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Space Based Instrumentation for Future Detection of Artificial ULF-ELF-VLF waves and Their Effects using the Canadian Sponsored Enhanced Polar Outflow Project _ePOP_ Satellite

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Space Based Instrumentation for Future Detection of Artificial ULF-ELF-VLF waves and Their Effects using the Canadian Sponsored Enhanced Polar Outflow Project _ePOP_ Satellite Powered By Docstoc
					           Space Based Instrumentation for
  Future Detection of Artificial ULF/ELF/VLF waves
              and Their Effects using the
                 Canadian Sponsored
   Enhanced Polar Outflow Project (ePOP) Satellite



Paul Bernhardt1, Carl Siefring1, Andrew Yau2, H. Gordon James3
         1Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, DC

           2University of Calgary, Alberta, Canada

  3Communication Research Centre, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada
Enhanced Polar Outflow Probe (ePOP) Science Team

A. W. Yau, P. V. Amerl, L. L. Cogger, E. Donovan, D. J. Knudsen, J. S.
Murphree, T. S. Trondsen,
University of Calgary

P. A. Bernhardt, C.L. Siefring, Naval Research Laboratory

M. Connors, University of Athabasca

A. Hamza, R. Langley, University of New Brunswick

H. Hayakawa, K. Tsuruda, Institute of Space and Astronautical Science

H. G. James, Communications Research Centre

S. Kostov, G. Sofko, University of Saskatchewan

J. Laframboise, York University

J. MacDougall, J. P. St. Maurice, University of Western Ontario

D. D. Wallis, Magnametrics
Enhanced - Polar Outflow Probe (NRL-0101) Concept
                                             Experiment Description
                                             •   Directly Monitor Polar
                                                 Ionosphere and
                                                 Disturbances with a Suite of
                                                 8 Space Environment
                                                 Sensors
                                             •   Orbit: 350 x 1500 km     >
                                                 70o Inclination
                                             •   Satellite Mass: < 100 kg


Goals/Objectives
•   Monitor Reduction of Trapped Radiation Using HAARP Radio Transmissions.
•   Develop Understanding of Magnetosphere-Ionosphere (M-I) Coupling on DoD
    Systems using Radio Propagation and Satellites
•   Demonstrate Capability of Forecasting the Plasma Environment in Near-Earth
    Space
•   Identify System Impacts of Ionospheric Ion Acceleration and Outflow
•   Study Plasma/Atmospheric Outflow and Wave-Particle Interactions
  e-POP Science Objectives: Ion Outflow and Acceleration

• Polar wind ions and electrons
   – Collisional-collisionless transition region dynamics

• Neutral outflow
   – Ion-neutral charge exchange and geocorona

• Auroral bulk flow
   – Role of cold O+ plasma in auroral substorm onset

• Topside auroral ion acceleration and heating
   – Wave particle interaction and propagation
   – Temporal/spatial relationship with aurora
   – Small-scale plasma irregularities
        Ionospheric Ion Heating and Outflow
diverging geomagnetic field lines
                                                                            AMICIST sounding rocket data
                                                                        Courtesy P. Kintner & J. Bonnell, Cornell
mirror force causes heated ions
to migrate higher altitudes            satellite detects
                                    upwelling ionospheric
                                     plasma entering the
broadband, low-frequency
electrostatic waves heat               magnetosphere
ions transverse to B

electrostatic potential
structures




                                                            - sounding rocket data show transverse ion energization
                                                            associated with BroadBand Extremely Low Frequency
                                                            (BBELF) oscillations (f ~ WO+ and below)

                                                            - the BBELF, in turn, is frequently associated with highly
                                                            structured cross-field flows
e-POP Micro-Satellite:   – Imaging particle instruments for
                           unprecedented resolution on satellites
 Instrument Payload          • IRM: Imaging rapid ion mass
                               spectrometer
                             • SEI: Suprathermal electron imager
                             • NMS: Neutral mass and velocity
                               spectrometer

                         – Auroral imager and wave receiver-
                           transmitter for first micro-satellite
                           measurements
                             • FAI: Fast auroral imager
                             • RRI: Radio receiver instrument
                             • CERTO: Coherent electromagnetic
                               radio tomography

