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Lesson 1 THE MIDDLE EASTERN BAZAAR Powered By Docstoc

Aims of teaching

1. To comprehend the whole text 2. To lean and master the vocabulary and expressions 3. To understand the structure of the text 4. To appreciate the style and rhetoric of the passage.

Important and difficult points

1. What is description? 2. The comprehension and appreciation of the words describing sound, colour, light, heat, size and smell. 3. The appreciation of the words and expressions used for stress and exaggeration. 4. Some useful expressions such as to make a point of, it is a point of honour…, and etc.

Background information

This text is taken from Advanced Comprehension and

Appreciation Pieces (1962), which was intended for students preparing for the Cambridge Certificate of

Proficiency Examination, & for students in the top class of secondary schools or in the first year of a university course.

Detailed Study of the Text

1. Middle East: Southeast Asia and Northeast Africa, including the Near East and Iran and Afghanistan. Near Ease: the Arabian Peninsula ( Saudi Arabia, Yemen, Oman, United Arab Emirates, Qatar, Bahrein, and Kuwait), Turkey, Iraq, Syria, Jordan, Lebanon, Palestine, Egypt and Sudan.1. Middle East: Southeast Asia and Northeast Africa, including the Near East and Iran and Afghanistan. Near Ease: the Arabian Peninsula ( Saudi Arabia, Yemen, Oman, United Arab Emirates, Qatar, Bahrein, and Kuwait), Turkey, Iraq, Syria, Jordan, Lebanon, Palestine, Egypt and Sudan. Far East: China, Japan, Korea, Mongolia and East Siberia 2. particular: special, single and different from others. When sth. is particular, we mean it is the single or an example of the whole under consideration. the term is

clearly opposed to general and that it is a close synonym of "single". Particular is also often used in the sense of special. I have sth. very particular (special) to say to Mr. Clinton. She always took particular (special) notice of me. On this particular (single) day we had to be at school early. I don't like this particular (single) hat, but the others are quite nice. 3. Gothic-arched: a type of architecture (see. ALD, church picture) Goth: one of the German tribes Arch: a curved top sometimes with a central point resting on 2 supports as above a door. aged: a. [d d] My son is aged 10. When he was aged 6, he went to school. a middle aged couple b. [d id] ancient He is aged; her aged grandfather medicare for the sick & aged 4. glare: shining intensely, harshly, uncomfortably, and too strong; in a way unpleasant to the eyes

5. cavern: a large deep cave (hollow place in the side of a cliff or hill, or underground), closed roofed place. Here in the text we can see that it is a long, narrow, dark street or workshops and stores with some sort of roof over them. 6. losing itself in the shadowy distance: in the farthest distance everything becomes obscure, unclear, or only dimly visible in the dark surroundings. lose: come to be without shadow: greater darkness where direct light, esp. sunlight, is blocked by sth.; a dark shape shadowy: hard to see or know about clearly, not distinct, dim Here shadowy suggests the changing of having and not having light, the shifting of lightness and darkness. There may be some spots of brightness in the dark. 7. harmonious: harmony: musical notes combined together in a pleasant sounding way tinkle: to make light metallic sound cf: jingle: light tinkling sound The rain tinkled on the metal roof.

She laughed heartily, a sound as cool as ice tinkling in the glass. to tinkle coins together 8. throng: large crowd of people or things, a crowd of people busy doing sth. searching up and down, engaging in some kind of activity cf: crowd: general term, large number of people together, but without order or organization. Crowd basically implies a close gathering and pressing together. The boulevard was crammed with gay, laughing crowds. Throng varies so little in meaning from crowd that the two words are often used interchangeably without loss. Throng sometimes carries the stronger implication of movement and of pushing and the weaker implication of density. Throngs circulating through the streets. The pre-Xmas sale attracted a throng of shoppers. 9. thread: make one's way carefully, implies zigzag, roundabouts The river threads between the mountains. 10. roadway: a. central part used by wheeled traffic, the middle part of a

road where vehicles drive b. a strip of land over which a road passes 11. narrow: In the bright sunlight she had to narrow her eyes. The river narrows at this point. They narrowed the search for the missing boy down to five streets near the school. She looked far into the shadowy distance, her eyes narrowed, a hand on the eyebrows to prevent the glare. The aircraft carrier was too big to pass through the narrows (narrow passage between two large stretches of water). 12. stall: BrE. a table or small open-fronted shop in a public place, sth. not permanent, often can be put together and taken away, on which wares are set up for sale. 13. din: specific word of noise, loud, confused, continuous noise, low roar which can not be distinguished exactly until you get close, often suggests unpleasant. disordered mixture of confusing and disturbing sounds, stress prolonged, deafening, ear-splitting metallic sounds The children were making so much din that I could not make myself heard. They kicked up such a din at the party.

