                             Resources Sensitivity
    Assessment by Section
As discussed in the Introduction (Section 1.0), Boundless proposes to construct new 345-kV
transmission lines and to reconductor existing 345-kV lines in Rensselaer, Albany, Columbia,
Greene, Ulster, Orange, and Dutchess counties, New York. Figures 1.2 through 1.4 show the
proposed LPW project area within New York’s Hudson Valley by MP. The Project will use new
345-kV lines in existing transmission corridors to connect clean and efficient sources of energy
in upstate New York with southeastern New York. New transmission conductors will be installed
primarily on new steel monopoles approximately 130 feet (ft) high in Sections 1, 2, and 4. H-frame
structures will only be removed in Section 1. Reconductoring will be done on H-frame structures in
Section 3. There will also be segments of underground construction in Sections 2 and 4, as well
as horizontal directional drilling (HDD) under the Hudson River. The Project also includes
construction of switching stations and a new substation, as well as expansion of the existing
corridor.


3.1   CULTURAL RESOURCE INVESTIGATION LEVEL OF EFFORT

Construction of the proposed project has the potential to impact historic and prehistoric
archaeological sites, historic resources, and historic landscapes. These impacts will occur as a
result of ground-disturbance activities including trenching, grading, use of heavy equipment,
pole placement, construction of substations, etc., as well as potential visual impacts from
monopoles placement and building construction. Construction activities in undisturbed areas will
require Phase I archaeological investigations to determine if any cultural resources are present
in the APE. Placement of 130-ft monopoles may have a visual effect on historic resources and
historic landscapes. In these locations, an evaluation of historic resources greater than 50 years
old is normally conducted within a 0.5-mile-radius (based on current Federal Communications
Commission [FCC] regulations) of the monopole placement to determine if the monopoles will
have a visual effect on any National Register-listed or -eligible (NRL/NRE) properties.

Briefly, the Phase I investigation includes archival and historic background research,
preparation of prehistoric and historic contexts of the project area, a field investigation of the
APE entailing both visual inspection and the excavation of shovel tests to determine if any
cultural resources (archaeological sites and historic resources) are present, and preparation of a
report presenting the results of the investigation with appropriate recommendations. The report
also includes an evaluation of the visual effects of the proposed project on any identified
National Register-listed properties or landscapes.

NYSHPO should be consulted regarding the proposed testing strategy and level of effort before
initiation of any cultural resource investigations to assure the proposed level of effort meets their
standards.


3.2   CONSTRUCTION AND CULTURAL RESOURCES SENSITIVITY ASSESSMENT BY
      SECTION

3.2.1 Section 1: Reynolds Tap to New Scotland, MP 0 to MP 8.65. The Reynolds Tap to New
Scotland Section (see Figure 1.2) extends for approximately 8.65 miles from MP 0 in the Town
of East Greenbush, Rensselaer County, to MP 8.65 in the Town of New Scotland, Albany

Panamerican Consultants, Inc.                   3-1                                Boundless Energy
County, and will tap into the existing 345-kV line in Rensselaer County. In this section new
overhead lines will connect with the New Scotland substation. From MP 1 to MP 8.65, an
existing 115-kV line will be relocated to share the steel monopole with the new 345-kV line to
minimize right-of-way (ROW) requirements. The new 130-ft steel monopoles will be built in an
existing ROW replacing 85-ft H-frame structures which will be removed.

A ROW expansion of 25 ft will likely be needed, as well as some additional ROW in some
locations. This section will also include an overhead crossing of the Hudson River.

Proposed Construction Activities and Potential Impacts include the 25-ft expansion of the
ROW, possible acquisition of additional ROW, placement of new monopoles, the removal of H-
frame structures, and the overhead line across the Hudson River. These activities could
potentially impact archaeological resources. The 130-ft monopoles will replace the 85-ft H-frame
structures for transmission-line placement.

Archaeological Sensitivity in this area is generally moderate to high for the presence of
archaeological sites. The highly sensitive areas are located in the vicinity of the Hudson River
where both prehistoric and historic sites are likely present in many areas. A total of five
previously identified archaeological sites (two historic, two prehistoric, and one with limited
information, but likely prehistoric) and no NRL sites were identified within or adjacent to the
proposed route (see Tables 2.1 and 2.2). One of the historic archaeological sites identified in
this segment (between MP 0 and MP 1) is the Van Buren Site (OPRHP #08303.000009), a ca.
1631 Dutch occupation and possibly the earliest known Rensselearwijck farm site.

Historic Resources/Visual Sensitivity. This location is generally undeveloped with some
agricultural land and a few subdivisions in the vicinity. The new transmission line will be
constructed in the existing pipeline ROW. The sensitivity, in general, is low in most areas
throughout the section as a result of the low density of buildings within the 0.5-mile radius area.
No NRL properties were identified within or adjacent to the proposed route.

