# Final Exam - Review _1 by Levone

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```									Personal Finance: Another Perspective

Preparing for the Final Exam – Review #1

Preparing for the Final Exam
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How to do well on my exams (by order of what I think is most important): • 1. Review the previous quizzes • Check your answers on Blackboard • 2. Review the PowerPoints and case studies from each class • These are the things I consider important • Especially look for application problems • 3. Review your 7 – 3”x5” note cards (you can write on both sides) or write up a good one-sided reference sheet (8.5” x 11”) • 4. Review the syllabus (4 objectives) • Think through the purpose for each case study

Review Problems
1. 2. 3. 4. Financial Statements Consumer Loans Housing Loans Income Taxes

1. Financial Statements
Data:  Mickey and Minnie, both recent BYU graduates of 5 years, together get paid \$4,500 every month. Monthly expenses include \$750 on taxes, \$1,200 on housing and utilities, \$750 on transportation, \$350 on food, and an average of \$1,000 on clothing and other expenses. Calculations:  Prepare an income statement and then calculate and interpret their net and gross savings ratio. Application:  How are they doing?

Both get \$4,500 every month. Monthly expenses include \$750 on taxes, \$1,200 on housing and utilities, \$750 on transportation, \$350 on food, and an average of \$1,000 on clothing and other expenses. Calculate and interpret their net and gross savings ratio. How are they doing?

Both get \$4,500 every month. Monthly expenses include \$750 on taxes, \$1,200 on housing and utilities, \$750 on transportation, \$350 on food, and an average of \$1,000 on clothing and other expenses. Calculate and interpret their net and gross savings ratio. How are they doing? Income Statement Income before Tax Expenses Taxes Utilities/Housing Transportation Food Clothing/other Income for Savings 4,500 750 1,200 750 350 1,000 \$450 Net Savings Ratio (2) Income for Savings 450 = 12% Income for Living 3,750 They save 12% of their net living expenses and 10% of their gross. While this is likely low, given they are only 5 years beyond college, it is the minimum for most people. I would hope it is closer to 20% for those in this class!

Gross savings ratio: Income for savings / Total Income: 450 / 4,500 = 10%

2. Consumer Loans
Data:  Jonathan needs approximately \$2,500 to buy a new computer. A 2-year unsecured loan is available with instore financing for 10%. The current rate on his revolving home equity line of credit is 5.75%, although he is reluctant to use it. Jon is in the 28% federal tax bracket and the 5.75% state tax bracket. Calculations and Application • a. What are the advantages and disadvantages of each loan? b. Regardless of the loan chosen, Rich wants to pay off the loan in 24 months. Calculate the monthly payments for him, assuming both loans use the simple interest calculation method. c. Which loan should he choose?

Jonathan needs \$2,500. A 2-year in-store unsecured loan is 10 percent. The revolving home equity line of credit is 5.75%. Jon is in the 28% federal and the 5.75% state tax bracket. a. What are the advantages and disadvantages of each loan? b. Rich wants to pay off the loan in 24 months. Calculate the monthly payments.

Jonathan needs \$2,500. A 2-year in-store unsecured loan is 10%. The revolving home equity line of credit is 5.75%. Jon is in the 28% federal and the 5.75% state tax bracket. a. What are the advantages and disadvantages of each loan? b. Rich wants to pay off the loan in 24 months. Calculate the monthly payments. c. Which loan should he take?

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A. Advantages and Disadvantages • Unsecured line of credit • + No collateral needed • + Cheaper than a credit card • + Does not put the house at risk • - Expensive • Home equity loan • + interest may be tax deductible • + secured loan so lower rate • - Fail to repay loan--may lose the house

Jonathan needs \$2,500. A 2-year in-store unsecured loan is 10%. The revolving home equity line of credit is 5.75%. Jon is in the 28% federal and the 5.75% state tax bracket. a. What are the advantages and disadvantages of each loan? b. Rich wants to pay off the loan in 24 months. Calculate the monthly payments. c. Which loan should he take?

