Chemistry by jizhen1947


									AP Biology                          Unit 8: Plants
                     Campbell Chapters 10,29,30,35,36= In class
                                      37-39= Read on your Own

                Learning Objective                              Activities                        HW
             Intro to Plants; Classification   Plant Game                                 Bring in a flower
             Plant Anatomy (Ch. 35)            Dissection of plant/flower
             Photosynthesis                    Chromatography Lab

                                               Intro to Lab 9                                    Pre-lab

             Plant Transport (ch. 36)          Lab 9

             Plant Reproduction (ch. 38)       Quiz 8.1

             Plant Nutrition (ch. 37)

             Plant Control Systems (ch. 39)    Quiz 8.2


                                               UNIT 8 EXAM

         #                   Assignment                                        Points possible
         3      Photosynthesis pre-lab                                               25
         4      Essay Practice #1                                                    20
         5      Lab 9 Pre-lab                                                        45
         6      Essay Practice #2                                                    20
         7      CHP 39 flashcards                                                    30

                 Assessment                                         Points possible              Points earned
     Quiz 8.1                                                                40
     Quiz 8.2                                                                40
     Unit 8 Exam                                                             200
  AP Biology Outline for Plants
Plant Reproduction & Development
 1.    Alternation of Generations in moss, fern, pine,
   and flowering plants
     a.    Spore & gamete formation

      b.   fertilization & sporophyte formation

 2.    Seed structure & germination

 3.    Growth & Development: Hormonal control

Structure & Function in Plants with emphasis
on Angiosperms
 1.    Root, stem, leaf, flower, seed, and fruit

 2.    Water and Mineral absorption & transport

 3.    Translocation & storage

 4.    Tropism & photoperiodicity
         Plant Unit: Big Ideas
Ch. 29: Plant Diversity
        -evolutionary tree p. 549
        -alternation of generations
        -plant parts (vocab.)

Ch. 30: Seed Plants
        -seed = embryo + food supply
        -diff. Btwn seeds + spores
        -fruit = mature ovary (seedless fruit?)
        -life cycles of gymnosperms (p. 566) vs. angiosperms (p. 569)
        -flower parts + functions (vocab)

Ch. 35: Plant structure
        -diff. Types of cells/ tissues (p. 679)
        -roots/stems/leaves & structures
        -monocots v. dicots

Ch. 36: Transport
        1. Lateral Transport (from outside of plant into root into xylem)
              a. Apoplastic v. symplastic
              b. “filters”
        2. “Vertical” transport
              a. xylem: water up
                        i. osmosis
                       ii. capillary action
                      iii. transpiration

               b. phloem: sucrose down
                       i. load sucrose from (laef) cells into phloem tube
                      ii. water goers in by osmosis, pressure forces food down
                     iii. “unloading”: active transport removes food into sink
                     iv. osmosis makes water leave xylem, allows more to come down

Ch. 37: Plant Nutrition
        Make flashcards to memorize macronutrients & micronutrients

Ch. 39: Control of Growth, etc.
    Know the hormones & their effects!!!

            Summary: Plant Life Cycles
                        Moss               Fern           Pine
                    (fig. 29.7)        (fig. 29.11)   (fig. 30.4)
                                                                    (fig. 30.8)




  location &

                      AP Essay Practice: Plants
1) In the life cycles of a fern and a flowering plant, compare and contrast each of the following:
       a. The gametophyte generation
       b. Sperm transport and fertilization
         c. Embryo protection

2) Describe the effects of plant hormones on plant growth and development.
  Design an experiment to demonstrate the effect of one of these plant hormones on plant growth and development.

3) Trace the pathway in a flowering plant as the water moves from the soil through the tissues of the root, stem, and leaves to
  the atmosphere. Explain the mechanisms involved in conducting water through these tissues.

4) Discuss the adaptations that have enabled flowering plants to overcome the
following problems associated with life on land.
    a) The absence of an aquatic environment for reproduction.
    b) The absence of an aquatic environment to support the plant body
    c) Dehydration of the plant

5) Regulatory (control) mechanisms in organisms are necessary for survival. Explain how each
        of the following is regulated:
        a) flowering in plants
        b) water balance in plants

