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					Автор работы: Родионова Н.В. лицей №21
History and origin
Symbols and traditions
Thanksgiving around the world
Poems and songs
Menu, recipes
History and origin
         • In 1620 more than one
           hundred people sailed
           across the Atlantic ocean
           to settle in the New
           World. They left their
           old country England
           because they couldn’t
           pray the way they
           wanted. The people were
           called Pilgrims.The
           Pilgrims sailed to
           America from Plymouth,
           England, in September
The name of their ship
was the Mayflower. It
was approximately 25
feet wide and 90 feet
long. The Pilgrims
landed at Plymouth
Rock, in what is now the
state of Massachusetts,
in December 1620.
Their were people living in
  America before the
  pilgrims arrived. These
  people were the Native
  American Indians. The
  Indians began settling in
  America about 25,000
  years ago. They hunted,
  fished and farmed to
  survive.There were many
  regional groups, or tribes,
  each had its own customs
  and beliefs.
The Pilgrims’ first winter in the New World was difficult. They
  had arrived too late to grow any crops. Without fresh food half
  of the Pilgrims died. The following spring the Indians taught
  the Pilgrims how to hunt, fish, plant and survive in America.
  The crops did well, and in the fall of 1621 the Pilgrims had a
  great harvest. They were thankful and decided to celebrate it
  with a Thanksgiving feast.
The first Thanksgiving lasted
  three days. Governor Bradford
  sent men to the forest to bring
  wild turkeys, geese, ducks.
  The Pilgrims invited the chief
  of the Wampanoag tribe,
  Massasoit, and 90 of his
  braves. The Indians brought
  five deer. Thy prepared dinner
  of meat, seafood, vegetables,
  wild fruits, corn. There was
  popcorn too! The work for
  preparing the feast – for 91
  Indians and 56 settlers – fell
  to only 4 Pilgrim women and
  2 teenage girls.
The militia under the
leadership of Captain Myles
Standish drilled and fired
their muskets and cannon to
entertain their guests, and in
turn the Wampanoag
delighted their hosts with
demonstrations of their
traditional dances. The men
also competed in jumping,
running and other athletic
contests. And after the
Indians displayed their
accuracy with bow and
arrow, the Pilgrim soldiers
took part in a parade and
exhibited their skills in
shooting.The women and
girls spent most of their time
cooking and serving.
The Pilgrims had so much to be thankful for. The
long, hard, terrible year was over. They gave
thanks for good friends, new homes, and plenty of
food. They gave thanks for the new life they had
begun in Plymouth.
Symbols and traditions
Turkey is a part of the traditional Thanksgiving dinner, since
it is believed that the Pilgrims and the Native Americans had
                      turkey at their feast.
Sweet-sour cranberry sauce, or cranberry
jelly, was on the first Thanksgiving table
and is still served today. The cranberry is a
small, sour berry. It grows in bogs, or
muddy areas, in Massachusetts and other
New England states. The Indians used the
fruit to treat infections. They used the juice
to dye their rugs and blankets. They taught
the colonists how to cook the berries with
sweetener and water to make a sauce. The
Indians called it "ibimi" which means
"bitter berry." When the colonists saw it,
they named it "crane-berry" because the
flowers of the berry bent the stalk over, and
it resembled the long-necked bird called a
crane. The berries are still grown in New
England. Very few people know, however,
that before the berries are put in bags to be
sent to the rest of the country, each
individual berry must bounce at least four
inches high to make sure they are not too
The horn of plenty, or the cornucopia, is a familiar
  Thanksgiving symbol. It is a symbol of the earth
  bounty, and reminds us that our food comes from
  the earth.
Indian corn is used as a decoration. The American Indians taught
   the Pilgrims how to plant corn, which the Pilgrims used to
                    survive their first winter.
     This holiday has such national
  entertainment as Thanksgiving Day
   Parade and a professional football
        game broadcast on TV.
    The Gimbel Brothers started the
 parade tradition with a parade of toys
    in Philadelphia in 1920. Macy’s
     department store holds famous
   Thanksgiving Day Parade in New
 York City. Celebrities, Floats, bands
   and balloons shaped like famous
   storybook and cartoon characters
   appear in the parade. Santa Claus
 arrives at the end. His coming marks
the beginning of the Christmas season.
Throughout history many cultures have given
thanks for a bountiful harvest. They might differ The First
in their forms and presentations. But their spirit Americans
- setting aside a date to reflect on life's
blessings, remains the same. Catch a glimpse of
the spectra of colors and shades that tinge the The Greeks
thankful celebrations from around the world!
                                                  The Hebrews
As evident from most of the cultures people
would associate these with harvest festivals in
gratitude of the God who protects them and        The Egyptians
their crops. Harvest festivals and thanksgiving
celebrations held by the ancient Greeks, the       The Romans
Romans, the Hebrews, the Chinese, and the
Egyptians all reflect the similar spirit. The
Kaleidoscope here depicts the spectra of
celebration as practiced by these different
                                              Even in prehistoric times, the first
                                              Americans observed many rituals

