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					Grammar and Usage


Had done/had been done
The past perfect tense is often used with the simple past tense. If one action happens before another in the past, the past perfect tense is used.


The past perfect tense shows us 过去的过去

What is The past perfect tense
Compare the simple past and The past perfect tense Past
Carter’s lucky pet bird led Carter to the site
Carter’s lucky pet bird was eaten by a snake.


• Upon entering the tomb, Carter’s lucky pet bird , which had led him to the place, was eaten by a snake.

More examples
had taught • By the end of last year, I _______for 15 years. • When I came back home, my favourite TV program had already finished __________.

More examples
• He was not worried at all. He ____________ preparations. had already made

The past perfect tense used in indirect speech
They emptied the tomb of everything it contained
Carter said that they had emptied the tomb


“We emptied the tomb of everything it contained,” said Carter.

Carter said that they had emptied the tomb of everything it contained

Here the past action didn’t happen a long time ago.
• I had done my homework this morning before I went to the museum.

used with time expressions such as when, after, before, as soon as, until, by, for and already

Carter opened King Tutankhamun’s tomb
Lord Carnarvon died


Then a few months after Carter had opened the tomb, Lord Carnarvon fell ill with a fever and died.

A Complete the story of Amelia Earhart
• • • • (1)had seen (3)had taken (5) had met (7)had started (2)moved (4)had become (6)had begun (8)had gone

B Complete the story of Amelia Earhart
• • • • • • (1)surprised (2)was built (3)spent (4)was finished (5) had wanted (6)had received (7)had arrived (8)had hit (9)survived (10)had searched (11)used(12) had caused

• How do you know you will use the past tense or the past perfect tense?

Present perfect or past perfect?
• The present perfect tense is used when we are talking about a past event which relates to the present time. • Howard Carter is one of the most famous explorers the world has ever known. • The past perfect tense is used when we are discussing the past and want to talk about an even earlier event. • Not long after the tomb had been opened, people in Carter’s team began to fall ill and die strangely.

The inventor of paper
• (1)had failed (2)had tried • (3)had heared (4)had caught • (5) had showed/shown


一、 主语+过去完成时 +①when引导的从句(注:从句谓语动词为过去式) +②by短语 +③by the time引导的从句(注:从句谓语动词为过去式) +④before引导的从句(注:从句谓语动词为过去式) 例如:

• 1. Tom was disappointed that most of the guests ______ when he ______ at the party. • A. left; had arrived B. left; arrived • C. had left; had arrived D. had left; arrived

解析: 正确答案为D。guests先“离开”,Tom后 • “到达”。 • 2. We ______ four thousand new words by the end of last year. • A. had learned B. have learned • C. learned D. will have learned • • 解析: 根据by短语中的last year得知是到去年年末, 正确选项为A

2. Helen ______ her keys in the office so she had to wait until her husband ______home. 海伦把钥匙忘在了办公室,所以她不得不 等到丈夫回家。 A. has left; comes B. left; had come C. had left; came D. had left; would come

解析: 正确答案为C。had to wait说明事情发生在过去,而 “忘带钥匙”的动作发生在“等丈夫回家”之前。 3. He _________________his own lab by the time he was ten. 到十岁时, had already built 他已经建起了自己的实验室。 4. He _____________English for five years before he came here. 来这儿 had studied 之前,他已经学过五年英语了。

二、 1. 主语+had+hardly(scarcely)+过去分词+when(before) +主语+一般过去时。 2.主语+had+no sooner+过去分词+than+主语+一般过 去时。例如: ①They had no sooner got home than it began to rain. 他们一 到家,天就下起雨来。 ②______ got into the room,______ the telephone rang. 他 一到家,电话就响了。 A. He hardly had;then B. Hardly had he;when C. He had not;that D. Not had he;when
解析: 正确答案为B。当否定词hardly,scarcely,no sooner放在句首时,主谓要倒装。

三、 根据上下文的时间关系来确定用过去完成时。例如:

1. The pen I ______ I ______ is on my desk, right under my nose. 那支我以为已经丢了的钢笔。 在我的桌子上,就在我的鼻子底下。 A. think; lost B. thought; had lost C. think; had lost D. thought; have lost
解析: 正确答案为B。“丢笔”是在“认为”之前发生的动作。

四、 表示过去未曾实现的愿望、打算或意图,用过去完成时。 常用动词有:hope,think,expect,intend,mean,suppose, want等。 例如: They had wanted to help but couldn't get here in time. 他们本 来是要来帮忙的,但未能及时赶到。

五、 It was+时间+since+主语+过去完成时。
例如: They asked me to have a drink with them. I said that it was at least ten years since I ______ a good drink. 他们邀请我和他们喝酒,我说,我已经至少 十年没有好好喝过了。 A. had enjoyed B. was enjoying C. enjoyed D. had been enjoying 正确答案为A。

• When I arrived at the station, he had already left. We had learned about 4000 English words by the end of last term. I waited until he had finished his homework. We were surprised at what she had done. We ____our breakfast when an old man came to the door. (CET-4 1990,1) • A) just have had B) have just had • C) just had D) had just had.

• • • • • Before the first non flight made in1949, stop it ____ necessary for all planes to land for refueling. (CET-4 1996, 6) A) would be B) has been C) had been D) would have been

• • • • • Until then, his family ____from him for six month. CET-4 1997, 1) ( A) didn't hear B) hasn't been hearing C) hasn't heard D) hadn't heard

The students ___ busily when Miss Brown went to get a book she ___ in the office. A. had written, left B. were writing, has left C. had written, had left D. were writing, had left 答案D.

• 1. She did not go to the cinema because she ___________the film before. A. had seen B. has seen C. saw D. was going to see

• 8. She is the cleverest girl I____________. A. will meet B. had met C. have not met D. have ever met

• 9.—I hear that you ____________ a new house. —Yes, but I____________ in it now. A. have bought, won't live B. have bought, am not living C. will buy, have lived D. will have bought, am not living


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