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B. The unsecured loan monthly payment would be: • PV = -2,500, I = 10/12, N = 24, PMT = ? • \$115.36 The home equity loan monthly payment would be: • PV = -2,500, I = 5.75/12, N = 24, PMT = ? • \$110.52 The home equity loan would save \$116.16. In addition, the loan would save \$51.46 in taxes based on the deductibility of the interest: Total Cost =(\$110.52*24) less amount received -\$2500 * tax rate of 33.75% (28% Federal + 5.75% state). • What Jonathan has to decide is whether or not the \$167.62 in total savings is worth the risk of losing the house if he cannot repay the loan. I would be very careful with this decision!

Jonathan needs \$2,500. A 2-year in-store unsecured loan is 10%. The revolving home equity line of credit is 5.75%. Jon is in the 28% federal and the 5.75% state tax bracket. a. What are the advantages and disadvantages of each loan? b. Rich wants to pay off the loan in 24 months. Calculate the monthly payments. c. Which loan should he take?

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C. Either answer is ok, depending on the why. The home equity loan is cheaper, with tax savings. The unsecured debt does not risk losing the house. It would be helpful to know whether he is living on a budget and if he has the discipline to pay back the loan quickly. • The after-tax cost of the 5.75% home equity loan would be 3.81% using the following calculation that considers the tax savings on both federal and state taxes • 3.81% = 5.75% [ 1 -(.28 + .0575)]

3. Housing Loans
Data:  You have made the decision to purchase a house, and you found the house you want for \$200,000 (assume no down-payment for the sake of this problem). You and your wife have agreed to a 30-year loan, but expect to pay it off in 7 years as your work looks extremely promising (assume annual payments). Your wife looked on the web, and found a \$200,000 loan with no points and no fees at 6.5%, which she is sure, she can lock in. You talked with your friend who is a mortgage broker, and he knows he can get you a 6.0% loan for the \$200,000, but it has 2 points and a loan origination fee of \$1,500. Assume you can get either of these loans. Calculations and Application  Calculate the (a) total costs for each loan assuming you pay them both off in 7 years (assume you make the final balloon payment at the end of year 7). (b) What is the effective interest rate of each loan? (c) Which is the cheaper alternative? (d) Your broker comes back and says she can offer you 5.75% but with 3 points and the same \$1,500 fees. What is effective cost to you (i.e. the impact on your effective interest rate) of that third point (i.e. calculate it with the three points and fees, then compare that to your calculation with 2 points and fees, and subtract the difference)?

Quick Review of EIR Process
1. Calculate the payments on the total amount of the loan 3. Calculate the balloon payment due at the end of the prepayment period

4. Set PMT to payment, -PV to amount received, FV to balloon payment, N to years before prepayment, and solve for I or your EIR

Loan A: \$200,000, 30-year, no points and no fees, 6.5%, Loan B \$200,000, 6%, 2 points, 1,500 fees, all pay it off in 7. Calculate total costs for each loan, effective rate, cost of 2nd point.

Loan A: \$200,000, 30-year, no points and no fees, 6.5%, Loan B \$200,000, 6%, 2 points, 1,500 fees, all pay it off in 7. Calculate total costs each loan, effective rate, and Loan C of 5.75%, 3 points, 1,500 fees, all pay it off in 7.
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Loan A: since no points and fees, the EIR = APR Loan B  1. Calculate the Payment • I = 6.0% N = 30 PV = -200,000, PMT = 14,529.78  2. Calculate the amount received • Points = 2 for \$4,000 plus 1,500 fees = 200,000 - 5,500 • Loan receipt less points of = 194, 500  3. Calculate balloon at the end of year 7 • N=23 (30 - 7 years), I= 6%, PMT = 14,529.78, PV = ? • PV Remaining = \$178,765.42  4. Calculate the effective interest rate • PMT = \$14,529.78, FV = \$178,765.42, PV = \$-194, 500, N = 7 I=? • EIR = 6.52%

Loan A: \$200,000, 30-year, no points and no fees, 6.5%, Loan B \$200,000, 6%, 2 points, 1,500 fees, all pay it off in 7. Calculate total costs each loan, effective rate, and Loan C of 5.75%, 3 points, 1,500 fees, all pay it off in 7.