Recommended Cultural Resource Investigations. The area of expanded ROW and the
locations of monopole placement are sensitive and generally undisturbed. A Phase I
archaeological investigation should be conducted in these areas. Areas around the H-frames
may also need to be surveyed due to potential disturbance to cultural resources since these
locations may have never been tested in the past.

The monopoles will be approximately 45 ft higher than the current H-frame structures. A preliminary
map review indicates potential effects to historic resources within 0.5 miles of the proposed center
line should be minimal. A limited evaluation of historic resources and viewshed analysis should be
conducted in a few selected areas within a 0.5-mile radius of the monopole placement, especially in
areas where there may be possible changes to the historic setting. NYSHPO should be consulted to
determine the areas for which viewshed analyses should be conducted.

3.2.2 Section 2: Knickerbocker to Leeds, MP 8.66 to MP 32. The Knickerbocker to Leeds
Section extends from MP 8.66 in Rensselaer County to MP 32 in Greene County. The LPW will
connect with the 345-kV lines of the existing interconnection with New England between New
Scotland and Alps. A new three-acre switchyard (Knickerbocker) will be built in the Town of
Schodack in Rensselaer County at MP 8.66. Approximately 18.6 miles of this section will consist
of a new overhead 345-kV line which will run south from the new substation toward Hudson,
New York, with placement on new steel monopoles. Approximately 2.75 miles of the line
through the City of Hudson will be buried either in a railroad corridor or along city streets. From
Panamerican Consultants, Inc.                   3-2                               Boundless Energy
MP 30, the Project will continue underground, crossing under the Hudson River by HDD. The
line would continue approximately one mile underground in Greene County to connect to the
Leeds substation.

A new three-acre substation is proposed and will tap into the existing line. The existing ROW
ranges from 125 ft to 150 ft wide, and will need to be expanded to 165 ft (an additional 15 to 40
ft); some homeowner relocations and additional underground placement in some areas are
likely to be required. No new land is needed at Hudson substation. For much of the overhead
line ROW north of the City of Hudson, a gas pipeline runs parallel in the corridor on the west
side of the ROW which is cleared for nearly the full width.

Knickerbocker-Hudson Substation MP 8.66 to MP 27

Proposed Construction Activities and Potential Impacts include a new three-acre switching
station, the expansion of the existing ROW by an additional 15 to 40 ft along the existing
corridor, homeowner relocations, and additional underground placement. These activities will
cause ground disturbance and have the potential to affect cultural resources. New steel
monopoles (130 ft) will be placed throughout some portions of this section and will cause
ground disturbance and have visual effects.

Archaeological Sensitivity. This area in general has moderate to high sensitivity for locating
archaeological sites. The area along the route is generally undisturbed. One prehistoric
archaeological site and no NRL sites were identified within or adjacent to the proposed route
(see Tables 2.1 and 2.2).

Historic Resources/Visual Sensitivity. This area is generally undeveloped with some agricultural
land and a few subdivisions in the vicinity. The new transmission line will parallel an existing line
which includes 85-ft H-frame structures. The added height of the monopoles will potentially create
an additional visual effect beyond that resulting from the existing H-frame structures. The limited
number of buildings throughout most of this section (except near the City of Hudson) suggests that
the probability of impacts to historic resources is low to moderate. No NRL properties were
identified within or adjacent to the proposed route (see Table 2.2).

Recommended Cultural Resource Investigations. The area of the expanded ROW, the
locations of the monopole placement, substation location, and homeowner relocations are
sensitive and generally undisturbed. Phase I archaeological investigations are recommended in
these areas.

The monopoles will be 15 to 40 ft higher than the current H-frame structures. A preliminary map
review indicates that the probability of impacts to historic resources within 0.5 miles of the
proposed monopole placement is low in this section except along the southern portion in the
vicinity of MP 27 which is near the City of Hudson. A limited evaluation of historic resources and
a viewshed analysis should be conducted in selected areas within 0.5 miles of the monopole
placement including the area near the City of Hudson. NYSHPO should be consulted to
determine if the 0.5-mile radius for the visual effects analysis is acceptable. (On occasion, the
radius is expanded in highly dense urban areas if the poles are visible beyond 0.5 miles.)

Hudson Substation to Leeds MP 27 to MP 30–Underground Line (City of Hudson)

Proposed Construction Activities and Potential Impacts. At the Hudson switch station the
line will transition to underground. Approximately 2.75 miles will be installed underground
Panamerican Consultants, Inc.                   3-3                                Boundless Energy
through the City of Hudson which may follow either in a railroad corridor and/or along city
streets. The underground section will begin at a transition station at the Hudson substation north
of the city. From MP 30, the Project will continue underground, crossing under the Hudson River
by HDD.

Archaeological Sensitivity. This area in general has moderate to high sensitivity for locating
archaeological sites. The area along the eastern part of the section is partially undisturbed while
portions with the City of Hudson appear to be disturbed from past urban construction. The area
near the Hudson River has a high sensitivity for the presence of cultural resources. A total of
three archaeological sites (two prehistoric and one with limited information, but likely prehistoric)
and no NRL sites were identified within or adjacent to the proposed route (see Tables 2.1 and
2.2).