                         – Integrated instrument control/data
                           handling, and science-quality orbit-
                           attitude system data to maximize
                           science return
                             • MGF: Magnetometer
                             • GAP: Differential GPS Attitude and
                               Position System
e-POP Instrument Payload
 Instrument     Component      Volume (cm3)     Mass (kg)   Power (W)
IRM           IRM-E                2,880           1.0         9/7
              IRM-S                1,178           1.0
              IRM-B           707 (1 m boom)       1.5
SEI           SEI-E                4,800           1.5        13/9
              SEI-S                 236            1.0
              SEI-B           707 (1 m boom)       2.0
NMS           NMS                  7,500           7.0       18/18
FAI           FAI-E                 720            1.0       14/10*
              FAI-SV               1,178           1.0
              FAI-SI               1,178           1.0
RRI           RRI                   ~800         < 5 kg      10*/5*
GAP           GAP-T                1,977           3.2       15*/8*
              GAP-A (total)        1,463           2.5
MGF           MGF                   TBD           TBD
CERTO         CERTO-E               263            0.8       5*/5*
              CERTO-B           1,250 (TBC)        1.0       9.6/6.4
              Total            35,800 + TBD    30.5 + TBD



  * TBC
e-POP In-situ Measurement Requirements
  – Polar wind and suprathermal ions
      • Composition, density, velocity, temperature (1-40 amu, 0.1-70 eV)
  – Atmospheric neutrals
      • Composition, density, velocity, temperature (1-40 amu, 0.1-2 km/s)
  – Ambient and suprathermal electrons
      • Energy and pitch angle distributions (<200 eV); including photo-
        electrons
  – Convection electric field
      • from perpendicular ion drift velocity
  – Auroral images
      • Fast broadband images (10 per sec) and slower monochromatic
        images
  – Field-aligned current density
      • from magnetic field perturbations
  – Ionospheric irregularities
      • from differential GPS and CERTO beacon
    Radio Science on e-POP
• RRI Science (10 Hz -18 MHz)
  – Transionospheric Imaging of Density Structures
  – Wave-Particle Interactions
  – Ionospheric Heater-Triggered Nonlinear Processes
• GPS Occultation (1.2-1.5 GHz) Limb Scan
  – L-Band TEC and Scintillations
• CERTO Beacon
  – VHF/UHF Transmissions for Tomography
  – Irregularity Detection Via Scintillations
Radio Receiver Instrument Frequency Range

                   Spontaneous                 Man-Made
  100 MHz


  10 MHz                                                                                     Programmable
                                                                                                   in
   1 MHz                                                                                      30 kHz steps

  100 kHz                                                                     Measurements
                                                                                 With RRI
   10 kHz


    1 kHz


   100 Hz


    10 Hz


                                flh fpe fge
                                                     SuperDARN




            fg[O+] fg[H+] fpi                                                 RRILOW   RRIHIGH
                                              CADI




                                                                 HF Heaters
Radio Receiver Instrument
   Differenced or
   Direct Inputs



   +
   S
   -




   +
   S
   -




                    Data and
                     Control
                     Signals
Radio Receiver Instrument Parameters
   Frequency range: 10 Hz – 18 MHz
   Noise threshold (LSB): 0.4 mV
   Maximum signal for linearity: 1 V
   Sample size: 14 bits
   Max. sample rate/channel: 60,000 s-1
   Number of channels: 4
   Antennas: 4 tubular 3-m monopoles
   Absolute time stamp (GPS): ± 1 ms
   Mass with antennas, preamps: £ 8 kg
   Power: £ 5 W
HAARP HF Transmitter, Alaska




                               ePOP Diagnostic Package
                                                         300 km
TRAPPED ENERGETIC PARTICLES
   IN THE RADIATION BELTS
EPOP MONITORING OF HAARP-PRODUCED PRECIPITATION OF
 TRAPPED ENERGETIC PARTICLES IN THE RADIATION BELTS



                             Precipitating Reflected
                     ELF/VLF Electrons     Waves
               HF     Waves
           Interaction
                            ePOP                       Pitch Angle
                             Orbit                     Scattered Electrons
            HAARP
        Transmitter
                                                         Interaction
                                       B-Field
                                                         Region


                                                       Trapped
                                                       Electrons
      Ionosphere
                   Reflected
                   Waves
    HF Heater Radio Induced Aurora (RIA)
and Stimulated Electromagnetic Emission (SEE)
            Observation Geometry




                 Altitude (km)
                                              Supra-Thermal                  F-Layer
                                                Electrons                   Reflection
           400
                                                         SEE                  Level
                                                       Radiation
                                  RIA
                                 Optical                                                 ePOP
           300