The din stopped when the curtain was raised. the din of the cheerful crowd 14. wares (always-pl.) articles offered for sale, usu. not in a shop. The word gives the impression of traditional commodity, items, goods, more likely to be sold in free-markets. to advertise / hawk / peddle one's wares Goods: articles for sale, possessions that can be moved or carried by train, road; not house, land, There is a variety of goods in the shops. goods train / freight train, canned goods, half-finished goods, clearance goods, textile goods, high-quality goods ware: (lit.) articles for sale, usu. not in a shop The silversmith showed us his wares. The baker travelled round the town selling his wares. kitchenware, tableware, hardware, software earthenware, tinware, ironware, silverware commodity: an article of trade or commerce, esp. a farm or mineral product Wheat is a valuable commodity. Wine is one of the many commodities that France sells abroad.

a commodity fair merchandise: (U.) things for sale, a general term for all the specific goods or wares. The store has the best merchandise in town. We call these goods merchandise. 15. would-be: likely, possible, which one wishes to be but is not a would-be musician / football player 16. purchase (fml. or tech.) to buy You buy some eggs, but purchase a house. 17. bargain: to talk about the condition of a sale, agreement, or contract 18. dizzy: feeling as if everything were turning round , mentally confused If you suffer from anaemia, you often feel dizzy. Every night, when my head touches the pillows, I felt a wave of dizziness. The two-day journey on the bus makes me dizzy. 19. penetrate: to enter, pass, cut, or force a way into or through. The word suggests force, a compelling power to make entrance and also resistance in the medium. The bullet can penetrate a wall.

The scud missile can penetrate a concrete works of 1 metre thick. Rainwater has penetrated through the roof of my house. 20. fade: to lose strength, colour, freshness, etc. fade away: go slowly out of hearing, gradually disappearing The farther you push / force your way into the bazaar, the lower and softer the noise becomes until finally it disappears. Then you arrive at the cloth market where the sound is hardly audible. Colour cloth often fades when it is washed. The light faded as the sun went down. The sound of the footsteps faded away. The noise of the airplane faded away. 21. mute: adj. a. silent, without speech The boy has been mute since birth. b. not pronounced: The word "debt" contains a mute letter. noun: a. a person who cannot speak The boy was born a deaf mute.( has healthy speech organs

but never has heard speech sounds, can be trained to speak) {cf: He is deaf and dumb (unable to speak).} b. an object that makes a musical instrument give softer sound when placed against the strings or in the stream of air verb: to reduce the sound of, to make a sound softer than usual to mute a musical instrument Here in the text the word "muted" is used to suggest the compelling circumstances, forcing you to lower your sound. 22. beaten: (of a path, track, etc.) that is given shape by the feet of those who pass along it, suggesting ancientness, timelessness. The path becomes flat due to the treading of countless people through thousands of years. We followed a well-beaten path through the forest. 23. deaden: to cause to lose strength, force, feeling, and brightness to deaden the pain Two of these pills will deaden the ache. 24. measured: steady, careful, slow, suggesting

lack of speed, paying attention to what to say 25. overwhelm: overcome, control completely and usu. suddenly The enemy were overwhelmed by superior forces. Sorrow overwhelmed the family. She was overwhelmed with grief They won an overwhelming victory / majority. 26. sepulchral: related to grave, gloomy, dismal sepulchre / er : old and bibl. use, a burial place; a tomb, esp. one cut in rock or built of stone 27. follow suit: to do the same as one else has, to play / to deal the cards of the same suits (in poker, there two red suits, and two black suits. They are hearts, diamonds, spades, clubs, jokers, aces, kings, queens and jacks (knaves). When the others went swimming, I followed suit. He went to bed and I followed suit after a few minutes. 28. peculiarity: a distinguishing characteristic, special feature, suggesting difference from normal or usual, strangeness. One of his peculiarities is that his two eyes are not the same colour. The large fantail is a peculiarity of the peacock.

