cho by jizhen1947

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									How to Write
a Literature Review?

                     Yonjoo Cho
                  Sunyoung Park
                    Mar 1, 2013
Why are you here?




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Examples
n   Arbaugh, J. B., Godfrey, M. R., Johnson, M., Pollack, B. L., Niendorf,
    B., & Wresch, W. (2009). Research in online and blended learning in
    the business disciplines: Key findings and possible future directions.
n   Baldwin, T. T., & Ford, J. K. (1988). Transfer of training: A review
    and directions for future research.
n   Burke, L. A., & Hutchins, H. M. (2007). Training transfer: An
    integrative literature review.
n   Cho, Y., & Egan, T. M. (2009). Action learning literature: A
    systematic review and conceptual framework.




                                                                             3
What is a good literature review
like?




                                   4
How will you review the
literature in your topic?




                            5
Contents
 n   Why literature review?
 n   Who writes a literature review?
 n   Review criteria (checklist)
 n   How to write a literature review? (8 Steps)
 n   Outline of the literature review
 n   Further readings




                                                   6
Why literature review?
n   A review paper embodies the state of the field
n   A review paper represents a benchmark for others conducting
    future research in the area




                                                                  7
Who writes a review?
n   Those who have made substantial progress on a stream of
    research (Baldwin & Ford, 1988)
n   Those who have completed a literature review prior to embarking
    on a project
     n Dissertation studies

     n Cho & Egan (2009)




                                                                      8
Review Criteria
n   Contribution: What’s new?
n   Impact: So what?
n   Logic: Why so?
n   Thoroughness: Well done?




                                9
Checklist (Torraco, 2005, p. 365)
 Before     • Is there a need?
            • What type of a review article, a new or a mature topic?
 Organizing • Is the review article organized around a conceptual
              structuring of the topic?
            • Are the methods for conducting the literature review
              sufficiently described?
 Writing    • Does the article critically analyze existing literature?
            • Does the article synthesize knowledge?
            • What forms of synthesis (research agenda or conceptual
              framework) are used?
            • Are driving questions for further research presented?




                                                                         10
Step 1        (Webster & Watson, 2002)

Begin your article:
n Introduction to your paper needs to motivate your topic

n Next section will provide elaborate definitions of key variables




                                                                     11
Step 2 (Method)                   (Callahan, 2010, p. 301)

Identifying the relevant literature:
n Where the literature was found (databases and search engines)

n When the search was conducted

n Who conducted the search

n How the literature was found (keyword combinations)

n What number of articles appeared from each combination of

   keywords and the final count of included articles (data set)
n Why some articles were chosen for inclusion over others (selection

   criteria)




                                                                  12
Step 3
Structuring the review:
n A literature review is concept-centric

n To make the transition from author- to concept-centric, compile

   a concept matrix as you read each article
n Tables and figures can be an effective means of communicating

   major findings




                                                                    13
Matrix Table                                     (Cho & Egan, 2009)

#      Lead    Pub      Study       Purpose       Conceptual      Subject         Study       Analytic        Findings
      Author   Yr       Type                      Framework                       Design      Methods       [Action versus
                                                                                                              Learning]
33   Pedler    05    Exploratory   To            Revans’        24              Snowball-    Quantitative   AL has become
                     Study         summarize     classical      academics       ing          analysis       more focused
                                   2004 study    principles     and 172         Interviews                  on personal dev,
                                   findings of                  practitioners   and a                       less centered on
                                   AL in the                                    survey                      org problems,
                                   UK                                                                       and not widely
                                                                                                            used in bus
                                                                                                            schools [L]
53   Tushman   07    Evaluation    To explore    Rigor and      64              Interviews   Emergent       AL programs
                     Study         the effects   relevance in   participants                 theme and      for executive ed
                                   of AL         business       from 31                      quant          enhance both
                                   designs on    schools        orgs in US                   analysis       ind and org
                                   ind and org                  exec                                        outcomes and
                                   outcomes                     programs                                    also enhance
                                                                                                            teaching and
                                                                                                            research efforts
                                                                                                            [A/L]
Steps 4 and 5
Tone:
n Tell the reader what patterns you are seeing in the literature
n Respect the work of those who labored to create the foundation

Tense: Use the present tense
n It gives the reader a greater sense of immediacy
n The present tense is terser and thus faster for the reader to
  process




                                                                   15
Step 6
Theoretical development in your article:
n This is the most important part of a review
n Highlight the discrepancy between what we know and what we
  need to know
n This roadmap is accomplished by developing a conceptual model
n The reasoning for propositions may come from three main sources
   n Theoretical explanations for “why”

   n Past empirical findings

   n Practical experience




                                                                16
Step 7
Evaluating your theory:
n  There is no cookbook approach to accomplishing a good theory
n  One important way is to have colleagues read and comment on
   your work before submitting it




                                                                  17
Step 8
Creating your discussion and conclusions:
n  Demonstrate how your work extends past research
n  Suggest ways that your theory can be empirically examined
n  Draw implications for practice and future theorizing




                                                               18
Checklist           (repeat)

Before     • Is there a need?
           • What type of a review article, a new or a mature topic?
Organizing • Is the review article organized around a conceptual
             structuring of the topic?
           • Are the methods for conducting the literature review
             sufficiently described?
Writing    • Does the article critically analyze existing literature?
           • Does the article synthesize knowledge?
           • What forms of synthesis (research agenda or conceptual
             framework) are used?
           • Are driving questions for further research presented?




                                                                        19
Literature Review: Outline
n   Introduction
n   Problem Statement and Purpose
n   Theoretical/Conceptual Framework (Background)
n   Methods
      n Research Questions

      n Search Process

      n Selection Criteria

      n Abstraction and Synthesis

n   Findings
n   Discussion
n   Conclusion
n   References

                                                    20
Further Readings
§ Arbaugh, J. B., Godfrey, M. R., Johnson, M., Pollack, B. L., Niendorf, B., &
  Wresch, W. (2009). Research in online and blended learning in the business
  disciplines: Key findings and possible future directions. Internet and Higher
  Education, 12, 71-87.
§ Baldwin, T. T., & Ford, J. K. (1988). Transfer of training: A review and directions
  for future research. Personnel Psychology, 41(1), 63-105.
§ Burke, L. A., & Hutchins, H. M. (2007). Training transfer: An integrative literature
  review. Human Resource Development Review, 6, 263-296.
§ Callahan, J. L. (2010). Constructing a manuscript: Distinguishing integrative
  literature reviews and conceptual and theory articles. Human Resource
  Development Review, 9(3), 300-304.
§ Cho, Y., & Egan, T. M. (2009). Action learning literature: A systematic review and
  conceptual framework. Human Resource Development Review, 8(4), 431-462.
§ Torraco, R. J. (2005). Writing integrative literature review: Guidelines and
  examples. Human Resource Development Review, 4(3), 356-367.
§ Webster, J., & Watson, R. T. (2002). Analyzing the past to prepare for the future:
  Writing a literature review. MIS Quarterly, 26(2), xiii-xxiii.

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Q&As



       Thank You!




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