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Space Based Instrumentation for Future Detection of Artificial ULF/ELF/VLF waves and Their Effects using the Canadian Sponsored Enhanced Polar Outflow Project (ePOP) Satellite Paul Bernhardt1, Carl Siefring1, Andrew Yau2, H. Gordon James3 1Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, DC 2University of Calgary, Alberta, Canada 3Communication Research Centre, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada Enhanced Polar Outflow Probe (ePOP) Science Team A. W. Yau, P. V. Amerl, L. L. Cogger, E. Donovan, D. J. Knudsen, J. S. Murphree, T. S. Trondsen, University of Calgary P. A. Bernhardt, C.L. Siefring, Naval Research Laboratory M. Connors, University of Athabasca A. Hamza, R. Langley, University of New Brunswick H. Hayakawa, K. Tsuruda, Institute of Space and Astronautical Science H. G. James, Communications Research Centre S. Kostov, G. Sofko, University of Saskatchewan J. Laframboise, York University J. MacDougall, J. P. St. Maurice, University of Western Ontario D. D. Wallis, Magnametrics Enhanced - Polar Outflow Probe (NRL-0101) Concept Experiment Description • Directly Monitor Polar Ionosphere and Disturbances with a Suite of 8 Space Environment Sensors • Orbit: 350 x 1500 km > 70o Inclination • Satellite Mass: < 100 kg Goals/Objectives • Monitor Reduction of Trapped Radiation Using HAARP Radio Transmissions. • Develop Understanding of Magnetosphere-Ionosphere (M-I) Coupling on DoD Systems using Radio Propagation and Satellites • Demonstrate Capability of Forecasting the Plasma Environment in Near-Earth Space • Identify System Impacts of Ionospheric Ion Acceleration and Outflow • Study Plasma/Atmospheric Outflow and Wave-Particle Interactions e-POP Science Objectives: Ion Outflow and Acceleration • Polar wind ions and electrons – Collisional-collisionless transition region dynamics • Neutral outflow – Ion-neutral charge exchange and geocorona • Auroral bulk flow – Role of cold O+ plasma in auroral substorm onset • Topside auroral ion acceleration and heating – Wave particle interaction and propagation – Temporal/spatial relationship with aurora – Small-scale plasma irregularities Ionospheric Ion Heating and Outflow diverging geomagnetic field lines AMICIST sounding rocket data Courtesy P. Kintner & J. Bonnell, Cornell mirror force causes heated ions to migrate higher altitudes satellite detects upwelling ionospheric plasma entering the broadband, low-frequency electrostatic waves heat magnetosphere ions transverse to B electrostatic potential structures - sounding rocket data show transverse ion energization associated with BroadBand Extremely Low Frequency (BBELF) oscillations (f ~ WO+ and below) - the BBELF, in turn, is frequently associated with highly structured cross-field flows e-POP Micro-Satellite: – Imaging particle instruments for unprecedented resolution on satellites Instrument Payload • IRM: Imaging rapid ion mass spectrometer • SEI: Suprathermal electron imager • NMS: Neutral mass and velocity spectrometer – Auroral imager and wave receiver- transmitter for first micro-satellite measurements • FAI: Fast auroral imager • RRI: Radio receiver instrument • CERTO: Coherent electromagnetic radio tomography – Integrated instrument control/data handling, and science-quality orbit- attitude system data to maximize science return • MGF: Magnetometer • GAP: Differential GPS Attitude and Position System e-POP Instrument Payload Instrument Component Volume (cm3) Mass (kg) Power (W) IRM IRM-E 2,880 1.0 9/7 IRM-S 1,178 1.0 IRM-B 707 (1 m boom) 1.5 SEI SEI-E 4,800 1.5 13/9 SEI-S 236 1.0 SEI-B 707 (1 m boom) 2.0 NMS NMS 7,500 7.0 18/18 FAI FAI-E 720 1.0 14/10* FAI-SV 1,178 1.0 FAI-SI 1,178 1.0 RRI RRI ~800 < 5 kg 10*/5* GAP GAP-T 1,977 3.2 15*/8* GAP-A (total) 1,463 2.5 MGF MGF TBD TBD CERTO CERTO-E 263 0.8 5*/5* CERTO-B 1,250 (TBC) 1.0 9.6/6.4 Total 35,800 + TBD 30.5 + TBD * TBC e-POP In-situ Measurement Requirements – Polar wind and suprathermal ions • Composition, density, velocity, temperature (1-40 amu, 0.1-70 eV) – Atmospheric neutrals • Composition, density, velocity, temperature (1-40 amu, 0.1-2 km/s) – Ambient and suprathermal electrons • Energy and pitch angle distributions (<200 eV); including photo- electrons – Convection electric field • from perpendicular ion drift velocity – Auroral images • Fast broadband images (10 per sec) and slower monochromatic images – Field-aligned current density • from magnetic field perturbations – Ionospheric irregularities • from differential GPS and CERTO beacon Radio Science on e-POP • RRI Science (10 Hz -18 MHz) – Transionospheric Imaging of Density Structures – Wave-Particle Interactions – Ionospheric Heater-Triggered Nonlinear Processes • GPS Occultation (1.2-1.5 GHz) Limb Scan – L-Band TEC and Scintillations • CERTO Beacon – VHF/UHF Transmissions for Tomography – Irregularity Detection Via Scintillations Radio Receiver Instrument Frequency Range Spontaneous Man-Made 100 MHz 10 MHz Programmable in 1 MHz 30 kHz steps 100 kHz Measurements With RRI 10 kHz 1 kHz 100 Hz 10 Hz flh fpe fge SuperDARN fg[O+] fg[H+] fpi RRILOW RRIHIGH CADI HF Heaters Radio Receiver Instrument Differenced or Direct Inputs + S - + S - Data and Control Signals Radio Receiver Instrument Parameters Frequency range: 10 Hz – 18 MHz Noise threshold (LSB): 0.4 mV Maximum signal for linearity: 1 V Sample size: 14 bits Max. sample rate/channel: 60,000 s-1 Number of channels: 4 Antennas: 4 tubular 3-m monopoles Absolute time stamp (GPS): ± 1 ms Mass with antennas, preamps: £ 8 kg Power: £ 5 W HAARP HF Transmitter, Alaska ePOP Diagnostic Package 300 km TRAPPED ENERGETIC PARTICLES IN THE RADIATION BELTS EPOP MONITORING OF HAARP-PRODUCED PRECIPITATION OF TRAPPED ENERGETIC PARTICLES IN THE RADIATION BELTS Precipitating Reflected ELF/VLF Electrons Waves HF Waves Interaction ePOP Pitch Angle Orbit Scattered Electrons HAARP Transmitter Interaction B-Field Region Trapped Electrons Ionosphere Reflected Waves HF Heater Radio Induced Aurora (RIA) and Stimulated Electromagnetic Emission (SEE) Observation Geometry Altitude (km) Supra-Thermal F-Layer Electrons Reflection 400 SEE Level Radiation RIA Optical ePOP 300 Cloud HF Beam B-Field 200 West Distance (km) 100 0 20 0 10 -200 -100 0 100 200 0 -10 North Distance (km) 0 -20 Stimulated Electromagnetic Emissio (Adapted from: http://www.physics.irfu.se/SEE/) fpump = 4 fce - Df fpump = 4 fce + Df HF Pump Frequency, fpump Amplitude Amplitude Down- shifted Broad Peaks Upshifted Maximum Frequency 05 February 2002, HAARP Alaska, 630.0 nm Excited by 5.8 MHz 30 Second Exposures, 37° x 37° Field-of-View Altitude (km) 400 F-layer ePOP Ionospheric F-Layer Irregularity 630.0 and 557.7 nm Observations Artificial Airglow 200 HF by Radio Radio Induced Beam 100 Auroral West (km) 0 20 0 -200 -100 0 10 100 200 0 North (km) -10 Arecibo 0 -20 HF Facility 17 February 2002, HAARP Alaska, 557.7 nm Excited by 4.8 MHz 30 Second Exposures, 18.5° x 18.5° Field-of-View Space Based Diagnostics for HAARP • HAARP Antenna Pattern (7) – Required Diagnostic: HF Receiver and Antenna (3 to 9 MHz) – ePOP Instrument: Radio Receiver Instrument (1-18 MHz with 30 KHz Bandwidth) • ELF/VLF Waves (10) – Required Diagnostic: Receiver Covering 1 to 30 kHz – ePOP Instrument: RRI [100 (10?) Hz to 30 kHz] • Elevated F-Region Electron Temperatures (5) – Required Diagnostic: Thermal Detector 0.0 to 0.3 eV – ePOP Instrument: Suprathermal Electron Imager (0 to 200 eV) • Suprathermal Electron Fluxes (7) – Required Diagnostic: Thermal Detector 0 to 20 eV – ePOP Instrument: SEI (0 to 200 eV) • Stimulated Precipitation (9) – Required Diagnostic: High Energy Electrons (~1 Mev) – ePOP Instrument: Fast Auroral Imager (MCP Scintillations) or Imaging Rapid Ion Mass Spectrometer • Optical Emissions (6) – Required Diagnostic: Detector at N21P, 630, 557.7, 427.8, and 777.4 nm – ePOP Instrument: Fast Auroral Imager (630 to 850 nm) • Field Aligned Irregularities (Aspect Ratios) (8) – Required Diagnostic: In Situ Electron or Ion Probe – ePOP Instrument: None – Required Diagnostic: Radio Scintillation/TEC Beacon and Antenna – ePOP Instrument: CERTO (150, 400, and 1067 MHz Transmissions) • Stimulated Electromagnetic Emissions (5) – Required Diagnostic: HF Receiver and Antenna (3 to 9 MHz with 100 kHz Bandwidth) • Near Plasma Frequency • New Harmonics of Plasma Frequency – ePOP Instrument: Radio Receiver Instrument (1-18 MHz with 30 KHz