The peculiarity of her behaviour puzzled everyone. 29. deal in: sell and buy, trade in This merchant deals in silk goods. Most foreign trading companies in West Africa deal in rubber, cocoa and vegetable oils. 30. scatter: to cause (a group) to separate widely, to spread widely in all directions as if by throwing The frightened people scattered about in all directions. One of the special features / characteristics of the M.E. bazaar is that shopkeepers in the same trade always gather together in the same place to do their business. 31. knit: to make things to wear by uniting threads into a kind of close network. Here, to unite or join closely 32. guild / gild: an association for businessmen or skilled workers who joined together in former times to help one another and to make rules for training new members 33. persecution: cruel treatment persecute: to treat cruelly, cause to suffer, esp. for religious or political beliefs The first immigrants came to American mainly because they wanted to avoid religious persecution / after being persecuted for their religious beliefs.

be persecuted by sb. for sth. bloody / terrible /relentless persecution suffer from / be subjected to political / religious persecution 34. line: form rows along 35. trestle: wooden beam fixed at each end to a pair of spreading legs, used, usu. in pairs, as a removable support of a table or other flat surface. 36. order of the day: the characteristic or dominant feather or activity, the prevailing state of things If sth. is the order of the day, it is very common among a particular group of people Confusion became the order of the day in the Iraqi headquarters due to the electronic interference from the Allied forces. Learning from Lei Feng and Jiao Yulu has become the order of the day recently. Jeans and mini-skirts are no longer the order of the day now. During that period, the Gulf War became the order of the day. 37. veil: covering of fine net or other material to protect or hide a woman's face 38. leisure: time free from work, having plenty of free

time, not in a hurry to do sth. 39. pace: rate or speed in walking, marching, running or developing 40. preliminary: coming before sth. introducing or preparing for sth. more important, preparatory There were several preliminary meetings before the general assembly. A physical examination is a preliminary to joining the army. 41. beat down: to reduce by argument or other influence, to persuade sb. to reduce a price The man asked $5 for the dress, but I beat him down to $4.50. 42. a point of honour: sth. considered important for one's self-respect It's a point of honour with me to keep my promise = I made it a point of honour to keep my promise. In our country, it is a point of honour with a boy to pay the bill when he is dining with a girl / when he dines a girl; but on the other hand, a western girl would regard it a point of honour (with her) to pay the bill herself. 43. make a point of / make it a point to: do sth because one considers it important or necessary, to take particular

care of, make extraordinary efforts in, regard or treat as necessary I always make a point of checking that all the windows are shut before I go out. I always made a point of being on time. I always make a point of remembering my wife's birthday. He made a point of thanking his hostess before he left the party. The rush-hour commute to my job is often nerve-racking, so I make it a point to be a careful and considerate motorist. Some American people make it a point of conscience to have no social distinctions between whites and blacks. 44. what it is: used to stress What is it she really likes? What is it you do? What is it you really want? 45. protest: to express one's disagreement, feeling of unfairness Here: insist firmly, a firming strongly 46. deprive of: take away from, prevent from using to deprive sb. of political rights / of his power / civil rights The misfortunes almost deprived him of his reason.

The accident deprived him of his sight / hearing. 47. sacrifice: to give up or lose, esp. for some good purpose or belief The ancient Greeks sacrificed lambs or calves before engaging in a battle. (infml) to sell sth. at less than its cost or value I need the money and I have to sacrifice (on the price of) my car. 48. regard: regard, respect, esteem, admire and their corresponding nouns are comparable when they mean a feeling for sb. or sth. Regard is the most colourless as well as the most formal. It usu. requires a modifier to reinforce its meaning I hold her in high / low / the greatest regard. to have a high / low regard for sb's opinion. Steve was not highly regarded in his hometown. It is proper to use respect from junior to senior or inferior to superior. It also implies a considered and carefulevaluation or estimation. Sometimes it suggests recognition of sth. as sacred. He respected their views even though he could not agree with them.

to have respect for one's privacy, rights... Esteem implies greater warmth of feeling accompanying a high valuation. Einstein's theory of relativity won for his universal esteem. Admiration and Admire, like esteem, imply a recognition of superiority, but they usually connote more enthusiastic appreciation, and sometimes suggest genuine affection. Sometimes the words stress the personal attractiveness of the object of admiration, and weaken the implication of esteem. I have long felt the deepest esteem for you, and your present courageous attitude has added admiration to esteem. regard: to regard sb's wishes / advice / what... (but not sb.) respect: to respect sb. to respect sb.'s courage / opinion / esteem: to esteem sb. to esteem sb. for his honesty / courage admire:

