Accommodations and Modifications
Leveling the playing field
Accommodations: measures that allow a
student to complete the same assignment or test as other students, but with a change in the timing, formatting, setting, scheduling, response and/or presentation.
Modifications: an adjustment to an
assignment or a test that changes the standard or what the test or assignment is supposed to measure (e.g. student may complete work on part of a standard or complete a different, somehow altered assignment).
The INCLUDE Strategy
Identify environmental, curricular & instructional classroom demands; Note student learning strengths and needs; Check for potential areas of student success; Look for potential problem areas Use information gathered to brainstorm instructional adaptations; Decide which adaptations to implement; Evaluate student progress.
Identify Classroom Demands
Physical organization Classroom routines Classroom climate Behavior management (rules & rewards)
Teacher centered or peer mediated
Instructional materials Instructional methods
Presentation & student evaluation
Note Student Learning Strengths and Needs
Students learning profile
start with learning inventories, students IEP information, short interview with the student about what has worked in the past Basic skills, learning strategies (learning how to learn); survival skills (attendance, organization, interpersonal skills, etc.) Directly teach class rules, expectations, consequences, social skills (group or individual), access program through school councilor Attention capacities (diversify instruction)
Check Potential Areas of Student Success
Analyzing student strengths with respect to your instructional demands and determine in what ways students can be successful.
How can the student experience success in your classroom? Academically? Non-academically? Role in group work should emphasize student strengths (integrate various forms of assessment for information taught/learned)
Look for Potential Problem Areas
Review student’s learning needs within your instructional context (classroom, activities) and look for potential mismatches between your demands and student’s learning needs; Adjust class learning activities
accommodation or modification accommodation modification
Alter form of student evaluation
Adjust how you evaluate student work
Use Information to Brainstorm Adaptations
Identify ways to ways to eliminate or minimize mismatches between your instructional demands and student learning needs Use Bypass strategies: alternative ways of demonstrating mastery
Cannot be used with primary areas of instruction (e.g. spelling check on spelling test) Remediation should still be used in special education setting Should encourage student indepedance
Use Information to Brainstorm Adaptations continued
Adaptations in classroom teaching and organization
Intensive instruction on basic skills and learning strategies
Classroom space, grouping, materials and instruction, homework
Take a minute and list 3 learning strategies. How might all students benefit from instruction in learning strategies?
Decide Which Accommodation to Implement
Guidelines for selecting strategies to try: Adaptations should be age appropriate Select the easiest accommodation for you, as the teacher, to implement first Select adaptations that you agree with IEP should be adhered too, but it must be carefully integrated with your classroom culture and expectations Select adaptations that have proven to be effective (research based, student approved)
Evaluate Student Progress
Determine strategy effectiveness Check in with student Evaluate student work via:
grades, observations of student participation and student work, portfolio of student work, teacher parent and student ratings…is the adaptation resulting in the effect you were looking for?
Inclusive Classroom Organization
Physical organization Routines for Classroom Business Classroom Rules Monitoring Use of time (instructional time; transition time) Classroom Climate
Cooperative or communicative, teacher attitudes, friendly or unfriendly? Take a minute and brain storm actions you can take to develop a “respectful yet friendly atmosphere” in your classroom.
Adapting Instructional Materials
Is the text written at a level that the student can read fluently? Does the text highlight critical vocabulary? Are chapter questions posed clearly? Does the text provide clear examples, explanation and steps for problem solving? Does the text incorporate real life problems, or connect information to student’s experiences?
Adapting Materials Continued
Text books continued
How are ideas presented? Does the text stress “big ideas” or facts in isolation? Does the text support student comprehension? Organization of headings and subheadings Consistency of organization in discussion of similar topics Are their clear structural signals
important background knowledge activated? Is the book well written and clear? Are there clear, supporting graphics?
Manipulatives and Models
Manipulatives: concrete objects or representational items used as part of instruction (e.g. dice for teaching probability; historical artifacts to introduce an era or time period) Models: tangible objects that provide a physical representation of an abstraction (e.g. model of the solar system; using a slinky for demonstrating light waves)