Historic Resources/Visual Sensitivity. This area is located largely within or in the vicinity of
the City of Hudson. The sensitivity for the presence of historic structures is high. There are two
NRL properties within or adjacent to the proposed route (see Table 2.2).

Recommended Cultural Resource Investigations. The areas of underground placement should
be evaluated for prior disturbance. If prior disturbance can be sufficiently documented to NYSHPO
requirements, no archaeological investigations will be recommended. If any area appears to be
undisturbed or has the potential to contain buried historic archaeological deposits (e.g., historic
structure remains, historic middens), a Phase I archaeological investigation will be recommended.
The location of the substation is generally undisturbed and a Phase I archaeological investigations
is recommended in that area unless prior disturbance can be documented.

Placement of the line underground will minimize impacts to historic resources unless demolition
of existing buildings takes place or landscape around a NRL or NRE property is proposed.
Presently, there are no plans to demolish any buildings in this section. The sensitivity for
presence of historic resources is high. The route placement should be evaluated to determine if it
will be located in the vicinity of National Register properties and if any impacts (e.g., cutting
trees or shrubs, removing historic sidewalk or fences) to the landscape will occur from
placement of the underground line. This appears unlikely since much to of the placement is
proposed in a disturbed context but it should be verified. No above-ground historic resources
evaluation survey is recommended beyond examining the placement of the underground
alignment. NYSHPO should be consulted to evaluate this level of effort.

Hudson Substation to Leeds MP 30 to MP 31

Proposed Construction Activities and Potential Impacts include placement of an
underground transmission line beneath the Hudson River which will extend approximately one
mile from the west bank of the river to the Leeds substation in Greene County. There will be one
HDD site on each side of the Hudson River requiring approximately two or three acres.

Archaeological Sensitivity. This area, along the Hudson River, has a high sensitivity for the
presence of archaeological sites. There are no archaeological sites or NRL sites within or
adjacent to the proposed route.

Historic Resources/Visual Sensitivity. A small portion of this area is located in the vicinity of
the City of Hudson. The likelihood of impacts to historic resources is low since there appears to
be few buildings within 0.5-miles of the transmission line placement. There are no NRL
properties within or adjacent to the proposed route.
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Recommended Cultural Resource Investigations. The area along the Hudson River has a
high sensitivity for the presence of cultural resources. Therefore, archaeological investigations
are recommended in these areas and at both HDD areas along the Hudson River. The complete
route in this section will be underground. There should be no direct impacts to above-ground
historic resources in this area. No formal above-ground historic resources evaluations or
viewshed analysis is recommended.

Hudson Substation to Leeds MP 31 to MP 32

Proposed Construction Activities and Potential Impacts include underground placement of
the line for one mile through this section. No additional room is needed at the Leeds Substation.
There may be expanded ROW requirements and homeowner relocations.

Archaeological Sensitivity. This area, along and in the vicinity of the Hudson River, has a very
high sensitivity for the presence of archaeological sites. A total of three prehistoric
archaeological sites and no NRL sites were identified within or adjacent to the proposed route
(see Table 2.1 and 2.2).

Historic Resources/Visual Sensitivity. This area is located in the vicinity of the City of Athens,
Greene County. The likelihood of impacts to historic resources is low since there appears to be
few buildings within the vicinity of this section. There are no NRL properties within or adjacent to
the proposed route.

Recommended Cultural Resource Investigations. The area along the Hudson River has a
high sensitivity for the presence of cultural resources. Therefore, Phase I archaeological
investigations are recommended throughout this section in the expanded ROW and homeowner
relocation areas.

The complete route in this section will be underground. There should be no direct impacts to
above-ground historic resources in this area. No formal above-ground historic resources
evaluations or viewshed analysis is recommended.

3.2.3 Section 3: Leeds to Rock Tavern, MP 32 to MP 101.17. The Leeds to Rock Tavern
transmission line extends from MP 32 (Leeds substation), Greene County to MP 101.17 in
Orange County (Figures 1.2, 1.3, and 1.4). In this section, a new double 345-kV circuit will be
added to an existing line starting at the Leeds substation. The existing line will be reconductored
with minimal or no modifications to existing tower structures. This section extends approximately
55 miles south through Ulster County and connect to a new switchyard near East Road just
north of the Orange-Ulster county line. From the switchyard, the line will extend west for
approximately five miles before turning to the south, ending at the Rock Tavern substation in
Orange County. Existing lines running east from the East Road switching station to the Roseton
Substation will connect Section 3 to Section 4.

Two new 1222 (Cardinal) ACCC conductors will be hung on existing 345-kV H-frame poles. A
new switching station will require approximately three acres and constructed near East Road in
the Town of Marlborough in Ulster County at MP 87.6 (approximate). No new monopoles are
proposed for this section.

