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					Deductions and Losses: Certain Itemized Deductions
Chapter 10

Itemized Deductions
(slide 1 of 2)

• Personal expenditures that are deductible FROM AGI as itemized deductions include:
– Medical expenses – Taxes – Interest – Charitable Contributions – Miscellaneous itemized deductions

Itemized Deductions
(slide 2 of 2)

• Itemized deductions provide a tax benefit only to extent that, in total, they exceed the standard deduction amount for the taxpayer

Medical Expenses
• Scott and Andrea Smith paid the following medical expenses for the year. What amount is deductible?
– – – – Rx drugs $125 Vitamin B6 recommended by a doctor $75 Transportation: 320 miles, $32 for parking Dr. bills for Andrea’s father (They fully support him. He is in a nursing home.) $400 – Medical insurance premiums $350 – Dr bills for Andrea $600 – Hospital bill $2,000 The Smith’s receive a partial reimbursement of $400 for the hospital bill. Their AGI is $23,000.

Medical Expenses
(slide 1 of 6)

• Expenditures for the diagnosis, cure, mitigation, treatment, prevention of disease, or for purpose of affecting any structure or function of the body of the taxpayer, spouse, or dependents
– Includes prescription drugs and insulin

Medical Expenses
(slide 2 of 6)

• Does not include the cost of items such as :
– Elective cosmetic surgery – General health items – Nonprescription drugs

Medical Expenses
(slide 3 of 6)

• Medical expenditures are deductible in year paid
– Includes payment by check or credit card

Medical Expenses
(slide 4 of 6)

• Medical expenses are deductible to the extent unreimbursed medical expenses, in total, exceed 7.5% of AGI

Medical Expenses
(slide 5 of 6)

• Example of medical expense deduction limitation:
– Amy has AGI of $10,000 and medical expenses of $1,000 – Amy’s medical expense deduction = $250[$1,000 – ($10,000 × 7.5%)]

Medical Expenses
(slide 6 of 6)

• Example of medical expense deduction limitation:
– Bob has AGI of $4,000 and medical expenses of $1,000 – Bob’s medical expense deduction = $700
[$1,000 – ($4,000 × 7.5%)]

Nursing Home Expenditures
• If primary reason for being in nursing home is medical, costs (including meals and lodging) qualify • If primary purpose of placement in home is personal, only specific medical costs qualify (no meals or lodging)

Special School Expenditures
• If primary purpose of placement in school is medical, costs (including meals, lodging, and tuition) qualify as medical expenses • If primary purpose of placement in school is personal, only specific medical costs qualify (no meals or lodging)

Capital Medical Expenditures
• Includes wheelchairs, medical beds, dust elimination systems, etc. • Must be medical necessity, advised by a physician, used primarily by patient, and expense is reasonable • Full amount of cost is medical expense in year paid • Maintenance on capital expenditures also medical expense

Capital Improvement to Home
• Deductible medical expense only to extent that cost of improvement exceeds increase in value of home
– Exception: removal of structural barriers to home of handicapped are deemed to add no value to home. Thus, full amount is a medical expense.

Medical Care of Spouse and Dependents
• Taxpayer may deduct cost of medical care for spouse and dependents – Dependents need not meet gross income or joint return tests – Medical expenses of children of divorced parents can be deducted by non-custodial parent even though child is dependent of custodial parent

Medical Transportation and Lodging
• Transportation costs to and from medical care are deductible
– Mileage allowance of 20 cents per mile (in 2007) may be used instead of actual out-of-pocket automobile expenses

• Lodging while away from home for medical care
– Allowable amount is $50 per person per night

• If parent and/or aide needs to accompany patient, their expenses are also deductible

Health Insurance Premiums
• Premiums paid for medical care insurance are deductible medical expenses • For self-employed, 100% of insurance premiums are deductible FOR AGI
– Not allowed if taxpayer is eligible to participate in a subsidized health plan maintained by any employer of the taxpayer or of the taxpayer’s spouse

Reimbursement by Medical Insurance
• If reimbursed in same year as expense paid:
– Reimbursement offsets medical expense – Amount deductible is excess of expenses over reimbursement

• If reimbursed in the year after medical expenses were paid:
– Reimbursement is income only to extent medical deduction was taken by taxpayer (tax benefit rule)