                                              and ceremonies to express
                                              gratitude to a higher power for life
                                              itself. A Seneca Indian ritual, for
                                              example, states, "Our
                                              Creator...Shall continue to dwell
                                              above the sky, and this is where
         The First Americans                  those on the earth will end their
      Another quotation of the  American Indians attributed
      to a later period. But that too was well before the day
      the Europeans came to know about America.
      It was: "The plant has its nourishment from the earth
      and its limbs go up this way, in praise of its Maker...like
      the limbs of a tree."
                               The ancient Greeks
                           worshipped Demeter as their
                            goddess of all grains. Each
                              autumn the festival of
                            Thesmosphoria was held to
                                honor the goddess.
    The Greeks 

On the first day of the festival married women would
build leafy shelters and furnish them with couches made
with plants. On the second day they fasted. On the third
day a feast was held and offerings to the goddess
Demeter were made - gifts of seed corn, cakes, fruit,
and pigs. It was hoped that Demeter's gratitude would
grant them a good harvest. 
                               For over 3000 years Jewish
                                    families have been
                                 celebrating an autumnal
                                  harvest festival called
                               Sukkoth. Sukkoth begins on
                               the 15th day of the Hebrew
      The Hebrews                    month of Tishri,
5 days after Yom Kippur the most solemn day of the
Jewish year. 
Sukkoth has derived its name from the huts (succots) that
Moses and the Israelites lived in as they wandered the
desert for 40 years before they reached the Promised
Land. These huts were made of branches and were easy to
assemble, take apart, and carry as the Israelites wandered
through the desert. The festival coprises two main events -
Hag ha Succot - the Feast of the Tabernacles and Hag ha
Asif - the Feast of Ingathering. 
                                            Part II
During this 8-day long festival the Jews build small
huts of branches which recall the tabernacles of their
ancestors. These huts are constructed as temporary
shelters, as the branches are not driven into the
ground and the roof is covered with foliage which is
spaced to let the light in. Inside the huts are hung
fruits and vegetables, including apples, grapes, corn,
and pomegranates. On the first two nights of Sukkoth
the families eat their meals in the huts under the
evening sky. 

 The Hebrews
The celebration of the                The Egyptians 

spring-time harvest festival
by the ancient Egyptians
was dedicated to the honor
of Min, their god of
vegetation and fertility.
Spring being the harvest
season of the Egyptian's
the festival was held during         
this season.                   When the Egyptian farmers
The festival featured a        harvested their corn, they
parade in which the Pharaoh    wept and pretended to be
took part. After the parade    grief-stricken. This was to
a great feast was held.        deceive the spirit which
Music, dancing, and sports     they believed lived in the
were also part of the          corn.
            The Romans 
                                       The Roman celebration of Cerelia,
                                       a harvest festival, was dedicated
                                       to the honor of Ceres. Ceres was

                                       their goddess of corn (from which
                                       the word cereal comes). It was
                                       also an autumnal festival held each
                                       year on October 4th. Offerings of
                                       the first fruits of the harvest and
                                       pigs were made to Ceres. The
                                       celebration included music,
                                       parades, games and sports and a
                                       thanksgiving feast. 
                  All Things Bright and Beautiful

