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Techniques to gather digital evidence about cyberstalking on

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					Table of Contents
List of Figures .................................................................................. 1 1. Abstract ........................................................................................ 2 2. Introduction .................................................................................. 2 3. Digital evidence ........................................................................... 3
3.1 Different forms of Digital evidence .......................................................................... 3

4. Social networking websites ......................................................... 3 5. Techniques to gather Digital evidence ........................................ 4
5.1 The “man-in-the-middle” model ............................................................................... 4 5.2 Reverse email investigation ...................................................................................... 4 5.3 Predator and Prey Alert (PAPA) system ................................................................... 5

6. Protection against Cyberstalking ................................................. 6
6.1 Cautiousness ............................................................................................................. 6 6.2 Sign out or disconnect ............................................................................................... 6 6.3 Sharing of personal information ............................................................................... 6 6.4 Discretion .................................................................................................................. 6 6.5 Usage policies ........................................................................................................... 7

7. Cyberstalking – Some legislation. ............................................... 7 8. Conclusion ................................................................................... 7 9. References .................................................................................... 8

List of Figures
Figure 1: “man-in-the-middle” scenario ............................................................................ 4 Figure 2: The PAPA System .............................................................................................. 6

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1. Abstract
The Internet really got on its way during the last two decades. Many were boasting about the positive life changing conditions which it will bring. Positive life changing conditions it did bring but not for all of us. After some time, some found at their own expense that these technological improvements are very stressful and made them victims of stalking or even harassment. Long ago, fake passports were created and sold to immigrants to allow them to enter countries. Nowadays, with the Internet and the help of social networking sites, you can create profiles based on other people and even put their photos there. This is known as identity theft and is illegal. In this document we will be looking at how and to what deal are with the

2. Introduction
The Internet has increasingly become a forum for predator and prey crimes, wherein one party in a relationship seeks to control, exploit, or harm the other by harassment. The harassment can range from unsolicited communication (emails, spam, etc), to repeated, threatening or malicious information. Cyberstalking

generally involves the repeated and persistent attempt by one individual, the stalker, to harass another individual, the victim, using the Internet or more generally an open network. Typically this takes place on networked Personal Computers (PCs), but it can extend to portable devices such as laptops, PDAs, mobile phones and more generally devices linked to the Internet. Cyber stalking based on social networking sites like Facebook, MySpace and Twitter are becoming more and more common,

cyberstalking

techniques which will be used to identify evidence on social networking sites.

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where the need for more precautions to be taken.

4.

Social

networking

3. Digital evidence
Digital evidence is any probative

websites
Social networking websites are the new ways to interact virtually with people who we do know but also people who we do not know. Among the most famous ones, we have Facebook,

information stored or transmitted in digital form that a party to a court case may use at trial.

3.1 Different forms of Digital evidence
The use of digital evidence has increased in the past few decades as courts have allowed the use of e-mails, digital photographs, ATM transaction logs, word processing documents, instant message histories, files saved from accounting programs, spreadsheets,

MySpace, Habbo and Qzone. These sites basically allow anyone to create a profile for one and also allow one to

communicate with people having the same taste as one, be it in terms of art or music for example. On these sites, one can share one’s photos and personal information with other people depending on the privacy protocols that one has accepted. However, anyone can create a profile and fill the profile with fake information or even photos. Fake information can be in terms of a fake name, or a fake address. If you know that person, you

internet browser histories, databases, the contents of computer memory, computer backups, computer printouts, Global Positioning System tracks, logs from a hotel’s electronic door locks, and digital video or audio files.

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will know that the information displayed is fake, else you will not know. For example, a 30-year old individual creates a profile; he fakes his age as well as his photo and address. He then uses this fake information to take advantage of other This is a simple model, where M must people. This case is a case of identity be passive and simply eavesdrop on the theft, and it is punishable by law. communication so that no data is
Figure 1: “man-in-the-middle” scenario

5.

Techniques

to

gather

corrupted. For example on Facebook, there is the online chat feature where you can chat with your friends. This

Digital evidence
5.1 The “man-in-the-middle”

model can be used to gather evidence.

model
In this scenario, three parties will be involved. Firstly, A, who is supposed to be the victim, B who is supposed to be the cyber stalker and lastly M who is a law agent who will monitor the

5.2 Reverse email investigation
Alternatively, if a cyberstalker has obtained the victim’s email address through a social networking site and is harassing him/her by sending the latter emails, the victim can hire a private investigator that is an expert in reverse email investigations. They can trace the email back to the senders, locate and identify him and deliver a report that can

communication. Below is a diagram for the model:

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be used in a court of law to prosecute your stalker.

