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					Air Pollution in Kazakhstan
Afton Hakes Geography 308 Spring 2005 Prof. Z. Grossman UW Eau Claire hakesal@uwec.edu

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Intro to Kazakhstan
Central Asia  Formerly Kazakh  Majority religion Sunni Muslim  Language: Kazakh
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• Capital at Astana (formerly at Almaty in the South) • Made up of primarily Kazakh and Russian peoples (along with Ukrainian, German, and Uygur minorities) • Population= 15,143,704

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The Issue of Air Pollution

1> Current air pollution level in Kazakhstan 2> Sources of Pollution 3> Effects on Kazakhs 4> Improvement Measures
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Air Pollution Level
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levels are highest in cities and industrial centers Ridder, Ust-Kamenogorsk, Almaty, Zyryanovsk, Aktau, Shymkent, Taraz, Petropavlolovsk, and Temirtau register the highest levels Chemical combinations of 1st and 2nd danger classes (phosphorus, cadmium, lead) are registered in residential zones, along with 3rd and 4th danger class chemicals (nitrogen, sulphur, carbon oxides)

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Pollutants
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Main pollutants; dust, sulphur and nitrogen dioxides, hydrocarbons, lead, benzapyrene, formaldehyde, cadmium, iron, mercury, and fluoric acid.

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Pollutants are measured by the Maximum Admissible Concentration In 1999, Index of Air Pollution observations were carried out in 9 cities; highest level of air pollution was registered in Ust-Kamenogorsk at 17.6% IAP. Average concentrations of sulphur dioxide, phenol and formaldehyde exceeded MAC 3 times, nitrogen dioxides – 2 times. Maximum concentrations of dust, sulphur dioxide, nitrogen dioxides and phenol registered at 4 to 5 times MAC. www.punchstock.com

Benzapyrene
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environmental carcinogen, formed by two isomeric hydrocarbons, 1st danger class
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found in fuel exhaust, cigarette smoke, and charcoal fumes average concentration of benzapyrene in Kazakhstan’s cities exceeds the 2.5 MAC In Almaty, exceeds 307 MAC, Taraz-16 MAC, Ust-Kamenogorsk-11 MAC

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Lead
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metal that is emitted into the air as small particles (from automobile emissions, industrial emissions) 1996 content of lead exceeded sanitary standards in Zhezkazgan (1.3 MAC), Ridder (1.1 MAC), Shymkent (1.5 MAC), Ust-Kamenogorsk (1.7 MAC)

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although still dangerously high, these numbers registered lower than those of 1995 www.punchstock.com

Automobile Emissions
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Auto transport emits polluting substances (sulphur dioxide, carbon dioxide, hydrogen sulfide) with exhausted gas which total at over 2 million tons Contribution of auto emissions to the air basin pollution has reached more than 60% in recent years 90% in Almaty
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Substance Level
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Emissions from stationary sources surveyed in 1999 resulted in 2308 thousand tons of polluting substances

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Sources of Pollution
A 1998-99 analysis of various economic activities and their role in air pollution showed the following enterprises to be at fault: Industrial pollution Production of Crude Oil/Natural Gas Manufacturing Metallurgy
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Production of Materials for Power  Production/Distribution of Gas, Electric Power, and Water  Automobile emissions  Mining Activity  Transport and Communication  Radioactive/Nuclear testing
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Industrial Enterprises

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The majority of the Kazakhstan population resides in areas around or near industrial centers, due to the job opportunities offered in these areas.

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About 1/3 of these enterprises have no sanitary zones meeting size standards. Besides harmful chemicals and emissions, residents living near industrial centers experience pollution in the form of noise, electric magnet fields, dust, and vibration.
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These enterprises emit dangerous levels of carbon dioxide, sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxides, carbon monoxide, and other toxic pollutants.

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Oil and Gas Enterprises
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Substances emitted by these industries are relatively dense Many are emitted without treatment Treatment methods are either not up to code or in some cases simply not implemented at all

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In 2002, the total gas and oil enterprise emissions gone untreated reached 7.7% These emissions include dangerous chemicals such as nitrogen oxides, carbon dioxides, sulphur dioxides, benzypyrene, and also suspended dust particles.

