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Sarah

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									GCSE PE Department
  2013 Scenario

    Sarah



        Produced by Mrs S Drake & Mrs C Price
        Pictures taken from Google
  Section B of the summer examination will consist of
        questions linked to the scenario below.


Sarah is a 16 year old and attends the local secondary school
which is located in rural surroundings. She has nearly completed
her GCSE courses in subjects including Physical Education, Media
Studies and ICT.

When she transferred to secondary school, Sarah was overweight
due to a poor diet. She was determined to lose weight and
become more physically active. She joined a number of sports
clubs in Year 7 and now her favourite activities are cross country
running, climbing, dance and cheerleading. The school is close to
a publicly run adventure activity centre which all students have the
chance to visit on a regular basis. Sarah’s ambition is to represent
the district at cross country running and to take part in a half
marathon.

Outside of school, Sarah is a keen dancer and regularly goes to
lessons at a privately owned dance school. When her secondary
school started a cheerleading squad, Sarah offered her support as
a choreographer, as she had done some cheerleading before.

Sarah has been interested in sport ever since she was little and is
always watching sport on television and reading sports magazines.
She is considering a career in journalism, in the future and
regularly sends in match reports to her local newspaper after she
has watched her favourite local football team.
                             Link Between




                      The Energy Equation
Weight stays constant
Calories taken in each day
equals calories burned up
each day.



Weight gained
Calories taken in each day
is greater than calories
burned up each day.


Weight lost
Calories taken in each day
is less than calories
burned up each day.


When Sarah was overweight she had an imbalance between the number of calories taken in
                       and the number of calories burned up.


                An imbalance can lead to:-
                    Being overweight for Sarah was caused by a
        POOR DIET = imbalance in food from each food group

                                       CARBOHYDRATES
           MINERALS                Give us energy in the form of
These enable the body to work              starch/sugar.
     normally and efficiently.             (1st Choice)                        Starch—slow releasing for
e.g. calcium strengthens bones                                                 sustained activity
                                                                               Sugar—quick released energy




            FATS
 These give us energy. They                                                       VITAMINS
keep us warm and protect vital                                            These regulate the chemical
           organs.                   TO EAT A                            reactions of our body and are
        (3rd Choice)               HEALTHY DIET                             essential for well being
                                     WE NEED
                                    FOOD FROM
        HOWEVER                     ALL THESE
                                                                               PROTEINS
Too much fat stored under the      FOOD GROUPS                       Proteins are needed for growth
   skin can lead to being
                                                                       and repair of body tissue.
     overweight/obese
                                                                       Can be used as an energy
                                                                          source (2nd Choice)



             FIBRE
    An important aid to the                        WATER
   efficiency of the digestive         Hydrates the body. Essential
            system.                   for living 2/3rds of body weight
                                             is made up of water
                                   ‘Sarah   likes cross country running, climbing,
                                               dance and cheerleading’




                These activities require STRENGTH and STAMINA




                       Food for STRENGTH = PROTEIN


                   Food for STAMINA = CARBOHYDRATE

   ‘Sarah’s   ambition is to represent the district at cross country running and
                           to take part in a half marathon.’




           is needed for these activities as part of her preparation she may use




                     to maximise the storage of glycogen for energy.

                                    How the process
                                        works
 Train/Eat as normal                                               Helping to last for a
until a few days before                                            long period of time
       competition

 3 days before competition cut
     down on exercise but
      increase amount of                                        The body will store more
         carbohydrates                                           Glycogen than normal
                Maintaining a balanced diet is important for a sports performer


1.   Name and describe a disorder that can occur though not having a balanced diet?
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                                                                                  (2 marks)


2.   Explain why carbohydrates would be a necessary part of Sarah’s diet.
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                                                                                  (4 marks)


3.   Explain why it would be important for Sarah to maintain an intake of fluids (water) when
     taking part in her activities.
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                                                                                  (2 marks)
      ‘A long term initiative designed to make significant difference


                                                                Emotional
       Healthy Eating                                           Health and
                                                                Wellbeing
                                    A Whole
                                  School Policy
                                  with 4 Cores


                                                             Personal, Social
          Physical
                                                               and Health
          Activity
                                                                Education


                               HEALTHY EATING



                                         has
                            National Healthy Eating Status


  *      Every school should give children the confidence, skills and
         knowledge to make healthy food choices.
  *      Healthy and nutritious food and drink are available throughout the
         day!