to admire sb. to admire the flowers / sb.' poem 49. the customer coming and going at intervals. A customer buys things from a shop; a client get services from a lawyer, a bank or a hairdresser; One who get medical services is a patient and a guest is served in a hotel. at intervals: happening regularly after equal periods of time Trains leave at short intervals. The trees were planted beside the road at 50-meters intervals. 50. picturesque: charming or interesting enough to be made into a picture, striking, vivid 51. -smith: a worker in metal, a maker copper- / gold- / tin- / black- / gun-smith 52. clash: a noisy, usu. metallic sound of collision swords clash The dustbins clashed as the men emptied them. bang: to hit violently, to make a loud noise The door banged open / shut. He banged the window shut. 53. impinge on (upon): to strike or dash esp. with a sharp collision

I heard the rain impinge upon the earth. The strong light impinge on his eyes. The noise of the aeroplane overhead impinged on our ears. to have effect on The need to see that justice is done impinges on every decision made in the courts. 54. distinct: clearly seen, heard, understood, etc. plane, noticeable, and distinguishable to the eye or ear or mind Anything clearly noticed is distinct There is a distinct smell of beer in this room. A thing or quality that is clearly different from others of its kind is distinctive or distinct from Beer has a very distinctive smell. It is quite distinct from the smell of wine. 55. round: Please round your lips to say "oo". Stones rounded by the action of water are called cobbles. The ship rounded the cape / the tip of the peninsula. 56. burnish: to polish, esp. metal, usu. with sth. hard and smooth, polish by friction, make smooth and shiny 57. brazier: open metal framework like a basket, usu. on leg, for holding a charcoal or coal fire (see picture in ALD)

58. youth: often derog. a young person, esp. a young male a group of youths the friends of my youth collective noun: the youth (young men and women) of the nation 59. incredible: This word comes from credit, which means belief, trust, and faith credit card We place full credit in the government's ability. We gave credit to his story. credible: deserving or worthy of belief, trustworthy Is the witness's story credible? After this latest affair he hardly seems credible as a politician. incredible: too strange to be believed, unbelievable 60. hammer away at: away: continuously, constantly So little Hans worked away in his garden. He was laughing (grumbling) away all afternoon. 61. vessel: a. usu. round container, such as a glass, pot, bottle, bucket

or barrel, used for holding liquids b. (fml) a ship or large boat c. a tube that carries blood or other liquid through the body, or plant juice through a plant: blood vessel 62. bellows: an instrument for blowing air into a fire to make it burn quickly 63. the red of the live... The light of the burning coal becomes alternately bright and dim (by turns, one follows the other) as the coal burns and dies down, burns again, along with the repeated

movements of the bellows. 64. glow: send out brightness or warmth, heat or light without flame or smoke When you draws a deep mouthful, the cigarette tip glows. 65. rhythmically: happening at regular periods of time, alternately; by turns 66. stroke: single movement, which is repeated (esp. in a sport or game) She can't swim but has made a few strokes with her arms. 67. engrave: to cut (words, pictures, etc.) on wood, stone, or metal The terrible memory was engraved on his mind.

cf.: carve: to cut (usu. wood or stone) in order to make a special shape 68. delicate: finely made, needing careful handling, easily broken or hurt, delightful. The word stresses fineness, subtlety and fragility rather than smallness. It implies an appeal not only to the eye but also to any of the senses or spirit. as delicate as silk / the delicate skin of a young girl Do you see the delicate workmanship on the bronze doors? delicate feelings n. delicacy 69. intricate: containing many detailed parts and thus difficult to understand. Here: a specific word meaning the designs are of interwinding or interlacing parts. Just because of these, it is hard to follow. 70. functional: completely and exactly of practical use. Not ornamental not with many decoration 71. profuse: plenty, great or too great amount, abundance to make promises in profusion Seldom have seen food and drink served in such profusion.

72. rich: (of colour) deep, strong, beautiful 73. texture: the arrangement of the threads in a textile fabric / in any material made by weaving, the way n which the threads of a cloth have been woven a carpet of loose / firm / uneven texture 74. bold: clearly formed, strongly formed words printed in bold type / printed in bold letters May I make so bold as to ask your name, sir? He was bold enough to say that he was a strictly honest man. 75. pungent: (often neg.) having a strong, sharp, stinging, burning taste or smell that may or may not seem unpleasant Onions, garlic and Chinese prickly ash give out pungent smell. (An onion a day keeps everybody away.) 76. exotic: (always positive, sth pleasing) not native to the place where found, alien, strikingly or excitingly different or unusual, out of ordinary, introduced from another country Kebab gives exotic smell. 77. sumptuous: costly, rich, suggesting lavish

expenditure, showing great value, generosity, grand. A sumptuous meal was served to the visiting guests. The king wore sumptuous robes.

