World Civilizations Name Hinduism and Buddhism Period ______

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					World Civilizations                                                            Name ___________________________
Hinduism and Buddhism                                                                             Period _______
Guided Notes #2

By the end of the Vedic Age two great __________________ developed in India, ____________________ and
___________________. Many people in India began to question the ___________________ authority their teachings
became known as the __________________. These teachings were collected in the _______________________ a
written explanations of the Vedic religion.

After years of retelling these stories people combined them into two _____________ which are long ______________
based on historical or religious themes. The two epics were known as the __________________________ and the
_____________________. The Mahabharata tells the story of a great ________________ in a kingdom in what is now
Northern India. Part of this epic is known as the ___________________________ the most famous ______________

Ramayana tells the story of Rama, a prince and the _______________________ of the god Vishnu, and his wife Sita.
_____________ and _______________ became role models for men and women in _________________.

Two developments transformed Indian society the __________________________ and _____________________. The
_________________________ is a complex form of social organization that began to take shape after the
_________________ migration. Four distinct, social _________________, or _________________ appeared in Indian

(Varnas) First class: _________________ and ______________________Second class: ____________________, the
priests and scholars Third class: merchants, traders, and _______________________ Fourth class: _________________
Fifth class: ____________________ or “untouchables”. Outside the varnas they performed only jobs that were
considered ________________.

Overtime, the four varnas divided into small subgroups called _______________. Strict _______________ developed
amongst the jati. The ___________________________ remained for centuries.

____________________ is deeply interwoven with the caste system. Hinduism became India’s major _______________.
It developed from Brahmins teachings of the ________________.

According to the _______________________, a divine essence called ____________________ fills everything in the
world. People have an individual essence, called ___________ or ________________. Brahman and
_________________ are one and the same. All things on earth are of the same essence of ______________. This belief
in the unity of God and creation is called _________________.

___________________ teaches that the world we see is an illusion, if people accept that illusion, if people accept that
illusion, called ______________, they cannot be saved. Hindu’s believe it can take many lifetimes to fully recognize
____________. They also believe souls are reborn over and over again called _______________________. The soul does
not die but can be reborn in the body of another ________________ being or even an ____________________.

Two important principles of Hinduism are ___________________ and ___________________. Dharma is doing one’s
______________ duty in this life so that the soul can ____________________ in the next life. _________________ is the
good or bad ________________ created by a person’s ____________________.

People who fulfill their ____________________ gain good _________________ and are born into a higher
______________ group in the next life. If you don’t live a moral life you are born into a _______________ social group
or even as an ___________________. People may also reach what is called ______________________, a perfect peace.
At this point ______________________ is complete and the individual’s soul unites with ______________________.
The Hindu God ___________________ can be represented as a number of gods. __________________ the creator,
________________ the preserver, or _______________ the destroyer. Other gods are represented in the spirits of trees,
animals, and people BUT each are part of ______________________.

Hinduism appears _________________________, but Hindu’s point out that their gods represent different aspects of
creation. Hindu’s practice _________________ which is a set of mental and physical exercises designed to bring the
______________ and _______________ together. Hindu’s see certain animals as particularly ________________ such as

____________________ also arose in India. The founder of Buddhism was ___________________________________.
He became known as __________________. Siddhartha was the son of a __________________ prince. He enjoyed
many luxuries and never noticed __________________ in India. At the age of 29 Siddhartha ventured out of the
______________ and was shocked to see the challenges of everyday life. He vowed to discover the reasons for human
_________________. He left his family and his lifestyle in search of truth and meaning this became known as the

Siddhartha practiced ______________ and meditation and __________________ BUT did not receive the
________________ he was seeking. Six years later he was ____________________ under a tree and finally understood
the truth that forms the basis of _______________. This is when he became ___________________. He spent the rest
of his life ____________________ his followers to pursue the way to ___________________________.

Buddha accepted some Hindu ideas such as __________________________. He taught progress of the soul depends on
the life a person leads if that person is good they are _____________________ if that person is bad that person is
____________________. Buddha taught that salvation comes from knowing the “__________________________” and
following the “__________________________”.

The Four Noble Truths
    All human life involves __________________ and __________________
    The desire for a life of ___________________ and _________________ gain causes suffering and sorrow
    Renouncing desire frees people from suffering and helps their souls attain ____________________.
    The ________________________ leads to renunciation, or denial of desire and attainment of nirvana.

The Eightfold Path
    Right ___________________: seeing life as it really is
    Right ___________________: living a life of good will; striving toward perfection
    Right ___________________: avoiding lies and gossip
    Right ___________________: trying to be law-abiding and honest
    Right ___________________: avoiding work that harms others
    Right ___________________: seeking to prevent evil
    Right ___________________: constant awareness of one’s self
    Right ___________________: directing the mind in meditation

Buddha taught _______________, a code of morals and conduct more than ______________________. He believed
desire caused suffering therefore he taught _____________________. Buddha did NOT accept Hindu ____________ and
did not believe in the __________________________. Buddha taught all could receive _____________________.
Powerful ____________________ opposed these teachings. Buddha did not believe the __________________ were
sacred writings.

During his lifetime Buddha only had a few _________________________. Buddhism developed and spread fast through
______________. Between 200BCE and AD200 Buddhism ____________ into two branches. ___________________
followed traditional beliefs of Buddhism. ____________________ Buddhism used more elaborate ceremonies than
Theravada. ______________ is where Buddhism gained greatest strength.

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