Example of Medical Reimbursements (slide 1 of 2)
• In 2007, taxpayer paid medical expenses = $1,200; In 2007, reimbursed $800 by insurance company
– For 2007, deductible medical expense is $400 – (7.5% × AGI)

Example of Medical Reimbursements (slide 2 of 2)
• In 2007, taxpayer paid medical expenses of $1,200; In 2008, reimbursed $800 by insurance company
– For 2007, deductible medical expense is $1,200 – (7.5% × AGI) – For 2008, reimbursement is income to extent taxpayer received a tax benefit from medical expense deduction in 2007

Health Savings Accounts
• Used in conjunction with a high deductible medical insurance policy
– Employee contributions to HSA are deductible FOR AGI and earnings on funds in account are not taxable – Deductible contributions are limited to the sum of the monthly limitations. The monthly deductible amount is limited to the lesser of one twelfth of:
• The annual deductible under a high deductible plan or • $2,850 for self-only ($5,650 for family coverage) in 2007

– Withdrawals from HSA are excludible to the extent used for qualified medical expenses

Taxes:

Are these taxes deductible?

• • • • •

Local sales tax paid Personal income tax paid to a county Federal income tax withheld from salary Social security withheld from salary Social security employer pays for employee

Taxes

(slide 1 of 4)

• State, local, and foreign income and real property taxes are deductible in the year paid • State and local personal property taxes based on value (ad valorem) are deductible in the year paid

Taxes

(slide 2 of 4)

• Other taxes such as FICA, excise, etc., are not deductible
– May be deductible if incurred in business or production of income activity

• Fees are not deductible as tax

Taxes

(slide 3 of 4)

• Real estate taxes for year property is sold must be apportioned between the buyer and the seller (based on days owned.)
– Failure to correctly apportion requires offsetting adjustments to seller’s amount realized and buyer’s adjusted basis

Taxes

(slide 4 of 4)

• Can elect to deduct either state & local income taxes or sales/use taxes
– For state and local income taxes, deduct amounts paid during year:
• Amounts withheld • Estimated tax payments • Amounts paid in current year for prior year’s liability

– For sales/use taxes, deduct either:
• Actual sales/use tax payments or • Amount from an IRS table • Table amount may be increased by sales tax paid on certain specific items
– e.g., Purchase of motor vehicles, boats, etc.

Interest Expense
• Which of the following amounts are deducted by Sue Smith?
– $1,000 home mortgage interest her father paid for her. – $1,000 home mortgage interest that she paid – $50 in finance charges on store credit cards – $250 in interest on a car loan (Car was not used for business.)

Interest Expense
• Deduction of interest expense is limited to:
– Interest on qualified education loans – Investment interest – Qualified residence (home mortgage) interest – Business Interest

• Personal interest expense is not deductible

Interest on Qualified Student Loans
• Deductible For AGI, subject to limits
– Maximum deduction is $2,500 per year – Deduction is phased out for taxpayers with modified AGI (MAGI) between $55,000 and $70,000 ($110,000 and $140,000 on joint returns) – Not allowed for those claimed as a dependent or for married filing separate returns

Investment Interest
(slide 1 of 5)

• Definition: interest on loans whose proceeds are used to purchase investment property, e.g., stock, bonds, land • Deduction of investment interest is limited to net investment income

Investment Interest
(slide 2 of 5)

• Net investment income:
– Investment income less investment expenses

Investment Interest
(slide 3 of 5)

• Investment income:
– Gross income from interest, dividends, annuities, and royalties not derived from business – Net capital gains and qualified dividends are treated as investment income only if elected
• Amount elected as investment income is not eligible for the 15%/5% rates that otherwise apply to net capital gain and qualifying dividends

Investment Interest
(slide 4 of 5)

• Investment expenses:
– All expenses (other than interest) directly related to investment income that are allowed as a deduction – Application of 2% AGI floor for some investment expenses must be considered in computing amount of net investment income

Investment Interest
(slide 5 of 5)

• Investment interest disallowed in current year due to limitation is carried forward to future years until ultimately used
– Deductibility subject to net investment income limitation in carryover years

Qualified Residence Interest
(slide 1 of 4)

• Interest on indebtedness secured by qualified residences: the principal residence and one other residence (If rented, the 2nd residence must be used for personal purposes for the greater of 15 days or 10% of the days rented.) • Interest must be on acquisition or home equity indebtedness

Qualified Residence Interest
(slide 2 of 4)