           PERSONAL, SOCIAL AND HEALTH EDUCATION
Provides children and young people with knowledge, understanding, skills and
  attitudes to make informed decisions about their lives — STAYING SAFE!
    to the health and achievement of children and young people’

                                PHYSICAL ACTIVITY




*     Children and young people are provided with a range of opportunities to
      be physically active.
*     Children understand how physical activity can help them to be more
      healthy, and how physical activity can improve and be part of everyday
      life.
               EMOTIONAL HEALTH AND WELLBEING

                                              Supports                      Sets up
                  Set up                     vulnerable                   confidential
              Bullying Policy              individuals and              pastoral support
                                               groups                    system for all
                                                                             pupils


There are four core themes in the ‘Healthy Schools Programme.’ Name two of the four
core themes and describe their importance.
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                                                                            (4 marks)
                                                                     Carry out
               Sensible diet     Regular
                                                 Cope with the                             Speed
 Stamina                                                             everyday
               Rest/Sleep        Exercise        demand of the
                                                                      activities           Agility
 Flexibility                                     environment         without tiring
                                                                                         Balance
Body Build
                                                                                        Co-ordination
 Strength
                                                                                        Reaction Time


                                                                     STRENGTHENS
                                                                        BONES




                                                  BURNS OFF
                LUNGS AND                         STORED FAT.                         TONES
               HEART WORK                         SHAPE AND                           MUSCLE,
                TOGETHER                          PHYSICAL                            HELPS WITH
               EFFICIENTLY                        CONDITION                           POSTURE
                                                  IMPROVES




                                                                     SELF CONFIDENCE
                                                                        INCREASES


                                                                               STIMULATE YOU
                                              STRESS                        FEEL GOOD FACTOR
               RELIEVES
               BOREDOM                      AND TENSION
                                            DISAPPEAR                                  HELPS YOU
                                                                                        FORGET
                                                                                       PROBLEMS



                                                                            MAKE NEW
                                                                             FRIENDS


                                                                                HELPS YOU FEEL
                                                                                CONFIDENT WITH
                                                                                OTHER PEOPLE –
                                                                               IMPROVES SOCIAL
                  FIND A SPORT                                   MEET NEW           SKILLS
                   THAT SUITS                                     PEOPLE
                      YOUR
                  PERSONALITY
                                                                 DEVELOPS TEAM WORK AND
                                                                     COMMUNICATION
Sarah was determined to lose weight and become more physically active. She joined a
number of sports clubs in Year 7. She also takes part in sport outside school.


What are extra-curricular activities?
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What is leisure time?
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Explain three benefits that Sarah will get from taking part in sport.
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                                                                        (6 marks)
‘Sarah’s ambition is to represent the district at cross country running and to take
part in a half marathon’. Also, one of her favourite activities is climbing.
  Three HEALTH RELATED components of fitness Sarah would need of a good
                                      level is:
         STRENGTH                                                    STAMINA


STATIC    EXPLOSIVE           DYNAMIC
                                                                      We can work
                                                                     so well together!


   Runners need the ability to
  support their own body weight                                           =
         Sarah needs this to:-                    C AR D I O / V AS C U L AR E N D U R AN C E
  Keep running for the duration of cross          The ability of the heart and lungs to keep
  country and half marathons and to pull          operating efficiently during an endurance
   and support her weight in a rock face                             event.
                    and                                              it uses

                                                        AE R O B I C R E S P I R AT I O N
    Which is the range of movement                                   for
             around a joint.
                                                                      ENERGY
  Sarah will need a good level of this to:
  Reach up high to grab hand holds on a
 rock face (flexibility in the shoulders) and
                                                   Glucose + Oxygen → Energy + Carbon Dioxide + Water
 reach out wide (flexibility in the hips) with
   her legs to seek out foot holds on the
                  rock face.                            +        +            +          +     +
                      +                                 I can go on and on and on and on and on…..

   Flexibility in the hips to improve stride
   length in marathon and cross country

    Sarah will also need elements of SPORT RELATED FITNESS
              BALANCE                                             CO-ORDINATION
 The ability to maintain equilibrium whilst             The ability to carry out a series of
            stationary or moving                       movements smoothly and efficiently.
                          ↓                                                ↓
 To keep herself on the rock face and not fall         So she can use both arm and leg move-
                      off                              ments whilst climbing up a rock face and
                                                                keeping momentum.
 To maintain an upright position whilst running
  up hills and on different terrains in a cross       To assist the efficient running stride on all
              country competition.                                      terrains.
Explain how each of the following components of fitness could improve Sarah’s perfor-
mance in either cross country running or climbing.


1.   FLEXIBILITY
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                                                                              (2 marks)
2.   STAMINA
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3.   STRENGTH
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4.   BALANCE
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                                                                              (2 marks)
To perform at high levels (district) cross country and a half marathon

                      One of the best methods would be:-




       Keeps the            rate        high over a sustained period of time


                                                                   Sarah will train in her aerobic
                                                                   training zone for the majority
                                                                             of the time
                                                                   MHR        =    220 - 16
                                                                              =    204




                         Sarah will work between 60% - 85% of 204
                  To progress, Sarah will need to OVERLOAD her training.
                        This means making the body work HARDER.