The proposed East Road Junction switching station, connecting the Leeds to Rock Tavern line
with an existing 345-kV line, and the Roseton Substation will require approximately three acres.
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The new switching station will be constructed near East Road in the Town of Marlborough in
Ulster County at approximately MP 87.6.

Leeds to East Road Junction: MP 32 to MP 87.5

Proposed Construction Activities and Potential Impacts include adding a new double 345-
kV circuit to an existing 345-kV H-frame tower structures within the existing ROW.

Archaeological Sensitivity. This area’s sensitivity for the presence of archaeological sites
ranges from moderate to high. A total of 18 archaeological sites (two historic, 13 prehistoric, and
three with limited information, but likely prehistoric) and no NRL sites were identified within or
adjacent to the proposed route (see Tables 2.1 and 2.2).

Historic Resources/Visual Sensitivity. This part of the section is overwhelmingly rural and
undeveloped with a small percentage of agricultural land and is in the vicinity of a few
subdivisions. The new transmission line will be placed on the existing 85-ft H-frame structures.
No new construction is proposed in this section. There are three NRL properties within or
adjacent to the proposed route (see Table 2.2).

Recommended Cultural Resource Investigations. Since there is no new construction and no
ground disturbance or new pole placement, no cultural resource investigations are
recommended in this section. No subsurface impacts will occur from placement of the line on
existing H-frame structures. No archaeological investigations are recommended. There will be
no visual impacts from placement of the new transmission line on existing H-frame structures.
Therefore no above-ground historic resources evaluations or viewshed analysis is
recommended.

East Road Junction to Rock Tavern Substation MP 87.5 to MP 101.17

Proposed Construction Activities and Potential Impacts include adding a new double 345-
kV circuit to an existing 345-kV H-frame tower structures within the existing ROW and
construction of the proposed East Road Junction switching station requiring approximately three
acres. The new switching station will be constructed near East Road in the Town of
Marlborough in Ulster County at approximately MP 87.6.

Archaeological Sensitivity. This area’s sensitivity for the presence of archaeological sites
ranges from moderate to high. A total of six archaeological sites (four historic and two
prehistoric) and no NRL sites were identified within or adjacent to the proposed route (see
Tables 2.1 and 2.2).

Historic Resources/Visual Sensitivity. This part of the section is overwhelmingly rural and
undeveloped with a small percentage of agricultural land and is in the vicinity of a few
subdivisions. The new transmission line will be placed on the existing 85-ft H-frame structures.
Construction of the proposed East Road Junction switching station is the only new construction
proposed in this part of the section. No NRL properties were identified within or adjacent to the
proposed route.

Recommended Cultural Resource Investigations. The only new construction is the proposed
East Road Junction switching station. Impacts from construction activities could affect
archaeological deposits. Therefore, a Phase I investigation is recommended at this location.
There is no other new construction, ground disturbance or new pole placement in this section.
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No other cultural resource investigations are recommended in this section except at the
proposed substation location. There will be no visual impacts from placement of the new
transmission line on existing H-frame structures and no above-ground historic resources
evaluations or viewshed analysis is recommended.

3.2.4 Section 4: Roseton to East Fishkill, MP 101.17 to MP 109.57. The Roseton to East
Fishkill section extends approximately 8.4 miles from MP 101.17 in Orange County to MP
109.57 in Dutchess County (see Figure 1.4). It will consist of a new 345-kV line placed
underground and extending east from the Roseton substation to a transition site on the west
side of the Hudson River. An underground cable will be installed under the Hudson River by
HDD beneath the river bed. The underground conductor will be approximately one mile long. A
new overhead line with two 1272 ACSR conductors installed on new steel monopoles will
extend approximately 6.6 miles to an expansion of the East Fishkill substation. Additional ROW
expansion of approximately 50 ft will be required on the east side of the Hudson River to
accommodate the new 345 kV line. Some additional easement rights will be required for off-
ROW access rights.

The East Fishkill Substation will be expanded to interconnect to the double circuit 345-kV line
that currently bypasses the East Fishkill Substation. Approximately three acres of property will
need to be acquired for the expansion.

Roseton Substation to MP 102, Transition Station MP 101.17 to MP 102

Proposed Construction Activities and Potential Impacts include placement of a new 345-kV
line underground throughout this section.

Archaeological Sensitivity. This area, along the Hudson River, has a very high sensitivity for
the presence of archaeological sites. There is one prehistoric archaeological site and no NRL
sites within or adjacent to the proposed route (see Table 2.1 and 2.2).

Historic Resources/Visual Sensitivity. The sensitivity for impacts to historic resources is low
since there appears to be not many buildings within the vicinity of this section except for the
Roseton substation, a few residences, and the industrial complex along the river. There are no
NRL properties within or adjacent to the proposed route.

Recommended Cultural Resource Investigations. The area along the Hudson River has a
very high sensitivity for locating cultural resources. Some areas in this section appear to be
disturbed form past construction activities and industrial development. A Phase I archaeological
investigation is recommended in the undisturbed area within this section.