                                 Cloud                       HF Beam

                                                        B-Field
           200




                                                                  West Distance (km)
           100




                                                              0
                                                            20
                                                        0
                                                      10
           -200                    -100           0         100       200
                                              0
                                           -10        North Distance (km)
                                       0
                                    -20
    Stimulated Electromagnetic Emissio
      (Adapted from: http://www.physics.irfu.se/SEE/)



    fpump = 4 fce - Df                                          fpump = 4 fce + Df




                                     HF Pump Frequency, fpump
                         Amplitude
             Amplitude




Down-
shifted                                                             Broad
Peaks                                                              Upshifted
                                                                   Maximum




                                                                               Frequency
05 February 2002, HAARP Alaska, 630.0 nm Excited by 5.8 MHz
        30 Second Exposures, 37° x 37° Field-of-View
                                            Altitude (km)

                                                             400
F-layer            ePOP
Ionospheric                                                                F-Layer
Irregularity   630.0 and 557.7 nm
Observations    Artificial Airglow




                                                             200
                                                                    HF
by Radio                                                           Radio
Induced                                                            Beam




                                                             100
Auroral
                                                                       West (km)
                                                                   0
                                                                20
                                                              0
                -200   -100            0                    10 100     200

                                        0                                     North (km)
                                     -10
                                       Arecibo
                                 0
                              -20
                                      HF Facility
17 February 2002, HAARP Alaska, 557.7 nm Excited by 4.8 MHz
       30 Second Exposures, 18.5° x 18.5° Field-of-View
                     Space Based Diagnostics for HAARP
•   HAARP Antenna Pattern (7)
     –   Required Diagnostic: HF Receiver and Antenna (3 to 9 MHz)
     –   ePOP Instrument: Radio Receiver Instrument (1-18 MHz with 30 KHz Bandwidth)
•   ELF/VLF Waves (10)
     –   Required Diagnostic: Receiver Covering 1 to 30 kHz
     –   ePOP Instrument: RRI [100 (10?) Hz to 30 kHz]
•   Elevated F-Region Electron Temperatures (5)
     –   Required Diagnostic: Thermal Detector 0.0 to 0.3 eV
     –   ePOP Instrument: Suprathermal Electron Imager (0 to 200 eV)
•   Suprathermal Electron Fluxes (7)
     –   Required Diagnostic: Thermal Detector 0 to 20 eV
     –   ePOP Instrument: SEI (0 to 200 eV)
•   Stimulated Precipitation (9)
     –   Required Diagnostic: High Energy Electrons (~1 Mev)
     –   ePOP Instrument: Fast Auroral Imager (MCP Scintillations) or Imaging Rapid Ion Mass Spectrometer
•   Optical Emissions (6)
     –   Required Diagnostic: Detector at N21P, 630, 557.7, 427.8, and 777.4 nm
     –   ePOP Instrument: Fast Auroral Imager (630 to 850 nm)
•   Field Aligned Irregularities (Aspect Ratios) (8)
     –   Required Diagnostic: In Situ Electron or Ion Probe
     –   ePOP Instrument: None
     –   Required Diagnostic: Radio Scintillation/TEC Beacon and Antenna
     –   ePOP Instrument: CERTO (150, 400, and 1067 MHz Transmissions)
•   Stimulated Electromagnetic Emissions (5)
     –   Required Diagnostic: HF Receiver and Antenna (3 to 9 MHz with 100 kHz Bandwidth)
            •   Near Plasma Frequency
            •   New Harmonics of Plasma Frequency
     –   ePOP Instrument: Radio Receiver Instrument (1-18 MHz with 30 KHz Bandwidth)
Space-Based, Diagnostic Requirements for HAARP
      Measurement              Importance            Diagnostic               ePOP Instrument
      ELF/VLF Waves             Very High          Receiver Covering            RRI VLF Band
                                                    1 Hz to 30 kHz             10 Hz to 30 kHz
         Stimulated              Very High           High Energy                 IRM or FAI
        Prescipitation                            Electrons (~1 MeV)         Particle and Optical
                                                                                   Sensors
   Suprathermal Electron            High            Thermal Detector           SEI Low Energy
          Fluxes                                       0 to 20 eV             Electron Detector
                                                                                (0 to 200 eV)
        Field Aligned               High             In Situ Probe or       CERTO Radio Beacon
        Irregularities                                Radio Beacon          (150, 400, 1067 MHz)
     Optical Emissions              High            Photo Detector            FAI Optical Sensor
                                                  N21P, 630, 557.7,            (630 to 850 nm)
                                                   427.8, 777.4 nm
    Elevated F-Region            Moderate         Thermal Electron              SEI Low Energy
   Electron Temperature                          Detector 0.0 to 0.3 eV        Electron Detector
                                                                                 (0 to 200 eV)
        Stimulated               Moderate        HF Receiver/Antenna             RRI HF Band
      Electromagnetic                            (3 to 9 MHz with 100         (1-18 MHz, 30 kHz
         Emissions                                  kHz Bandwidth)                Bandwidth)