     There are                  Frequency                     Train more often e.g. increase
                                                              how many days you train.
        three
                                Intensity                     Making the training harder e.g. run
       ways of                                                more distance or put inclines into
                                                              your training.
  OVERLOADING
                                Time                          Train for longer periods
     your body
                                                              e.g. 30 minutes increase to 60
                                                              minutes.

                 All these will make her FITTER and improve her PERFORMANCE

     Sarah could use the multistage fitness test as part of her training method

This is a form of continuous training as it involves running over a distance of 20 metres, it
progresses in levels and it speeds up every minute, so it is a
good way to apply overload.




     She can also use this easily to see her improvements.
Sarah will need to:


   Sarah’s ambition is to represent the district at cross country running and to take part in a
   half marathon. To reach a good level of fitness, Sarah will need to train using the
   continuous training as a method.
   Describe what it is and explain in detail how she could use the principle of overload to
   improve her fitness.
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                                    (8 marks)
                   Another method to use would be




            What is fartlek training?

Known as ‘speed play’. It is a form of interval training that
can include walking, jogging and fast /steady running on
different surfaces.




                            and you work for a minimum of 30 minutes


      Sarah can use different terrain as she lives in a RURAL area.


      EXAMPLE
      Suitable for cross country
           10 minute warm up
           Stride hard for 3 minutes with a 1 minute jog to recover—repeat 6 times.
           10 minute cool down


      Suitable for improving fitness
           10 minute warm up
           Select a 2 mile hilly course, try to run hard up the hills, jog in between the hills
            and repeat 3 times.
           10 minute cool down
Sarah lives in a rural area, explain why fartlek training maybe a suitable method of training for
her to use and how she could effectively use this method to improve her levels of fitness.
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                                                                                   (6 marks)

          Sarah still needs to follow the Principles of Training


           Pick the correct training method.

           Increase training gradually as your body adjusts.


            Making the body work harder to improve it.

            Fitness will be lost if you stop training.

            Variation of activities
  Sarah attends the local school which is located in rural surroundings.




 Rural areas generally have less provision for sporting activities than Urban areas.
                                        BUT
          They offer leisure activities suited to the environment such as:-

                                              Walking              Rock Climbing




Mountain Biking                                   Rambling




Sarah’s school provides a link with an outdoor centre and influence
 participation making it possible for Sarah to take part in climbing.




 SCHOOL                             LINKS WITH                    COMMUNITY
     Sarah’s favourite activities are cross country running and
                               climbing




                  Both these activities can be described as




          Challenge: a test of your ability or resources in a demanding situation




 Being able to cope with the
                                                                   Not suffering the adverse
 demand of the environment
                                                                 effects of pressure/anxiety or
  and having good levels of
                                                                   tension and being able to
  strength and stamina — a
                                                                   cope with all of these and
high level of general physical
            fitness                                                     still perform well
‘One of the main appeals to many participants of physical
  activity is that it offers them both a challenge and an
                    acceptable level of risk’
                                                                 (taken from AQA K Bizley)




                            Marathons have age restrictions and for most the minimum
                            age is 18.
                            For Sarah, at 16, the alternative is the half marathon!




Race organisers put these rules in place to safeguard individuals and doctors recom-
mend avoiding extreme distance running for young teens because the repetitive move-
               ment may cause damage to bones that are till growing



                                                         Making sure all potential dangers
                                                         are spotted before taking part in
                                                           an activity and putting safety
                                                                measure in place




    Climbing needs specialist instructors and specialist
                      equipment



                  Helmet                                       Shoes




                 Climbing                                     Harness
                  Ropes


                                        Instructor
Describe how facilities have affected Sarah’s choice of leisure activities.
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                                   (4 marks)


Climbing and cross country running can be described as a ‘challenging activities’.
Explain why someone might prefer this type of activity.
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                                   (2 marks)


All activities of an outdoor nature have an element of risk.
Explain what is meant by Risk Assessment.
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                                                                                (2 marks)
 The school is close to a PUBLICLY run adventure activity centre which all students have a
                             chance to visit on a regular basis.
Sarah is a keen dancer and regularly goes to lessons at a PRIVATELY owned dance school




           Parks are for the enjoyment of
                     everyone




                                                                  It is Non-profit making and
                                                                 can provide a wide range of
                                                                            activities


 They are provided by
  local authorities or
        councils

                                They are subsidised and are at
                              reduced rates so more people can
                                           access.
                                  They operate a
                             membership scheme and are
                                 more expensive.




                                   They pay for themselves
                                    by having membership
                                            fees.




                                                                  They are profit making
   They are owned by a                                               organisations.
    person or business.