The complete route in this section will be underground. There should be no direct impacts to
above-ground historic resources in this area. No formal above-ground historic resources
evaluations or viewshed analysis is recommended.

Hudson River Crossing to Directional Drill MP 102 to 103

Proposed Construction Activities and Potential Impacts include placement of an
underground line beneath the Hudson River and directional drilling sites on both sides of the
river. An underground cable will be installed beneath the Hudson by directional drilling to a
transition station on the east side of the river. The underground conductor will be approximately
one mile long.
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Archaeological Sensitivity. This area, along the Hudson River, has a high sensitivity for the
presence of archaeological sites. There are no archaeological sites or NRL sites within or
adjacent to the proposed route.

Historic Resources/Visual Sensitivity. Placement of an underground line beneath the Hudson
River and directional drilling sites on both sites of the Hudson River will not affect above-ground
historic resources or viewsheds. The sensitivity is low since there appears to be few buildings
within 0.5 miles of the directional drilling sites except for the Roseton substation and the
industrial complex along the river. No NRL properties were identified within or adjacent to the
proposed route.

Recommended Cultural Resource Investigations. The area along the Hudson River has a
high sensitivity for the presence of cultural resources. Directional drilling sites on each side of
the Hudson River have the potential to affect archaeological deposits. Therefore, Phase I
archaeological investigations are recommended in these areas.

Placement of an underground line beneath the Hudson River and directional drilling on both
sides of the river will have no effect on any above-ground historic resources or viewsheds. No
above-ground historic resources or viewshed analysis is recommended.

MP 103 Transition Site to East Fishkill MP 103 to 109.57

Proposed Construction Activities and Potential Impacts include construction of a new 345-
kV line hung on 130-ft high steel monopoles extending from the Hudson River to MP 109.6.
These activities require approximately 50 ft of additional ROW, some additional easements
needs for off-ROW access rights, and three acres of property to expand the East Fishkill
Substation at MP 109.57.

Archaeological Sensitivity. The sensitivity for the presence of archaeological sites in this area
ranges from moderate to high. The portion in the vicinity of the Hudson River has a very high
sensitivity for the presence of both prehistoric and historic sites while other portions of the
section have a moderate sensitivity. A total of two archaeological sites (one prehistoric and one
historic) and no NRL sites were identified within or adjacent to the proposed route (see Tables
2.1 and 2.2).

Historic Resources/Visual Sensitivity. This area is generally undeveloped and in the vicinity
of a several subdivisions and residential complexes. The likelihood of impacts to historic
resources is low since there appears to be few buildings within the vicinity of this portion of the
section. No NRL properties were identified in this this area.

Recommended Cultural Resource Investigations. The area of the expanded ROW and the
locations of the monopole placement are sensitive and generally undisturbed. The location of
the proposed expanded three-acre substation is also sensitive. A Phase I archaeological
investigation should be conducted at both of these locations area throughout the section.

The monopoles will be approximately 45 feet higher than the current H-frame structures. A
preliminary map review indicates that visual impacts to above-ground historic resources within
0.5 miles of the proposed center line should be minimal. A limited evaluation of above-ground
historic resources and a viewshed analysis should be conducted in selected areas within a 0.5-
mile radius of the centerline. NYSHPO should be consulted to determine the specific areas
where viewshed analysis should be conducted.
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4.0 Conclusions and Recommendations
4.1   CULTURAL RESOURCE SENSITIVITY

In general, the study corridor has a moderate to high sensitivity for locating archaeological
resources. The sensitive areas are undisturbed locations with relatively level terrain (i.e., less
than 12 percent), generally well drained, and in the vicinity of bodies of water including rivers,
creeks, and other fresh water sources. The most sensitive areas along the LPW corridor are
along and in the vicinity of the Hudson River.

Placement of the 130-ft high monopoles can cause potential impacts to the historic resources,
historic landscapes, and the viewshed along the LPW corridor. In general, the majority of the
route is located in undeveloped areas within or adjacent to an existing transmission corridor. A
portion of the route has existing 85-ft high H-frame structures where existing lines are present.
The existence of the H-frame structures has impacted the viewshed along the route which
reduces the sensitivity of the area.


4.2   ASSESSING IMPACTS OF PROPOSED PROJECT ACTIVITIES

Construction of the proposed LPW project has the potential to impact historic and prehistoric
archaeological sites, historic resources, and historic landscapes. These impacts will occur as a
result of ground-disturbance activities including trenching, grading, use of heavy equipment,
pole placement, construction of substations, and other associated construction activities, as well
as potential visual impacts from monopole placement and building construction. Construction
activities in undisturbed areas will require Phase I archaeological investigations to determine if
any cultural resources are present in the APE. Placement of 130-ft monopoles may have a
visual effect on historic resources and historic landscapes. In these locations, an evaluation of
historic resources greater than 50 years old is normally conducted within a 0.5-mile-radius
(based on current FCC regulations) of the monopole placement to determine if the monopoles
will have a visual effect on any NRL/NRE properties.