Level 2 detail, all applications used by the user are logged in detail. The logs can also be stored in a Black Box as a

5.3 Predator and Prey Alert
guise of backup or proof of genuineness

(PAPA) system
The Predator and Prey Alert System (PAPA) is a system that can be used to track down cyberstalking. PAPA

of data. The Guardian Angel Toolkit is the most important part of the PAPA system as The Guardian Angel Toolkit brings in the involvement of the police and the gathering of evidence in order to stop the predator. Whenever any weird activities are spotted, the Guardian Toolkit can be used in assistance with the Police to gather maximum evidence against the stalker. The mechanism is very simple. The Guardian Angel

consists of two parts namely: The Monitor Toolkit and The Guardian Angel Toolkit. The Monitor Toolkit is used to monitor and log all the user’s activities. The Monitor Toolkit has two modes i.e. the Overview Log Mode and the Detailed Log Mode. The Overview Log Mode as the name suggests gives an overview of the activities that the user has been having on the PC. The Detailed Log Mode consists of two sub modes: Level 1 Detail and Level 2 Detail. Level 1 Detail would give detailed information about a specific application used by the user whilst level 2 details does quite the same job as Level 1 detail except that in

Toolkit is software which is started when the stalker gets in touch with the victim. The police or investigators are in touch with the victim via the Guardian Angel Toolkit. Whatever the victim and

predator are interacting, the investigator can in turn see it on his screen. The

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below diagram gives a brief overview of how the systems are interconnected:

If you choose to meet, do so in a public place and take along a friend if possible.

6.2 Sign out or disconnect
If an online situation becomes hostile, log off or surf elsewhere.

6.3

Sharing

of

personal

information
Do not share personal information in
Figure 2: The PAPA System

public spaces anywhere online or give it to strangers, including in messages or

6.

Protection

against

chat rooms on the social networking sites. Also, do not post personal

Cyberstalking
Since prevention is always better,

information as part of any user profiles.

preventive measures have to be taken into consideration so that we do not fall prey to cyber stalkers. There are many ways to do this, as shown below:

6.4 Discretion
Do not use your real name or nickname as your screen name or user ID. Pick a name that is gender-neutral and ageneutral.

6.1 Cautiousness
One should be extremely cautious about meeting online acquaintances in person.

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6.5 Usage policies
Make sure that your Internet service provider and Internet Relay Chat

Cyberstalking has also been addressed in recent U.S. federal law. For example, the “Violence against Women Act” passed in 2000, made cyberstalking a part of the federal interstate stalking statute. Still, there remains a lack of legislation at the federal level to specifically address cyberstalking, leaving the majority of legislative prohibitions against

networks have acceptable-use policies that prohibit cyberstalking. If your network fails to respond to your

complaints, consider switching to a provider that is more responsive to user grievances.

cyberstalking at the state level.

7. Cyberstalking – Some 8. Conclusion legislation.
Cyberstalking is becoming a major In this section, we are going to look at problem with countries where internet the legislation on cyberstalking. The first access is easily available. According to U.S. cyberstalking law went into effect in 1999 in California. Other states way to avoid being stalked on the include prohibition against cyberstalking internet is to follow the precautionary in their harassment or stalking measures legislation. In Florida for example, it was introduced in 2003 to ban mentioned below. Furthermore, greater awareness should be raised among all the different agegroups. what we have seen and read, the best

cyberstalking. This was signed into law on October 2003.

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9. References
 Burmester, Mike. Henry, Peter. Kermes, Leo S. “Tracking

cyberstalkers: a cryptographic approach”. Web. 10 November. 2009  Ramsey, B. “Stop the Stalker: A Guide for Targets, Securus

House”. 2000. Web. 10 Nov. 2009  US Department of Justice. “The Electronic Frontier: the

Challenge of Unlawful Conduct Involving the Use of the

Internet”. Report prepared for the President's Working Group on Unlawful Conduct on the Internet, 2000. Web. 9

November. 2009

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