Sport is provided by both public and private sectors. Explain the difference between the
public sector and private sector in terms of provision and funding
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                                                                                (4 marks)
        ‘When her secondary school started a cheerleading squad, Sarah
 offered her support as a Choreographer as she had done some cheerleading
                                  before.’

Roles you can adopt during your GCSE course include performer, coach/leader,
                                 official and




        Good communication skills—giving spoken instructions clearly and being able
         to demonstrate through gestures and signals.
        Knowledge and understanding of cheerleading to be able to develop routines
         and sequences—knowing your terminology.
        Being able to control a practice session and make your presence felt.
        Leadership skills—making it clear what the group performance will look like
        Safety aspects involved in performing moves, risk assessment
        Developing the strengths and weaknesses of a participant

State and describe three qualities that Sarah needs to be an effective choreographer.
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                                                                                 (6 marks)
                         Main Media Forms
                              All the ways that you gain information
Advantage is you can listen to                                              Most Popular
sport ‘LIVE’ almost anywhere!                                               Very influential covers lots of
                                                                            sport.
Has dedicated sport channels                                                Dedicated sports channels – Sky
                                                                            Sports.
Costs very little to be kept informed                                       Digital
                                                                            Satellite
                                                                            Pay-Per-View




                                                                                            e.g. Autobiographies of
                                                                                            stars.
                                                                                            Techniques and skills.




Follows a particular sport.                                             All the news as it happens.
Gives interviews.                                                       Often gives two sides to sport.
Sections on improving                                                   Can be confrontational and opinionated.
skills.
                                  Sports have their own websites.
                                  Can find out about sport Worldwide.
   Boxing in the early
  hours of the morning        Applies pressure to bring
  to accommodate US
        viewers                             Wimbledon
                                     Rule change e.g. tie break
                                    stops sets going on too long!
                                        Creates excitement


                                          Changes the TV
  Intrusion of individuals                  start times in
                                          order to attract a
      Media hound sports stars
                                          larger audience
        Lack of private life




     Undermining officials
Slow motion can highlight mistakes made




 We need goal line technology!!!

   It can influence the
  popularity of the sport


                                          Affects attendance

                                                                             Less
                                                                           people
                                                                          attending
  Attracts large    Attracts less                                            LIVE
 media coverage    media coverage                                          events
      Sport             Sport
                                     People prefer to stay at home/save
   flourishes        struggles
                                     money and watch on a big screen
         Raises the profile of sport

           Promotes physical activity and
             highlights health benefits.




                                             Creates role models for
                                            people to aspire to be like!


                                      Generates revenue for
                                             sport.
                                      Directly through payments for
                                           broadcasting rights.




                                          Generates sponsorship
                                        through coverage of sport.




          Shows high standard of
                 performance

Often with slow motion replays,   Individuals are well informed and can
  so skills can be copies and       keep up to date with their favourite
           Improved.                         sport/individual.
The media cover sport in various ways. Radio is one example of a media form, name two
others.


1.   ………………………………………………………………………………………………
2.   ………………………………………………………………………………………………
                                                                                 (2 marks)




Explain, using an example, a possible advantage of listening to sport on the radio.
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                                                                                 (2 marks)


Documentaries such as ‘Inside Sport’ are shown on television.
State two other types of television programmes that promote sport and give an example of
each.


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                                                                                 (2 marks)
Using examples, explain how media has affected sport in both a positive and negative way.
(You must give a minimum of two examples from each and the quality of your written
answer is taken into account).
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                                                                            (8 marks)
                This is the                                             of other

                    subjects with Physical Education that are taught in
                                         schools.
    DATA RECORDING                                                    FITNESS MONITORING

     E.g. Spread sheets                                                Devices can monitor




                                                         Heart rate    Blood Pressure       Lactic Acid
                                                                 Gives read outs to give advice




                                      EXAMPLES

PROZONE                                                       PERFORMANCE ANALYSIS
Post Match Analysis.
Used by Premier League Football Teams.
                                                    FLIP CAMERAS
Track Statistics:
                                                    Flip cameras can be used by
 how far players run in a game.                    students to record an action
 how many passes are complete/incomplete           giving instant feedback to show
  Possession.                                       technique.
Used to improve performance.
Identify weaknesses/strengths in both player
                                                               ANALYSING PERFORMANCE
and team performance.

                                               Software is being developed to enable sophisticated
                                               levels of recording and analysis of performance.


                                               Systems such as Dartfish make use of video recording
                                               and playback which enable students to track and view
                                               their own performances giving automatic, instant feed-
                                               back or where a performance action is replayed back
                                               on a time delay to enable the performer to review it con-
                                               stantly delayed feedback (Déjà vu).
Explain how IT can contribute in a positive way to Physical Education.
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                                                                         (4 marks)

								
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