Areas of documented prior disturbance along the LPW project corridor will not require formal
archaeological investigations. These areas can be excluded from survey after supporting
documentation is presented to the NYSHPO. Proposed project activities that do not create
ground disturbance or additional visual impact will not require cultural resource surveys. This
will include the areas where the 345-kV lines are being added to an existing 345-kV H-frame
tower structures within the existing ROW. No significant impacts will occur form this activity.

NYSHPO should be consulted regarding the proposed testing strategy and level of effort before
initiation of any cultural resource investigations to assure the proposed level of effort meets their
standards.


4.3   NATIVE AMERICAN CONSULTATION

Native American consultation is recommended at initiation of the proposed project with Nations
that have traditional territories within the LWP project area. Consultation will initiate
requirements under Section 106 of the National Historic Preservation Act (36 CFR 800) which
allows companies and consultants to gather information on cultural resources within the

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proposed project area and identify any other issues Native American groups may have
concerning the project. Formal consultation with Native American groups, by law, is the
responsible of the lead federal agency.

There are four federally-recognized Indian Tribes that have traditional territories that overlap
parts of the project area, including: the Delaware Nation (Oklahoma); the Delaware Tribe of
Indians (Oklahoma) the Saint Regis Mohawk Tribe (New York); and the Stockbridge Munsee
Community (Wisconsin) (Indian Affairs Bureau 2013; NYSHPO nd). Additionally, there are two
state-recognized tribes in New Jersey with traditional territories that comprise portions of the
project area: the Nanticoke Lenni-Lenape and the Ramapough Mountain Indians (sometimes
referred to as the Ramapough Lenape Nation) (Koenig and Stein 2007:126-128). Panamerican
recommends including Indian Tribes in the consultation process as early possible during project
planning.


4.4   SUMMARY OF RECOMMENDATIONS

4.4.1 Section 1: Reynolds Tap to New Scotland, MP 0 to MP 8.65. The Reynolds Tap to New
Scotland Section extends for approximately 8.65 miles from MP 0 in the Town of East
Greenbush, Rensselaer County, to MP 8.65 in the Town of New Scotland, Albany County.
Proposed construction activities and potential impacts include the 25-ft expansion of the ROW,
possible acquisition of additional ROW, placement of new monopoles, the removal of existing H-
frame structures, and the overhead line across the Hudson River. These activities could
potentially impact archaeological resources. The 130-ft monopoles will replace the 85-ft H-frame
structures for transmission-line placement.

Recommended Cultural Resource Investigations between MP 0 and MP 8.65. The area of
expanded ROW and the locations of monopole placement are sensitive and generally
undisturbed. A Phase I archaeological investigation is recommended in these areas. Areas
around the H-frames may also need to be surveyed due to potential disturbance to cultural
resources since these locations may have never been tested in the past.

The monopoles will be approximately 45 ft higher than the current H-frame structures. A
preliminary map review indicates potential effects to historic resources within 0.5 miles of the
proposed center line should be minimal. A limited evaluation of above-ground historic resources
and viewshed analysis should be conducted in a few selected areas within a 0.5-mile radius of
the monopole placement. NYSHPO should be consulted to determine the areas for which
viewshed analyses should be conducted.

4.4.2 Section 2: Knickerbocker to Leeds, MP 8.66 to MP 32. The Knickerbocker to Leeds
Section extends from MP 8.66 in Rensselaer County to MP 30 south of the City of Hudson,
Columbia County, then to MP 32 in Greene County. Proposed construction activities and
potential impacts between MP 8.66 and MP 27 include a new three-acre switching station, the
expansion of the existing ROW by an additional 15 to 40 ft along the existing corridor,
homeowner relocations, and additional underground placement. These activities will cause
ground disturbance and have the potential to affect cultural resources. New steel monopoles
(130 ft) will be placed throughout some portions of this section and will cause ground
disturbance and have visual effects.

Proposed construction activities and potential impacts between MP 27 and MP 30 include the
Hudson switch station where the line transitions to underground. Approximately 2.75 miles will
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be installed underground through the City of Hudson which may follow either in a railroad
corridor and/or along city streets. The underground section will begin at a transition station at
the Hudson substation north of the city and continue to approximately MP 30, where it will cross
under the Hudson River by HDD. Proposed construction activities and potential impacts
between MP 30 and MP 31 include placement of an underground transmission line beneath the
Hudson River which will extend approximately one mile from the west bank of the river to the
Leeds substation in Greene County. There will be one HDD site on each side of the Hudson
River requiring approximately two or three acres. Proposed construction activities and potential
impacts between MP 31 and 32 include underground placement of the line for one mile through
this section. There may be expanded ROW requirements and homeowner relocations.