A sumptuous meal / flat / etc. is one on which a great deal of money has been spent. 78. humble: (of people) low in rank or position (of things) poor, mean Your humble servant (very fml letter ending) humble pie: submission, obedience, apology made under pressure A boy with a stepfather has to eat humble pie. Tom told a lie about George, and when he was found out, he had to eat humble pie. 79. pottery: earthenware 80. maze: a confusing intricate network of passages, as set of twisted passages which is very difficult to pass through 81. honeycomb: a container made of beeswax and consisting of 6-sided cells in which honey is stored to fill with holes, tunnels, hollow passages like honeycomb The streets that pierce the bazaar from all directio sections ns and lead towards all directions cut the bazaar into small like a honeycomb. 82. glimpse: a quick, incomplete look or view of sth. out of the corner of one's eye

glance: It may denote sth. which is seen as a sudden flash, or the presence or movement of sth. which is recognized by a swift sudden flash. throw / steal / take a glance at... glimpse: It also may apply to sth. seen as a flash. But more commonly it implies a brief view of a thing, or even more often, so much of it as may be taken in at a glance get a glimpse of glance: vi. glance at ... glance about / around / round / back glance up / down the list of names glance over one' shoulder glimpse: vt. glimpse the field / her among the crowd 83. mosque: Moslem temple or place of worship (where there are wells, fountain, space for assemble, a niche showing the direction of Mecca, the birthplace of

Mohammed 84. caravanserai: an inn surrounding a court in eastern countries where caravans rest at night caravan: a company of travellers on a journey through desert of hostile regions

85. disdainful: scornful, contemptuous, showing lack of respect, regard sb. or sth. as low and worthless Here, arrogant, in a superior manner, suggesting that the camels are all stately, strong, heads holding high cf: Contempt (n.) suggests very strong sense of condemnation of the person as a low rank and undesirable Scorn (vt. & n.) implies quick, indignant or profound contempt Disdain (n. & vt.)suggests a visible manifestation of pride and arrogance 86. bale: large bundle of goods cf: A Bundle is a collection of articles bound or rolled together, fastened, tied, held across the middle A Bunch is a collection of things usually of the same sort, fastened closely together in orderly fashion, fastened, held, or growing together at one point a bunch of rice A Bale is a large bundle of goods bound up for storage or transportation and esp. one composed of materials (as rags, hay, straw, cotton or wool) which are closely pressed

together so as to form a mass, usu. rectangular, tightly bound with stout cord or wire 87. merchandise: (fml) things that you buy, sell or trade with 88. huge, vast huge: rather general term indicating extreme largeness, usu. in size, shape, or capacity A whale or an elephant is a huge animal. The huge rocket towered high above the buildings around it. She spent a huge amount of money on that coat. vast: denotes extreme largeness or broadness, esp. of extent or range The Sahara is a vast desert. The vast plans of the country spread for hundreds of miles. The camel caravan crossed the vast expanse of the Sahara. A billion dollars is a vast amount of money. 89. vast, sombre cavern of a room sombre: dark-coloured, gloomy, dismal, solemn, very serious atmosphere When sb. dies, there is a sombre mood. She was dressed in sombre black for the funeral. His sombre expression bespeaks the bad news.

cavern of a room: apposition Who is to blame but her tyrant of a father. He had to work in the hell of a fertilizer factory. She lives in a palace of a house / a match-box of a house. Before his stood a little shrimp of a fellow. 90. revolve: to (cause to) spin round (on a central point), to go around in a circle a revolving door / stage revolver: a pistol containing several shots in a barrel that turns round after each one is fire cf: turn, revolve, rotate, spin, and circle Turn is a general, rather colourless word implying

movement in circle after circle, or in a single full circle or through an arc of a circle a wheel turning on its axle He turned to speak to his friend. Revolve may suggest regular circular motion on an orbit around sth. outside to it. The earth revolves around the sun. Rotate is likely to suggest a circular motion on an interior axis (the imaginary axle) The earth rotates on its axis while it revolves in its orbit.