Bandwidth) Space-Based, Diagnostic Requirements for HAARP Measurement Importance Diagnostic ePOP Instrument ELF/VLF Waves Very High Receiver Covering RRI VLF Band 1 Hz to 30 kHz 10 Hz to 30 kHz Stimulated Very High High Energy IRM or FAI Prescipitation Electrons (~1 MeV) Particle and Optical Sensors Suprathermal Electron High Thermal Detector SEI Low Energy Fluxes 0 to 20 eV Electron Detector (0 to 200 eV) Field Aligned High In Situ Probe or CERTO Radio Beacon Irregularities Radio Beacon (150, 400, 1067 MHz) Optical Emissions High Photo Detector FAI Optical Sensor N21P, 630, 557.7, (630 to 850 nm) 427.8, 777.4 nm Elevated F-Region Moderate Thermal Electron SEI Low Energy Electron Temperature Detector 0.0 to 0.3 eV Electron Detector (0 to 200 eV) Stimulated Moderate HF Receiver/Antenna RRI HF Band Electromagnetic (3 to 9 MHz with 100 (1-18 MHz, 30 kHz Emissions kHz Bandwidth) Bandwidth) Note: RRI = Radio Receiver Instrument, SEI = Suprathermal Electron Imager, FAI = Fast Auroral Imager, CERTO = Coherent Electromagnetic Radio Tomography, IRM = Rapid Ion Mass Spectrometer High Latitude Scintillation •• Climatological Models Climatological Models for Global Scintillations for Global Scintillations Models •• Seasonal and Solar Seasonal and Solar Cycle Dependencies Cycle Dependencies •• No Capability for Real- No Capability for Real- Time Scintillation Time Scintillation Predictions Predictions – Variable Occurrence – Variable Occurrence – Unpredictable Intensity – Unpredictable Intensity – Complex Dynamics – Complex Dynamics In Situ Measurements of O+-Ion Gradient-Drift Instability and Nonlin Flow are a Proxy for F-Region Irregularities that Constant Instability Drive: = 20,000,n b Produce Radio Wave Scintillations Isosurfaces of the d Altitude • Structuring of Polar Cap Patches • High Latitude Ionospheric Instability and Nonlinear Inertial Effect Gradient-Drift Irregularities Constant Instability Drive: = 20,000,n(z) R=N /N =2 b max min – U. of Maryland Simulation Isosurfaces of the density – Ref.: Guzdar et al., 2001 Longitude Latitude • Plasma Turbulence on Wide t=0 s Range of Scales – Parallel Electric Fields – Polar Outflow of O+ Ions – Ion Signature of F-Region Irregularities t=0 s t=5880 s Enhanced - Polar Outflow Probe (NRL-0101) Radio Wave Propagation and Particle Interactions Impact e-POP Determination receiver • Orbiting e-POP Receiver, HF Radar, and Ionospheric Irregularities Ionospheric Irregularities • Coordinated observation of radar echo propagation with ground radar facility HF/VHF Radar • In-situ observation of scattered HF waves in the high- latitude ionosphere e-POP Microsatellite - Project Status • Mission Development – Enhanced POP (e-POP) selected by CSA and NSERC in 2001/08 for mission (instrument and spacecraft bus) development – NSERC funding for Science Team and CSA funding for instrument development to start in FY01/02 • Instrument Payload – Original POP instruments (IRM, SEI, NMS): preliminary design in progress; development of engineering model to commenced 2002 – FAI and RRI: Concept design & feasibility study completed 2001/07, preliminary design commenced 2001/08 – CERTO: Inclusion of instrument on e-POP via US DoD • Spacecraft Bus – CSA to procure spacecraft bus under separate industrial contract Enhanced - Polar Outflow Probe e-POP (NRL-0101) Summary • The National Security Space Architect (NSSA) Space Weather Architecture Study (1999) identifies ionospheric specification and forecast (including high latitude scintillations and D-region absorption) as a National Security Priority. • The HAARP/Tether Panel on Military Applications of HAARP (2002) identifies radiation belt mitigation as a high priority. The ePOP diagnostics package directly addresses the generation and detection of ELF/VLF for radiation belt particle depletion using HAARP. • Scintillation, Scattering and Absorption have a significant operational impact, which impact UHF SATCOM, GPS navigation, and Aircraft HF Communications at high latitudes. • ePOP provides vital measurements of ionospheric parameters that control the generation of scintillation-producing irregularities and radio wave absorption at high latitudes.
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