Recommended Cultural Resource Investigations between MP 8.66 and MP 27. The area of
the expanded ROW, the locations of the monopole placement, substation location, and area of
homeowner relocation are sensitive and generally undisturbed. Phase I archaeological
investigations are recommended in these areas. The monopoles will be 45 ft higher than the
current H-frame structures. A preliminary map review indicates that the probability of impacts to
historic resources within 0.5 miles of the proposed monopole placement is low in this section
except along the southern portion in the vicinity of MP 27 which is near the City of Hudson. A
limited evaluation of above-ground historic resources and a viewshed analysis should be
conducted in selected areas within 0.5 miles of the monopole placement including the area near
the City of Hudson. NYSHPO should be consulted to determine if the 0.5-mile radius for the
visual effects analysis is acceptable.

Recommended Cultural Resource Investigations between MP 27 and MP 30. The areas of
underground placement should be evaluated for prior disturbance. If prior disturbance can be
sufficiently documented to NYSHPO requirements, no archaeological investigations will be
recommended. If any area appears to be undisturbed or has the potential to contain buried
historic archaeological deposits (e.g., historic structure remains, historic middens), a Phase I
archaeological investigation will be recommended. The location of the substation is generally
undisturbed and a Phase I archaeological investigations is recommended in that area unless
prior disturbance can be documented.

Placement of the line underground will minimize impacts to above-ground historic resources
unless demolition of existing structures takes place or landscape around a NRL or NRE property
is proposed. Presently, there are no plans to demolish any structures in this section. The
sensitivity for presence of above-ground historic resources is high. The route placement should
be evaluated to determine if it will be located in the vicinity of National Register properties and if
any impacts (e.g., cutting trees or shrubs, removing historic sidewalk or fences) to the
landscape will occur from placement of the underground line. This appears unlikely since much
to of the placement is proposed in a disturbed context but it should be verified. No above-
ground historic resources evaluation surveys are recommended beyond examining placement of
the underground alignment. NYSHPO should be consulted to evaluate this level of effort.

Recommended Cultural Resource Investigations between MP 30 and MP 31. The area
along the Hudson River has a high sensitivity for the presence of cultural resources. Therefore,
archaeological investigations are recommended in these areas and at both HDD areas along
the Hudson River. The complete route in this section will be underground. There should be no
direct impacts to historic resources in this area. No formal historic resources evaluations or
viewshed analysis is recommended.


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Recommended Cultural Resource Investigations between MP 31 and MP 32. The area
along the Hudson River has a high sensitivity for the presence of cultural resources. Therefore,
Phase I archaeological investigations are recommended throughout this section in the
expanded ROW and homeowner relocation areas. The complete route in this section will be
underground. There should be no direct impacts to above-ground historic resources in this area.
No formal above-ground historic resources evaluations or viewshed analysis is recommended.

4.4.3 Section 3: Leeds to Rock Tavern, MP 32 to MP 101.17. The Leeds to Rock Tavern
transmission line extends from MP 32 Leeds substation, Greene County through Ulster County
to MP 101.17 in Orange County. Proposed construction activities and potential impacts between
MP 32 to MP 87.5 include adding a new double 345-kV circuit to an existing 345-kV H-frame
tower structures within the existing ROW. Proposed construction activities and potential impacts
between MP 87.5 to MP 101.17 include adding a new double 345-kV circuit to an existing 345-
kV H-frame tower structures within the existing ROW and construction of the proposed East
Road Junction switching station requiring approximately three acres. The new switching station
will be constructed near East Road in the Town of Marlborough in Ulster County at
approximately MP 87.6.

Recommended Cultural Resource Investigations between MP 32 and MP 87.5. Since there
is no new construction and no ground disturbance or new pole placement, no cultural resource
investigations are recommended in this section. No subsurface impacts will occur from
placement of the line on existing H-frame structures. No archaeological investigations are
recommended. There will be no visual impact from placement of the new transmission line on
existing H-frame structures. Therefore no above-ground historic resources evaluations or
viewshed analysis is recommended.

Recommended Cultural Resource Investigations between MP 87.5 and MP 101.17. The
only new construction is the proposed East Road Junction switching station. Impacts from
construction activities could affect archaeological deposits. Therefore, a Phase I investigation is
recommend at this location. There is no other new construction, ground disturbance or new pole
placement in this section. No other cultural resource investigations are recommended in this
section except at the proposed substation location. There will be no visual impact from
placement of the new transmission line on existing H-frame structures and no above-ground
historic resources evaluations or viewshed analysis is recommended.

4.4.4 Section 4: Roseton to East Fishkill, MP 101.17 to MP 109.57. The Roseton to East
Fishkill section extends approximately 8.4 miles from MP 101.17 in Orange County to MP
109.57 in Dutchess County. Proposed construction activities and potential impacts between MP
101.17 to MP 102 include placement of a new 345-kV line underground throughout this section.
Proposed construction activities and potential impacts between MP 102 and MP 103 include
placement of an underground line beneath the Hudson River and directional drilling sites on
both sides of the river. An underground cable will be installed beneath the Hudson by directional
drilling to a transition station on the east side of the river. The underground conductor will be
approximately one mile long.