Spin implies rapid sustained, continuous, constant rotation on an inner axis or fast circling around an exterior point A wheel spinning on its axle The dance spun on her toes. To spin strands of cotton or wool, etc, is to twist them into thread. Circle basically applies to a movement around in a more or less circular pattern, but it can also be used to convey a lack of straight directness in a winding course. Our plane circled the airport for an hour before landing. The fence circles the yard. 91. motive: causing movement. Motive power (a common collocation) provides energy that can be used to operate machinery Electricity is just one form of motive power. 92. circular: round, not direct, being shaped like or nearly like a circle 93. channel: the bed of a stream of water, narrow passage, passage for liquid 94. constantly: unchanged, fixed, continuous, without break, the stress is laid on lack of change, firmness, and steadiness

cf: Endless connotes weariness, tediousness and monotony. 95. attendant: a person who attends another to perform a service, esp. an employee; a person who goes with and serves or looks after; a person who is employed to look after and help visitors to a public place a museum / parking lot / library attendant; but a shop assistant cf: Waiter: a person who serves food at the tables in restaurant 96. crush: to press with great power so as to break, destroy, the natural shape into power, to break by pounding or grinding Several people were crushed to death as they tried to escape from the burning theatre. The machine crushes wheat grain to make flour. The sugar cane is taken to the factory where the juice is crushed out. The army quickly crushed the uprising. 97. pulp: the soft almost liquid mass of plant or animal material, such as the soft inside part of many fruits or vegetable 98. extract: to pull or take out, often with difficulty

to extract one tooth / a bullet from a wound The policemen extracted secret information from a criminal. 99. superb: perfect in form, quality, etc. wonderful, marked to the highest degree by excellence, brilliance or competence. This word describes sth. that reaches the highest

conceivable point. 100. muscular: having well-developed muscles, strong, implying great physical strength 101. stately: grand in style, noble, dignified; Here implies that the camels walk in a constant, unhurried way with their heads holding high, seemingly dignified. 102. ramshackle: of a building or vehicle, badly made or needing repair, shaky, unsteady, likely to go to pieces, as from age or neglect, carelessly or loosely constructed. a ramshackle house a ramshackle bike, which produces a sound at every part except the bell. 103. apparatus: a set of machines, instruments, tools, etc. that work together for a particular purpose 104: beam: a large long heavy piece of wood, (usu. square)- esp. one of the main ones used to support a building.

cf: pole (usu. round) the main bar of a weighing scales 105. pulley: an apparatus consisting of a wheel over which a rope or chain can be moved, sued for lifting heavy things 106. tower: to be very tall, esp. in relation to the height of the surroundings. The mountain towers into the sky. The monument to the People's Heroes towers aloft on Tian’anmen. The Statue of Liberty towers above the harbour of New York. He towers above his contemporaries. 107. dwarf: to cause to appear small by comparison Snow-white & the 7 dwarfs The building dwarfs all the other buildings in the town. Most basketball players dwarfs other men. The brilliance of his poetry dwarfed the accomplishments of his contemporaries. 108. shovel: used for moving or lifting loose material such as sand, snow, coal cf:

spade: used for digging earth, with a blade, often pressed with one foot 109. nimble: quick-moving, moving or acting quickly and lightly; quick. light and neat in movement, agile, as nimble as a goat / a squirrel a nimble climber Madame Defarge knitted with nimble fingers nimble: suggesting surpassing lightness and swiftness of movement or action, it often implies darting here and there 110. trickle: a slow, small flow of liquid 111. ooze: (of thick liquids) pass slowly through small openings Blood was still oozing from the wound Tiny drops of oil are pressed out to form a small flow down the runnel. If you squeeze the tube of toothpaste, it oozes out of the tube. 112. runnel: a small, narrow channel, an open passage, a brook, or a passage dug beside the road to carry away water 113. glisten: (esp. of wet of polished surface, tear-filled eyes) shine brightly, sparkle

His eyes glistened with tears. Her hair glistens with oil. glistening dew-drops cf: flash: It implies a sudden outburst of light or a sudden display of sth. that brilliantly reflects light. Lightening flashed in the sky. The light on top of the police car was flashing. A brilliant idea flashed through his mind. a flash of hope / genius glitter: connotes greater brilliancy or showiness than sparkle, sometimes with the implication of sth. sinister All is not gold that glitters. 114. taut: tightly drawn 115. girder: large horizontal beam, usu. made of iron or steel, which supports the smaller beams in a floor or room I-shaped girder 116. blend: the equivalent of mix, but usu. it implies a mixing of harmonious things, a union of intimate as to obscure the individuality of the component parts

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