                All things bright and beautiful,
                All creatures great and small,
                All things wise and wonderful:
                The Lord God made them all.
Each little flower that opens,
                                   The cold wind in the winter,
Each little bird that sings,
                                   The pleasant summer sun,
God made their glowing
                                   The ripe fruits in the garden:
                                   God made them every one.
And made their tiny wings.
                             God gave us eyes to see them,
The purple-headed mountains,
                             And lips that we might tell
The river running by,
                             How great is God Almighty,
The sunset and the morning
                             Who has made all things well.
That brightens up the sky.
                          Faith of Our Fathers
                                                 Lyrics Frederick W. Farber, 1814-1863
                                                  Music: Henry F. Hemy, 1818-1888
Faith of our fathers! living still
O how our hearts beat high with joy
In spite of dungeon, fire, and sword;
                                           Faith of our fathers! we will
When e're we hear that glorious word!
Faith of our fathers, holy faith!
                                          Both friend and foe in all our
We will be true to thee till death.
                                          And preach thee, too, as love
                                                    knows how
Faith of our fathers! we will strive
                                          By kindly words and virtuous
To win all nations unto thee;
And through the truth that comes from
                                            Faith of our fathers, holy
Mankind shall then be truly free.
                                            We will be true to thee till
Faith of our fathers, holy faith!
We will be true to thee till death.
            MENU AND RECIPES
              TOASTED ALMONDS
 entree     Turkey with
  sides Smashed potatoes
  sauce Cranberry sauce
         Chocolate pecan
  wine   White Bordeaux
         Chateau Olivier
From Patricia Wells at Home in Provence ,
by Patricia Wells
Serves 12, as appetizer
One summer while dining on the French Mediterranean island
of Porquerolles, we were served a glass of the easygoing local
white wine along with a small bowl of these fragrant almonds,
roasted with dried and fresh thyme, coarse salt, a touch of
olive oil, and a bit of egg white, which helps the thyme cling
to the nuts. I instantly added the almonds to my repertoire at
Chanteduc, anticipating the day I could make them with a crop
from my newly planted almond trees. In the winter time I
prepare these just as guests are arriving: The toasted thyme
fills the house with a heady aroma that shouts Provence! loud
and clear.

TOSTED ALMONDS                    Ingredients:
                       4 ounces (125g) unblanched almonds
                         2 teaspoons extra-virgin olive oil
                                     1 egg white
                           1 1/2 teaspoons coarse sea salt
                              3 teaspoons dried thyme
                        1 teaspoon fresh thyme, leaves only

                1. Preheat the oven to 400°F (200°C; gas mark 6/7)
    2. In a large, shallow bowl, combine the almonds, oil, egg white, salt and
 dried thyme and toss with your hands to coat the nuts thoroughly. Transfer to
   a nonstick baking sheet and spread the nuts out in a single layer, so that no
            two almonds touch. Sprinkle each with fresh thyme leaves.
 3. Place in the center of the oven and toast until the nuts are lightly browned
    and a fragrant aroma wafts from the oven, about 4 minutes. Remove the
 baking sheet from the oven. Allow to cool, then break apart any almonds that
  touch. Remove any excess "crust" formed and discard. The almonds can be
                        stored, well sealed, for up to 2 weeks.
 (For a 12-Pound
                                   In a large pan sautй chopped
                                  onion in butter until soft. Add
   1 Large Onion; Chopped       celery, broth, poultry seasoning,
          1 cup Butter           salt, pepper and water and heat
1 cup Celery; Finely Chopped    to a boil. Place bread and parsley
  2 tsp. Granulated Chicken         in a large mixing bowl. Pour
                                 sautйed ingredients over bread
   1 tsp. Poultry Seasoning 
         1/2 tsp. Salt            mixture and toss lightly until
        1/4 tsp. Pepper           moisture is evenly distributed.
       1 1/4 cup Water           Stuff well cleaned turkey with
12 cups White Bread; Cubed                mixture and bake.
 (Approximately 24-slices) 
        3/4 cup Parsley
Serves 4 - 6 Smashed Potatoes
After the fad of creamy mashed potatoes began to fade, Parisian
palates moved to what I called "smashed" potatoes and the
French called pommes écrasées. Rather than reducing the potato
to a puree, they are simply crushed with a fork and enriched
with butter and oil. The dish shows up everywhere, from bistro
tables to grand palaces, and plays a versatile role as a warming
accompaniment to roast pork, chicken, lamb, or fish.
 It's a method that flatters the fragrance and flavor of very nutty,
fruity, earthy yellow fleshed potatoes. In France we use the
fingerling ratte or yellow-fleshed Charlotte. Try this with
fingerlings, such as bananas or ruby crescents, or Yukon Golds.
Be sure to have a large well-heated bowl on hand in which to
crush the potatoes. The glory of this dish is the fragrance that
wafts from the rising steam, so prepare and serve at the very last
moment.                                                RECIPE

