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The problem of revision of language material by Levone


									The problem of revision of vocabulary
Every teacher knows that unless a textbook could have a clear language recycling policy, there is a real risk that the students may forget what they covered in earlier lessons. The question is what to revise and how to conduct the activities. CONTENTS 1.Revising vocabulary 1.1Ways of revising vocabulary 1.2 Illustrative sentences 1.3 Vocabulary networks 1.4 Vocabulary tables 1.5 Using flashcards to revise vocabulary 1.6 Using games to revise vocabulary 2.Lesson plan of elementary level

Lots of us start every lesson by revising a previous lessons’ vocabulary as a whole class work simply asking the words.Such revision offers continuity but it is somewhat limited and it is in wrong place.The better way is to begin lessons with some kind of warm up activity or brainstorming. When classes are settling in, students need a few moments of relaxation to returne their ears to the sounds of the foreign language.It is better to start with some listening, a chat, a game or a song. Revision can then follow the warm up, but there are times when it should be delayed later.If the review is simply a factual one and the new passage is a continuation of the previous day’s reading, then it is best done just beforethe new passage is seen.In this way the review becomes a sort of pre-reading activity and assures continuity of the story line.At other times,the review can be self contained and can be put almost anywhere in the lesson plan to offer a short change of activity. The lexis for revision can be chosen in an arbitrary way,because it ties in well with the new text, or because class work indicates a need to reactivate a certain field. Vocabulary can be grouped by topic8 food,furniture,equal rights) by situation ( the bank, the supermarket) by semantic field ( boy, youth, husband) or by grammatical category ( adverbs, adjectives).

1.1WAYS OF REVISING VOCABULARY The simplest way to revise vocabulary is to arrive every Monday morning with all the previous week’s visuals for a comprehensive review stage immidiately after a warm up. However, there are other ways of reveising vocabulary. 1.2 ILLUSTRATIVE SENTENCES If new vocabulary is placed in a linguistic context and copied at the end of the lesson, the class can be challenged to recall the exact sentences they copied a few days or

weeks earlier.More challenging and perhaps more valuable linguistically, the class can create new illustrative sentences for the words as teacher calls them out.This is probably best done orally.In this way lots of words are reactivated in a short space of time and given contests. 1.3 VOCABULARY NETWORKS Choose a topic area ( sports, hobbies, school) and write the key word in a circle in the centre of the board.As learners say, what furniture is in bedroom, the items strung out from the centrecircle and underlined to act as head-words the board will look like this at the end of that short first stage. Chair





Next the class suggests what might be found in or on the items of furniture, and lists are built up. The final network will be considerably more complete than the previous example.

Chair cushion Bed Pillows blanket sheets


Shelf Pens books Uniform shirt blue trousers tie

Wardrobe suit dresses

1.4 VOCABULARY TABLES Here we have the topic of shops, revised in the same brainstorming fashion,but listed in a more traditional way.Whichever presentation is adopted , a teacher should prepare own list of taught key lexis, to be brought forward or prompted if they are not offered spontaneously by the class. SHOPS+ SHOPPING Baker’s Bread Chemist’s aspirin Butcher’s steak

1.5 USING THE FLASHCARDS TO REVISE VOCABULARY Preparation 1.Get your children, colleagues, friends to bring colour magazines of all types. 2.Go through them from time to time and cut out any pictures that you think could be useful to illustrate topics, nouns, verbs, adjectives etc. The possibilities to use flashcards *prepare a set of word cards to go with the set of pictures you want to work on.Stick the word cards on the board,give out the pictures,and ask the children to stick them on the board beside the word they go with. *Give each child a flashcard which illustrates something easy to mime.They should not let anyone else to see it.Ask the children in turn to mime what is on their card to the class.The rest of the class has to quess the English word. 1.6 USING GAMES TO REVISE VOCABULARY ( a very long sentence) Preparation 1.Think of a base sentence appropriate to the topic you are working on at the moment, for example: Food: I went to market and bought… Toys: For my birthday I got…. Animals: I went for a walk and I saw…

Body: I saw a monster with… How to play 1.Say the base sentence and make sure the children understand it.Drill it a couple of times to help them remember it, for instance doing a back- chain drill like this: Bought And bought Market and bought Went to market and bought I went to market and bought 2.Ask the children to suggest ways of finishing the sentence. For example: I went to market and bought one apple. I went to market and bought one apple and two fish. 3.When they have got the idea of making a very long sentence, start the game.Get the children to sit in circles of eight to ten ( the game does not work well if the groups are larger). As it was said above in order to teach structures to younger children, we need to repeat the same structures over and over again in different meaningful contexts,using a variety of vocabulary.So the revising of vocabulary should be included extra into the lessons. Vocabulary needs to be taught in context and the children should always to be given plenty of opportunities to use the language that they have learned in class.

A LESSON PLAN FOR ELEMENTARY LEVEL Tip-Top I by Shelagh Rixon Lesson 4; Unit 4 Aims: Talking about animals Categorisation of animals and birds Revision of vocabulary New vocabulary: animal,chicken,duck,horse,pig,turkey

PROCEDURE 1.WARM UP/REVIEW Look at the flashcards! ( I’ve got several pictures about animals and birds the pupils already know). What’s this? It’s a cat.


Today we are going to learn some new words. Open your book at the page 44 and look at the picture. a) Listen to the cassette and find all animals b) Point to the correct animal when you hear the appropriate sound effect SING THE SONG a) What’s this? It’s a pig.What’s this? It’s a cow. B) split the classinto two groups Group A sings the questions Group B sings the replies 3. PRACTICE STAGE DO A PUZZLE Look at the big picture and write the ansvers to the questions in your notebook. SPEAKING Pupils then ask and answer the questions in pairs. Pupil A: How many cats can you see? Pupil B: I can see three cats. 4.WRITING AND REVISING VOCABULARY a) copy the two headings ANIMALS b) put each item into the correct category BIRDS into your notebook What’s this? It’s a duck. What’s this? It’s a horse.

ANIMALS Pig Horse Cat Dog

BIRDS chicken turkey duck

c) add any other animals or birds whose names you know in English 5. A GAME TO REVISE VOCABULARY a) each pupil should decide if s/he wants to be a bird or an animal b) each pupil should write his/her choice on paper c) revising of instructions Animals, turn around!

Birds, clap your hands! Everybody, sit down! d) if I call out an item then everyone who belongs to the same category must stand up.It will be better if they hold up their pieces of paper so it can be checked weather they are right. e) Finally: Everybody, sit down, please!

REFERENCES  Philips,Sarah  Celce-Murcia  Harmer,Jeremy

Young learners.Resource book for teachers Teaching English as a second or foreign language The practice of English language

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