• Acquisition indebtedness: amounts incurred to acquire, construct, or substantially improve the qualified residences
– Interest paid on aggregate acquisition indebtedness of $1 million or less ($500,000 for married filing separate) is deductible as qualified residence interest

Qualified Residence Interest
(slide 3 of 4)

• Home equity indebtedness: loans secured by qualified residences • Interest is deductible only on portion of home equity loan that does not exceed the lesser of:
– $100,000, ($50,000 for married, filing separate), or – FMV of home – acquisition indebtedness

Qualified Residence Interest
(slide 4 of 4)

• Thus, maximum loans on qualified residences that will produce qualified residence interest is $1.1 million • Interest on mortgage debt exceeding $1.1 million or on mortgage debt relating to nonqualified residence (e.g., second vacation home) is nondeductible personal interest

Problem
The original mortgage note on a home is reduced to $100,000 when the FMV is $175,000. If the mortgage is refinanced for $200,000, How much of the interest is on acquisition indebtedness, How much is home equity interest, and Is any not deductible?

Interest Paid for Services
(slide 1 of 2)

• “Points” paid for the use or forbearance of money qualify as deductible interest
– Cannot be a service charge if they are to qualify as deductible interest

• Points generally must be capitalized and amortized over the life of loan

Interest Paid for Services
(slide 2 of 2)

• Exception: Points paid in the acquisition or improvement of personal residence
– Entire amount of such points are deductible in the year paid – Points paid to refinance an existing home mortgage must be capitalized and amortized over the life of the new loan

Classification of Interest Expense
• Whether interest is deductible for AGI or as an itemized deduction (from AGI) depends on purpose of indebtedness
– If related to a business or the production of rent or royalty income
• Interest is deductible for AGI

– If incurred for personal use, such as qualified residence interest
• Deduction is reported on Schedule A, Form 1040 if taxpayer itemizes • However, interest on a student loan is a deduction for AGI

– If the taxpayer incurs debt in relation to his or her employment
• Interest is considered to be personal, or consumer, interest

Charitable Contributions
(slide 1 of 3)

• Individuals and corporations may deduct contributions made to qualified domestic organizations • Contributor must have donative intent and expect nothing in return
– If contributor receives tangible benefit, the FMV of such benefit must be deducted from the amount of the contribution

Charitable Contributions
(slide 2 of 3)

• Exception to tangible benefit rule
– Allows deduction of 80% of amount paid for the right to purchase athletic tickets from colleges and universities

Charitable Contributions
(slide 3 of 3)

• Contribution must be to qualified domestic nonprofit organization or state or possession of U.S. or any subdivisions thereof
– Many(but not all) qualified domestic charities are listed in IRS Publication #78 – Just because an organization is not-forprofit or tax exempt does not automatically make contributions to it tax deductible.

Contribution of Services
• No deduction is allowed for the contribution of services
– Unreimbursed expenses related to the services are deductible – Out-of-pocket transportation costs or a standard mileage rate of 14 cents per mile are also deductible

Record-Keeping Requirements
• No deduction is allowed for contributions of $250 or more without written substantiation from the charitable organization • Additional information is required if value of property donated is > $500 but not over $5,000 • An appraisal is required for contributions of property valued over $5,000

Contribution of Property
• The general rule is that the amount of the deduction is the property’s FMV on the date of the contribution, • But there are a number of limitations.

Ordinary Income Property
• Defined: assets that would produce ordinary income or short-term capital gain if sold • Contribution amount
– FMV of asset less ordinary income (or STCG) potential; generally the lower of adjusted basis or FMV

Capital Gain Property

• Defined: assets that would produce long-term capital gain or Section 1231 gain if sold • Contribution amount
– Generally FMV of asset

Exceptions to FMV Deduction of Capital Gain Property (slide 1 of 2)

• Private nonoperating foundations
– Deduction for contributions to private nonoperating foundations must be reduced by the amount of capital gain potential – Thus, the amount is limited to the adjusted basis

Exceptions to FMV Deduction of Capital Gain Property (slide 2 of 2)
• Tangible personalty
– If asset contributed is not used in charity’s exempt function, the charitable deduction must be reduced by the amount of capital gain potential, thus, limiting the amount to the adjusted basis

Example of Contributions of Tangible Personalty
• Taxpayer contributes painting to local charity: FMV $100,000 and adjusted basis $10,000
– If charitable organization is a local museum that hangs the painting for patrons to view, taxpayer has $100,000 contribution deduction – If charitable organization is a local church that sells the painting immediately to obtain funds for its operation, taxpayer has $10,000 contribution

Charitable Contribution Limitations (slide 1 of 4)
• 50% limit
– In no case can the charitable contribution deduction for a year exceed 50% of the taxpayer’s AGI – Contributions of cash and ordinary income property.