   2 pounds (1kg) firm, yellow-fleshed potatoes, scrubbed and peeled
                          Coarse sea salt to taste
             8 tablespoons (4 ounces; 120g) unsalted butter
                   2 tablespoons extra-virgin olive oil
                           Fine sea salt to taste
 2 tablespoons fresh flat-leaf parsley, leaves only, snipped with scissors
 1. Place the potatoes in a large pot and fill with cold water to cover by at
least 1 inch (93cm). For each quart (l) of water, add 1 tablespoon (10g) of
   coarse sea salt. Simmer, uncovered, over moderate heat until a knife
 inserted in a potato comes away easily, 20 to 30 minutes. Make sure the
    potatoes are fully cooked, or they will not mash properly. Drain the
 potatoes as soon as they are cooked. (If allowed to cool in the water, the
                        potatoes will taste reheated.)
2. Transfer the potatoes to a warmed large serving bowl and dot with the
  butter and oil. With a large fork or potato masher, coarsely crush the
mixture to blend. Do not let it form a puree. Season with fine sea salt and
                     parsley, and serve immediately
        Cranberry Sauce

2 cups packed light brown sugar
2 cups granulated sugar
Grated rind of 3 oranges
1 cup orange juice
1/2 teaspoon ground cinnamon
3 pounds fresh cranberries

    In a large saucepan, over medium heat, combine
    sugars, orange rind, orange juice, and cinnamon.
    Bring to a boil. Add cranberries, cover and cook
    until cranberries burst (approximately 4 to 5
    minutes). Refrigerate. The sauce gels when cold.
                                 For the crust:
    1 1/2 (6 3/4 ounces) all-purpose flour (measured by scooping and leveling)
       6 tablespoons (3 ounces) chilled unsalted butter, cut into 1/2 inch bits
  3 tablespoons vegetable shortening or rich-tasting lard, chilled and cut into 1/2
                                        inch bits
                                  3/4 teaspoon sugar
Chocolate Pecan                    1/4 teaspoon salt
     Pie                           1 egg yolk, beaten slightly
                                   For the filling:
     2 cups (about 6 ounces) pecan halves (make sure they're fresh and richly
                    6 ounces semisweet or bittersweet chocolate
                           3 tablespoons all-purpose flour
                3/4 cup (6 ounces) room-temperature unsalted butter
                       1 cup firmly packed dark brown sugar
                           5 large eggs, room temperature
                               3/4 cup light corn syrup
                                   1/4 cup molasses
                         1 1/2 tablespoons kahlua or brandy
                         2 1/4 teaspoons pure vanilla extract
                                   1/2 teaspoon salt                     GO ON
 2 cups Sweetened Whipped Cream (see below) flavored with kahlua for serving
 1. The dough. Measure the flour, butter and shortening (or lard) into a bowl
or a food processor fitted with the metal blade. Quickly work the fats into the
 flour with a pasty blender or pulse the food processor until the flour looks a
little damp (not powdery) but tiny bits of fat are still visible. If using the food
                   processor, transfer the mixture to a bowl.
 Mix together the sugar, salt and 3 tablespoons and ice water. Using a fork,
 little by little work the ice-water mixture into the flour mixture. The dough
  will be in rough, rather stiff clumps; if there is unincorporated flour in the
   bottom of the bowl, sprinkle in a little more ice water and use the fork to
work it together. Press the dough together into a flat disk, wrap in plastic and
                             refrigerate at least 1 hour.
On a lightly floured surface, roll the dough into a 12 inch circle. Transfer to a
 deep 10 inch glass pan (I find it easiest to roll the dough onto a rolling pin,
then unroll it onto the pie pan). Decoratively crimp the edge and trim excess
                        dough. Refrigerate 30 minutes.

