Gardner's Theory of Multiple Intelligence by jizhen1947


									           Gardner’s Theory of Multiple Intelligence

   Multiple Intelligence is an educational theory

   developed by psychologist Howard Gardner, that describes
    different kinds of "intelligences" exhibited by human beings

   Gardner suggests that each individual manifests varying levels of
    these different intelligences, and thus each person has a unique
    "cognitive profile”

   Argues that methods used to measures intelligence aren’t truly

   Gardner's theory argues that intelligence, as it is traditionally
    defined, does not adequately encompass the wide variety of
    abilities humans display.
    Eg. a child who masters the multiplication table easily is not necessarily more
    intelligent overall than a child who struggles to do so. The second child may be
    stronger in another kind of intelligence, and therefore may best learn the given
    material through a different approach.

   Embraced in N.American education, the theory suggests that,
    rather than relying on a uniform curriculum, schools should offer
    individual-centered education, with curriculum tailored to the
    needs of each child

   Gardner used case studies of Autistic Savants as part of his
    theory on multiple intelligences.
    Eg. Rain Man: had severe mental disabilities and thus impaired social skills, but
    also some extraordinary mental abilities not found in most people

   Criticisms:
        o is ad‘hoc’- only good for educational purposes
        o everyone may be percieved as being ‘gifted’; reduction in Gifted programs
            in education systems
        o risk of students developing a sense of inferiority in given areas eg.students
            who are identified as not being "musical" learners may have less incentive
            to become musical learners.
        o the assessment of one's form of intelligence is usually determined via a
            self-administered test of 40-60 questions such as "Do you prefer to stand
            when working?"
                 this sort of question leaves much room for assessment error
                 the distinction between developmental stage and "intelligence" is
                   not sufficiently well accounted for

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