Total Costs:  Loan A: 7 x 15,315.49 + 180,265.39 = \$287,474 • EIR = 6.5%  Loan B: 7 x 14,529.78+178,765.42 + 5,500 = 285,974 • EIR = 6.52 Cost of the Loan C and third point  Loan C: 7 x 14,143.25 + 177,981 + 7,500 = 284,484  PMT = 14,143.25, FV = 177,981, PV = -192, 500, N = 7, I = ?  EIR = 6.46% Cost of the third point = 6.52 – 6.46 = .06%  Loan C is the cheapest loan both in rate terms and in dollar terms

4. Income Taxes
Data:  Using the married filing jointly status and their income and expense statement below, calculate the 2009 tax liability for Mork and Mindy Williams (they have five children, ages 4, 8, 12, 16, and 18). Mindy is the Young Women’s President of her ward and has calculated that she drove her car 300 miles last year to girls’ camp, which was not reimbursed. Exemptions are \$3,650 per person, the standard deduction for married filing jointly is \$11,400, medical expenses over 7.5% of AGI and job-related expenditures over 2% of AGI are deductible, charitable deductions for mileage are .14 per mile, and the child-tax credit is \$1,000 per child under 17. a. Calculate their tax liability first using the standard deduction and then using itemized deductions. b. Write a paragraph explaining to the Williams which method they should use and why? In that paragraph, comment on their marginal and average tax rates on taxable income.
Income Expenses Earned Income \$74,000 Home Mortgage interest Interest Income 2,100 Un-reimbursed Medical Bills Retirement Plan Contributions DI and other donations Mork’s IRA 3,000 Job-related expenditures Mindy’s Roth IRA 2,000 Tithing and other offerings Tax Table for Married Filing Jointly for 2009: Amount Tax
• • • 0 to \$16,700 \$16,700 to \$67,900 \$67,900 to \$137,050

6,200 4,900 250 1,800 7,000

10% \$1,670 plus 15% of the amount over \$16,700 \$9,350 plus 25% of the amount over \$67,900

Quick Review of Tax Process
1. Start with income from all sources less exclusions = Total Income
3. Minus Standard Deduction or Itemized deductions 6. Minus credits = Total Tax Owed

4. Minus exemptions = Taxable Income

5. Look up tax on tax table = Tentative Tax

7. Minus taxes already paid = Balance Due or Amount of Refund

Tax Liability (standard deduction)
1.+2. AGI =74000+2100-3000 (IRA) = \$73,100 Only the IRA is subtracted to get your AGI 3. Less standard deduction 11,400 4. Less personal exemptions (7 * 3,650) 25,550 Taxable income \$36,150 Tax liability \$16,700*10%= 1,670 (36,150 -16,700)*15%= 19,450*.15 2,918 5. Total tax liability \$4,588 6. Child tax credit -4,000 7. Total \$588 Average tax rate = Total taxes due / Taxable income Average tax rate = \$588 / 36,150 = 1.6% Marginal tax rate = 15% for both

Tax Liability (Itemized deductions)
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1. + 2. AGI 73,100 3. Less itemized deductions: Home mortgage Interest 6,200 Un-reimbursed Medical 0 Job related expenditures 338 Tithes & other offerings 7,000 DI & other donations 250 Mileage 42 • Total itemized (13,830) 4. Less personal exemptions (same as before) (25,550) Taxable Income \$33,720 Tax liability • 16,700*10%= 1,700 • (33,720 - 16,700) = 17,020 * 15% = 2,553 • 5. Total tax liability \$4,223 • 6. Child tax credit less -4,000 • 7. Tax 223 • Average tax rate = \$223 / 33,720 = .7% Paragraph should include the savings (\$365), recommendation, and average and marginal tax rates on taxable income, not gross income.

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