Proposed construction activities and potential impacts between MP 103 to MP 109.57 include
construction of a new 345-kV line hung on 130-ft high steel monopoles extending from the
Hudson River to MP 109.6. These activities require approximately 50 ft of additional ROW,
some additional easements needs for off-ROW access rights, and three acres of property to
expand the East Fishkill Substation at MP 109.57.

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Recommended Cultural Resource Investigations between MP 101.17 and MP 102. The
area along the Hudson River has a very high sensitivity for locating cultural resources. Some
areas in this section appear to be disturbed form past construction activities and industrial
development. A Phase I archaeological investigation is recommended in the undisturbed area
within this section. The complete route in this section will be underground. There should be no
direct impacts to above-ground historic resources in this area. No formal above-ground historic
resources evaluations or viewshed analysis is recommended.

Recommended Cultural Resource Investigations between MP 102 and MP 103. The area
along the Hudson River has a high sensitivity for the presence of cultural resources. Directional
drilling sites on each side of the Hudson River have the potential to affect archaeological
deposits. Therefore, Phase I archaeological investigations are recommended in these areas.
Placement of an underground line beneath the Hudson River and directional drilling on both
sides of the river will have no effect on any above-ground historic resources or viewsheds. No
above-ground historic resources or viewshed analysis is recommended.

Recommended Cultural Resource Investigations between MP 103 to MP 109.57. The area
of the expanded ROW and the locations of the monopole placement are sensitive and generally
undisturbed. The location of the proposed expanded three-acre substation is also sensitive. A
Phase I archaeological investigation should be conducted at both of these locations area
throughout the section.

The monopoles will be approximately 45 feet higher than the current H-frame structures. A
preliminary map review indicates that visual impacts to historic resources within 0.5 miles of the
proposed center line should be limited. A limited evaluation of above-ground historic resources
and a viewshed analysis should be conducted in selected areas within a 0.5-mile radius of the
centerline. NYSHPO should be consulted to determine the specific areas where viewshed
analysis should be conducted.




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5.0 References
Abler, Thomas S., and Elisabeth Tooker
   1978 Seneca. In Northeast, edited by Bruce G. Trigger, pp. 505-517. Handbook of North
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Anderson, George Baker
   2009 [1897] Chapter XIX. Town of Greenbush. In Landmarks of Rensselaer County, New
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Attafuah-Wadee, Kweku
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Bayne, Martha Collins
  1937 County at Large. The Women’s City and County Club with Vasser College,
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Becker, Eddie
   1999 Chronology on the History of Slavery. Compiled by Eddie Becker 1999. Electronic
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Beers, Frederick W.
   1876 County Atlas of Rensselaer, New York. F.W. Beers & Co., New York.

Bender, Susan J., and Edward V. Curtin
   1990 A Prehistoric Context for the Upper Hudson Valley: Report of the Survey and Planning
      Project. Department of Sociology, Anthropology, and Social Work, Skidmore College,
      Saratoga Springs, NY. Prepared for the New York State Office of Parks, Recreation, and
      Historic Preservation, and the National Park Service.

Benton, Nathaniel S.
  1999 [1856] History of Herkimer County, 1709-1722. J. Munsell, Albany. Rpt: Three Rivers
      website, np. Electronic document, http://threerivershms.com/Benton.htm, accessed
      September 23, 2013.

Bleeker, J. R. (Surveyor)
   1767 A Map of the Manor of Rensselaerwick. Copied from the original by D. Vaughn and
       J.E. Gavit. Institute Archives and Special Collections, Rensselaer Libraries, Rensselaer
       Polytechnic Institute, Troy, NY. Electronic document,
       http://www.lib.rpi.edu/archives/rensselaerwyck/index.html, accessed September 24, 2013.



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Blumin, Stuart M.
   1976 The Urban Threshold; Growth and Change in a Nineteenth-Century American
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Brasser, T.J.
   1978a Early Indian-European Contacts. In Northeast, edited by Bruce G. Trigger, pp. 78-88.
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   1978b Mahican. In Northeast, edited by Bruce G. Trigger, pp. 198-212. Handbook of North
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Brink, Benjamin Myer (ed)
    1906 Olde Ulster; an historical and genealogical magazine. R.W. Anderson & Son, Printers,
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Burke, Thomas E., Jr.
   1991 Mohawk Frontier: The Dutch Community of Schenectady, New York, 1661-1710.
       Cornell University Press, Ithaca, NY.

Cassedy, Daniel, Paul Webb, Tracy Millis, and Heather Millis
   1993 New Data on Maize Horticulture and Subsistence in Southwestern Connnecticut.
      Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the Northeastern Anthropological Association,
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Chilton, Elizabeth S.
    1992 Archaeological Investigations at the Goat Island Rockshelter: New Light from Old
        Legacies. Hudson Valley Regional Review 9(1):47-75.

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