 Note: RRI = Radio Receiver Instrument, SEI = Suprathermal Electron Imager, FAI = Fast Auroral Imager,
 CERTO = Coherent Electromagnetic Radio Tomography, IRM = Rapid Ion Mass Spectrometer
High Latitude
Scintillation   •• Climatological Models
                    Climatological Models
                   for Global Scintillations
                    for Global Scintillations
   Models       •• Seasonal and Solar
                    Seasonal and Solar
                   Cycle Dependencies
                    Cycle Dependencies
                •• No Capability for Real-
                    No Capability for Real-
                   Time Scintillation
                    Time Scintillation
                   Predictions
                    Predictions
                    – Variable Occurrence
                     – Variable Occurrence
                    – Unpredictable Intensity
                     – Unpredictable Intensity
                    – Complex Dynamics
                     – Complex Dynamics
      In Situ Measurements of O+-Ion Gradient-Drift Instability and Nonlin
                                      Flow are
       a Proxy for F-Region Irregularities that                         Constant Instability Drive: = 20,000,n
                                                                                                 b


          Produce Radio Wave Scintillations  Isosurfaces of the d
                                                         Altitude
• Structuring of Polar Cap
  Patches
• High Latitude Ionospheric Instability and Nonlinear Inertial Effect
                    Gradient-Drift
  Irregularities       Constant Instability Drive: = 20,000,n(z) R=N /N =2
                                                b                max   min



    – U. of Maryland Simulation
                               Isosurfaces of the density
    – Ref.: Guzdar et al., 2001           Longitude                           Latitude
• Plasma Turbulence on Wide                                        t=0 s
  Range of Scales
    – Parallel Electric Fields
    – Polar Outflow of O+ Ions
    – Ion Signature of F-Region
      Irregularities


                           t=0 s                                  t=5880 s
  Enhanced - Polar Outflow Probe (NRL-0101)
Radio Wave Propagation and Particle Interactions

                                  Impact
                      e-POP         Determination
                      receiver
                                  •   Orbiting e-POP
                                      Receiver, HF Radar,
                                      and Ionospheric
                                      Irregularities
     Ionospheric
     Irregularities
                                  •   Coordinated
                                      observation of radar
                                      echo propagation
                                      with ground radar
                                      facility
HF/VHF
Radar
                                  •   In-situ observation
                                      of scattered HF
                                      waves in the high-
                                      latitude ionosphere
       e-POP Microsatellite - Project Status

• Mission Development
  – Enhanced POP (e-POP) selected by CSA and NSERC in 2001/08
    for mission (instrument and spacecraft bus) development
  – NSERC funding for Science Team and CSA funding for
    instrument development to start in FY01/02
• Instrument Payload
  – Original POP instruments (IRM, SEI, NMS): preliminary design
    in progress; development of engineering model to commenced
    2002
  – FAI and RRI: Concept design & feasibility study completed
    2001/07, preliminary design commenced 2001/08
  – CERTO: Inclusion of instrument on e-POP via US DoD
• Spacecraft Bus
  – CSA to procure spacecraft bus under separate industrial
    contract
Enhanced - Polar Outflow Probe e-POP (NRL-0101)
                   Summary

 •   The National Security Space Architect (NSSA) Space Weather Architecture Study
     (1999) identifies ionospheric specification and forecast (including high latitude
     scintillations and D-region absorption) as a National Security Priority.

 •   The HAARP/Tether Panel on Military Applications of HAARP (2002) identifies
     radiation belt mitigation as a high priority. The ePOP diagnostics package directly
     addresses the generation and detection of ELF/VLF for radiation belt particle
     depletion using HAARP.

 •   Scintillation, Scattering and Absorption have a significant operational impact, which
     impact UHF SATCOM, GPS navigation, and Aircraft HF Communications at high
     latitudes.

 •   ePOP provides vital measurements of ionospheric parameters that control the
     generation of scintillation-producing irregularities and radio wave absorption at high
     latitudes.

				
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