  Chocolate pecan pie
                                                      GO ON
2. Prebaking the crust. Heat the oven to 400 degrees. Lightly oil
 a 15 inch piece of foil and lay it, oiled side down, into the crust
(heavy duty foil is too stiff to work here); press down to line the
  crust snugly. Fill with beans or pie weights and bake about 15
minutes, until beginning to brown around the edges. Reduce the
oven temperature to 350 degrees. Carefully remove the beans or
  weights and foil, return the crust to the oven and bake 8 to 10
   minutes, until it no longer looks moist. (If it bubbles at this
point, gently press it down with the back of a spoon.) Brush the
    beaten egg yolk over the crust, then let it cool completely.
3. The nuts and the chocolate. While the crust is cooling, spread
 the pecans on a baking sheet and toast in the 350 degree oven
  until fragrant, about 10 minutes. Cool, then break into small
   pieces and transfer to a large bowl. Chop the chocolate into
rough, 1/2 inch pieces and add to the bowl, along with the flour.
               Stir until everything is well coated. GO ON
  4. The filling. In a food processor (or in the large bowl of an
  electric mixer), cream the butter and brown sugar until light
  and fluffy, about 3 minutes in the processor, 5 minutes in the
   mixer. With the machine still running, add the eggs one at a
time, letting each be completely incorporated before adding the
    next. Beat in the corn syrup, molasses, Kahlua or brandy,
                          vanilla and salt.
 5. Baking. Pour the filling over the chocolate and pecans and
  stir well to combine. Pour the mixture into the prebaked pie
shell, set onto the lower shelf of the oven and bake until a knife
   inserted into the center in withdrawn clean, about 1 hour.
Cool completely on a wire rack. Serve slices of the pie at room
temperature or slightly warm, topped with a dollop of Kahlua-
             spiked, sweetened whipped cream.
 Chocolate pecan pie                              GO ON
The pie can be made several days ahead, wrapped in plastic and
 refrigerated. It freezes well. Because the pie is easiest to cut
when cold, I suggest making it ahead, refrigerating it, cutting it,
               then warming just before serving.

                Variations and improvements:
Other nuts can be substituted for the pecans. Honey can replace
  the molasses for a lighter flavor. If you like the crystalline
crunch of Mexican chocolate, reduce the semisweet chocolate
  to 5 ounces and sprinkle the pie with 1/3 cup rather finely
          chopped Mexican chocolate before baking.

                        Two 9-inch pies:
Prepare 1 1/2 times the dough, divide it and roll out each half to
line 2 shallow 9-inch pie pans; crimp and refrigerate. Divide the
 filling between the crusts and bake at 325 degrees for 45 to 50
      White Bordeaux: Chateau Oliver
Bordeaux stands apart from every other wine-growing area. It
is not only supreme for quality; it produces gigantic quantities.
The vineyards cover a large part of the land for about fifty
miles in one direction by about seventy in another. They have
been known to produce over a hundred and thirty million
gallons of wine in a good year, while the top figure for
Burgundy (including Beaujolais) is about fifty million.

The best wines of Bordeaux are the great red wines, known to
forty generations of Englishmen as claret. Almost equal to
them in a completely different way are the supremely lucious
sweet wines of Sauternes. However, under the heading of
white wines for the table, for drinking with food, we are
restricted to the dry or medium-dry or medium-sweet wines
which we think of under the broad heading of Graves, but
which are grown in almost all districts of Bordeaux. GO ON
 Graves is a district name. The Graves country, in which
the city of Bordeaux itself lies, and which stretches away
to the south among old buried sand dunes and straggling
 pine woods, makes better red wine than white. It makes
 some of the finest of all clarets. Yet, curiously enough,
the name of Graves is only used on labels to indicate the
            district's less important white wine.
 A list of good white Graves Châteaux should be headed
by Châteaux Olivier and Carbonnieux, both more famous
                 for white wine than red.


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