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The Physical Evidence of Service

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					Physical Evidence and the Servicescape
Chapter 10

Provider Gap 4: Not matching performance to promises
Incompatible or inconsistent physical evidence  Overpromising through physical evidence  Lack of physical evidence strategy
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Definition of Physical Evidence
Servicescape: the environment in which the service is delivered and where the firm and the customer interact  Any tangible commodities that facilitate performance or communication of the service
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Servicescape
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Facility exterior: Exterior design Signage Parking Landscape Surrounding environment

Servicescape
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Facility interior: Interior design Equipment Signage Layout Air quality/temperature

Other Tangibles
Business cards  Stationery  Billing statements  Reports  Employee dress  Uniforms  Brochures  Web pages
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Roles of the Servicescape
Package: Convey image  Facilitator: Aid in the performance/service delivery  Socializer: Convey expectations  Differentiator: Differentiate between competitors and customers
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Understanding Servicescape Effects on Behavior
Stimulus-Organism-Response Theory  Multidimensional environment is the stimulus  Consumers and employees are the organisms  Behaviors are the responses
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Stimulus

Organism

Response

“Response”: Behaviors in the Servicescape
Individual behaviors Approach--stay, explore, work, affiliate Avoidance--not to stay, explore, work, affiliate  Social interactions Between and among customers and employees The best design for one person or group may not be the best design for others
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“Response”: Behaviors in the Servicescape
Arousal
Distressing Exciting Pleasure

Displeasure

Gloomy
Mehrabian-Russell Model

Relaxing Nonarousal

“Organism”: Internal Responses to the Servicescape
Cognitive Beliefs Categorization Symbolic meanings  Emotional Mood Attitude
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Physiological Pain Comfort Movement Physical fitness

“Organism”: Internal Response Moderators
Personality  Purchase situation  Temporary mood states
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“Stimulus”: Environmental Dimensions of the Servicescape
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Ambient conditions Temperature Air quality Noise Music Odor

“Stimulus”: Environmental Dimensions of the Servicescape
Spatial Layout/Function Layout Equipment Furnishings  Signs, Symbols, and Artifacts Signage Personal artifacts Style of decor
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“Stimulus”: Environmental Dimensions of the Servicescape
Sound appeals  Scent appeals  Sight appeals Size perceptions Shape Color perceptions
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Understanding Servicescape Effects
Environment surveys  Direct observation  Experiments  Photographic blueprints
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Guidelines for Physical Evidence Strategy
Recognize the strategic impact of physical evidence  Map the physical evidence of service  Clarify the roles of servicescape
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Guidelines for Physical Evidence Strategy
Assess and identify physical evidence opportunities  Be prepared to update and modernize the evidence  Work cross-functionally
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Extra Credit Assignment (5 pts.)
On Wednesday, November 5, bring a video clip depicting elements of physical evidence in a service business.  Submit a one-page memo with a brief analysis of how the physical evidence is used in the film setting to enhance the scene.
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Servicescape Exercise
Describe the “atmosphere” (layout, colors, sounds, smells, etc.) of your audit organization (AO). How crowded is the business? How does the atmosphere make you feel?  Describe the customers. How are they dressed, and how do they act? Are they alone or with others? Any inferences regarding their lifestyles or incomes?  Describe the customer contact personnel. How are they dressed, and how did they behave?  Sum up in a few words your impressions of the store’s “culture.”
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