Charitable Contribution Limitations (slide 2 of 4)
• 30% limit
– Charitable contribution deduction for certain assets cannot exceed 30% of the taxpayer’s AGI • Applies to 30% assets which are:
– Capital gain property for which the contribution amount is FMV (made to a public charity.) – Certain contributions to private nonoperating foundations

Charitable Contribution Limitations (slide 3 of 4)
• 30% limit
– Taxpayer can elect to treat capital gain property as 50% assets by limiting the amount of such contributions to their adjusted bases (elect to reduce by capital gain, and will qualify as 50% property)

Charitable Contribution Limitations (slide 4 of 4)

• 20% limit
– Certain contributions of capital gain property to private nonoperating foundations

• Must deduct property in the following order
– 50% property – 30% public contribution – 30% private contribution – 20% property

• There is an overall 50% limit.

Charitable Contributions Carryover
• Contributions that cannot be taken in current year due to limitations may be carried forward for 5 years
– When using carryovers, current contributions are used first, then carryovers used on a FIFO basis

Example of Charitable Contribution AGI Limits
• Taxpayer, AGI $100,000, contributed $40,000 cash and long-term stocks with a FMV of $35,000 and a basis of $8,000 to a University • 50% limit = $50,000 30% limit = $30,000
– Amount of deduction = $50,000 (40,000 cash + 10,000 stock) – Contribution carryforward = $25,000 stock (as 30% asset)

Problem: Waldo made the following contributions during the year. His AGI is $50,000. What is his charitable deduction for the year? What amount is carried forward?

• Computer (from his business) to a homeless shelter. – Basis $1,000 – FMV $ 600 • Emerald ring to American Red Cross – Basis $5,000 – FMV $8,000 • Cash to private charity $2,000 • Stock to private charity – Basis $1,500 – FMV $2,500

Problem: Lilly made the following contributions during the year. Her AGI is $80,000. What is her charitable deduction for the year? What amount is carried forward?

• Cash to United Way $ 5,000 • Land adjacent to family vacation home to Boy Scouts to use as a summer camp. – Basis $20,000 – FMV $30,000 • Painting to private charity for permanent display in foundation’s public gallery – Basis $ 5,000 – FMV $ 7,000 • Cash to needy individual families around town $ 3,000

Miscellaneous Itemized Deductions
• Some expenditures are deductible only to the extent they exceed 2% of AGI • Examples include:
– – – – – – – Professional dues Uniforms Tax return prep fees Job-hunting costs Certain investment expenses Hobby losses Unreimbursed employee expenses

Misc. Itemized Deductions Not Subject to 2% of AGI Floor
• Examples include:
– Gambling losses to the extent of gambling winnings – Impairment-related work expenses of a handicapped person – Deduction for repayment of amounts under a claim of right if more than $3,000 – Unrecovered investment in a annuity contract when annuity ceases by reason of death

Overall Limitation on Itemized Deductions (slide 1 of 3)
• Taxpayers with AGI in excess of the specified threshold will lose part of their benefits from certain itemized deductions
– Threshold amount in 2007 is $156,400 ($78,200 if married, filing separately)

Overall Limitation on Itemized Deductions (slide 2 of 3)
• Itemized deductions subject to possible reduction include:
– Taxes, home mortgage interest, charitable contributions, and miscellaneous deductions

• Medical, investment interest, casualty & theft losses, and gambling losses are not subject to reduction

Overall Limitation on Itemized Deductions (slide 3 of 3)
• This overall limitation is being phased out over a four-year period, beginning in 2006 • Limitation is calculated using a 2-step process • Step 1: Amount of reduction is lesser of:
• (AGI – threshold) × 3%, or • 80% × total itemized deductions subject to reduction

• Step 2: Multiply the amount computed in Step 1 by the fraction that applies to the tax year involved
– For 2006 and 2007: phaseout equals 2/3 of the Step 1 amount – For 2008 and 2009: phaseout equals 1/3 of the Step 1 amount


				
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