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Balkhash Copper
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Lake Balkhash region suffers greatly from disulphide pollution Balkash Copper Smelter recently restarted operation after a long period of Idleness Copper is produced www.punchstock.com without purification in the utilization of disulphide The operation also creates dust, sulphur, and nitrogen oxide pollution.

Nuclear Radiation
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After effects of nuclear arms testing in the Semipalatinsk Nuclear Testing Range left Kazakhstan territories as “Environmental Disaster Zones” From 1949-1989, radioactive fall-out over the bordering territories occupied over 300,000 km including Pavlodar, Karagandin, and www.punchstock.com Eastern Kazakhstan Oblasts Population in the area was over 1.7 million with 711 settlements

Effects on Kazakhstan
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In recent years, vital statistics have continued to deteriorate at a rapid rate due to multiple factors, including the high level of air pollution. For example, birth rates decreased from 19.9 in 1992 to 14.9 in 1997 (down by 25.2%)

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Mortality rate increased from 8.1 in 1991 to 10.2 (up by 20.6%)

Health Hazards
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The incidence rates of communicable and non-communicable diseases have increased. Natural population growth has dropped from 11.8% in 1992 to 4.6% in 1997 (or by 2.6 times) Deterioration of various health factors have been mainly caused by both natural and occupational environmental influences

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Higher morbidity rates have been linked to increasing incidences of conditions such as respiratory disease, nervous system and sensory organ disturbances, gastrointestinal disease, and circulatory disease. Poor air quality has been cited as a factor in these conditions.

Tuberculosis
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Among the infectious diseases, tuberculosis stands out as a problem of special concern The number of deaths associated with tuberculosis is rising annually 11.7 (per 100,000) in 1992 and 34.6 in 1996

Harmful Emissions
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Pollution has been found to have a chronically damaging impact on the health of the general population of Kazakhstan (cancer, respiratory diseases, damage of organs and systems, reduction of total resistance, and cardio-vascular diseases)

Health status of the populations is negatively affected by the unfavorable environmental situation, emissions in general, and technogenic hotspots.
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Improvement Measures
National Environmental Health Action Plan includes...
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Improvement of atmospheric air regulations Study of air pollution on health and the development of appropriate preventative measures Reduction of the level of air pollution with harmful chemical, physical, and biological factors in residential areas
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Laboratory control for the level of air pollutions with chemical compounds, with instrument metering of harmful physical factors (vibration, radiation, noise, sound) with taking the operative administrative decision on reduction of the pollution level Creation of the uniform network of monitoring for the quality of atmospheric air to ensure the operative access to information of supervising organizations and the www.punchstock.com population.

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Public Health Service
Representatives have prioritized the following actions… Development of the hygienic standards of Maximum Admissible Concentration of new chemical compounds, biological agents, and physical factors in the air Carry out sanitary and hygienic assessments at the territory of residential cities and settlements

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Sanitary epidemiological expertise of pre-project documentation of development programs and location production capacities Medical and environmental zoning of urban territories (identifying boundaries or sanitary and protection zones of industrial enterprises and the maintenance of their equipment)
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Development of evaluation indicators of health conditions, level of morbidity or the population, impact on the population of chemical compounds, and taking into their combined impact Organizing regular control for toxicity of vehicle exhaust along with introducing the methods for treatment and reduction of their impact on the state of the air basin.

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Air Pollution in Kazakhstan an overview
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The dangerously high level of air pollution in Kazakhstan, due to multiple sources including various industrial enterprises and automobile emissions, is threatening the health and well being of Kazakhstani citizens.
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Government officials and public health representatives are prioritizing preventative tasks and proactive plans such as the National Environmental Health Action Plan to combat the issue of air pollution and problems associated with it.
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Works Cited
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Earth Trends 2003Kazakhstan.www.earthtrends.com Current Environmental Issues-Kazakhstan Air Pollution.www.unede.org/env Yahoo! Travel.www.yahoo.com/travel Punchstock Royalty Free Imaging.www.punchstock.com 2000 Ecoworld.www.ecoworld.org Development: Fight to Curb Urban Pollution.www.nytimes.com


				
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