6) Seeds that are randomly positioned when planted in a pot of soil placed on a window sill produce seedlings with downward
    growing roots and upward growing shoots. Above ground, the shoots are oriented toward light. Describe the physiological
    mechanisms that occur to produce:
     a) the downward growth of the roots
     b) the upward growth of the shoots
        c) the bending of the shoots toward the light
     Multiple Choice Practice: Plants
1.   Companion cells
        a. Are always there when you need them           6. Which of the following contributes most to the
        b. Are parenchyma that have developed               movement of water through the xylem?
           closely together, knowing each other                a. Capillary action
           since kindergarten                                  b. Carbohydrate utilization in cells that
        c. Keep lonely cells company                                act as sinks
        d. Collenchyma that share all their secrets            c. Plasmodesmata in sieve plants
           with each other                                     d. Root pressure
        e. Cells connected to sieve-tube cells                 e. Transpiration
           connected by many plasmodesmata
           and whose nucleus and ribosomes may           7.   During the middle of the night, a flowering
           serve sieve-tube members                           plant was exposed to a sequence of red and
                                                              “far-red” light in the following order: red, far-
2.   Which of the following is dead at functional             red, red. All of the following are true EXCEPT:
     maturity (when it is actually functioning)?                   a. The active form of phytochrome is Pfar
        a. Companion cells                                            red
        b. Guard cells                                            b. High levels of Pfr would exist at the end
        c. Palisade mesophyll                                        of the sequence
        d. Sieve-tube members                                     c. Low levels of Pr would exist at the end
        e. Vessel elements (member)                                  of the sequence
                                                                  d. In short-day plants, flowering would be
3.   Most growth takes place in terminal roots and                   induced
     shoots in                                                    e. In day-neutral plants, flowering would
         a. The zone of cell division                                not be affected
         b. The zone of elongation
         c. The zone of maturation                       8. When stomata are open in C3 plants, one would
         d. Meristematic cells                              likely find
         e. Vascular cambium                                     a. It is night
                                                                 b. The guard cells are relaxed
4.   A plant with a fibrous root system, leaves with             c. The environment is excessively hot and
     parallel venation, and a seed with a single                      dry
     cotyledon is probably a                                     d. A low concentration of K+ in the guard
         a. Corn plant                                                cells
         b. Fern                                                 e. Low CO2 levels in the leaf
         c. Fir tree
         d. Pine tree                                    9.   All of the following are found in both roots and
         e. Pea plant                                         stems EXCEPT:
                                                                   a. Casparian strip
5.   All of the following are true about the vascular              b. Primary phloem
     cambium EXCEPT:                                               c. Primary xylem
          a. It increases the girth (width) of plants.             d. Secondary xylem
          b. It produces secondary xylem.                          e. Vascular cambium
          c. It produces bark in woody plants.
          d. It produces secondary phloem.               10. Ripening of fruit is promoted by
          e. It occurs in the stem and in the root.              a. Abscisic acid
        b.   Cytokinins                                 17. This hormone prevents seeds from germinating
        c.   Ethylene                                       prematurely.
        d.   Gibberellins                               18. This hormone is known to induce growth in
        e.   Indoleacetic acid                              dormant seeds, buds, and flowers.

11. All of the following occur in a phototropic
    response EXCEPT:
         a. Shoots bend toward light                    19. A vine is observed to wrap around a tree as it
         b. Auxin is produced at the shoot tip and          grows in the forest. This is an example of
              diffuses down the stem.                            a. Gravitropism
         c. Auxin accumulates on the shady side                  b. Phototropism
              of the shoot.                                      c. Thigmotropism
         d. Auxin transport is unidirectional.                   d. Photoperiodism
         e. The movement of auxin down a stem is                 e. Photoaxis
              by active transport.

                                                        20. The portion of the root that is responsible for
12. Which of the following was an evolutionary              what we see as growth is:
    adaptation vital to the survival of the                     a. Zone of cell division
    bryophytes?                                                 b. Vascular cylinder
        a. The switch from the gametophyte to                   c. Zone of elongation
            the sporophyte as the dominant                      d. Endodermis
            generation of the life cycle.                       e. Zone of maturation
        b. The development of branched
            sporophytes.                                21. In plants, male gametes are produced by the
        c. The birth of pollination                              a. Ovary
        d. The packaging of gametes into                         b. Pistil
            gametangia                                           c. Antheridium
        e. Evolution of the seed                                 d. Archegonium
                                                                 e. Sporophyte
13. Which of the following is NOT associated with
            flowers?                                    For the next three questions please use the following
       a. Carpel                                        answers.
       b. Stigma                                             A. Sieve-tube elements (members)
       c. Style                                              B. Vessel elements (members)
       d. Hypha                                              C. Tracheids
       e. Anther                                             D. Guard cells
                                                             E. Collenchyma cells
14. Which of the following is NOT a time when           22. These cells are responsible for controlling the
    most stomata tend to be open?                            opening and closing of the stomata.
       a. When CO2 concentrations are low               23. These cells are the more efficient of the two
            inside the leaf                                  types of xylem cells.
       b. When temperatures are low                     24. These cells are live cells that function as
       c. When the concentration of water                    structural support for a plant.
            inside the plant is low
       d. During the day                                25. The unequal growth of the stem of a plant in
       e. On a cold rainy day                               which the side in the shade grows faster than
                                                            the side in the sun is an example of
For the next four questions, please use the following           a. Gravitropism
answer choices                                                  b. Phototropism
     A. Abscisic acid                                           c. Thigmotropism
     B. Auxin                                                   d. Photoperiodism
     C. Cytokinins                                              e. Photaxis
     D. Ethylene
     E. Gibberellins                                    26. The function of the endosperm in angiosperms
15. This hormone is used by supermarkets for its            is to provide
     “fountain of youth” effect of making the                    a. Nourishment for the pollen
     produce remain fresh.                                       b. Nourishment for the developing
16. This hormone initiates fruit ripening and works                  embryo
     hard during the autumn months.                              c. Material for fruit development
        d. Material for fruit development                   following would NOT normally function as a
        e. A reward for animal pollinators                  sink?
                                                                 a. Growing leaf
                                                                 b. Growing root
27. Angiosperms differ from all other plants                     c. Storage organ in summer
    because                                                      d. Mature leaf
        a. They produce a pollen tube                            e. Shoot tip
        b. They produce wind-dispersed pollen
        c. The sporophyte generation is                 33. All of the following characteristics helped
            dominant                                        nonseed plants evolve to be adapted to land
        d. They use animals to disperse their               EXCEPT:
            seeds                                                a. a dominant gametophyte
        e. They produce fruits.                                  b. vascular tissue
                                                                 c. a waxy cuticle
28. Which of the following is TRUE about                         d. stomata
    secondary growth in plants?
        a. Flowers may have secondary growth            34. In the life cycles of all plants, there is an
        b. A rapid change from a vegetative state           alternation of generations. This means that
            to a reproductive state                              a. Haploid sporophytes make
        c. Secondary growth is produced by both                  Haploid spores
            the vascular cambium and the cork                    b. gametophytes produce spores that
            cambium.                                                  develop into gametes
        d. Primary growth and secondary growth                   c. sporophytes and gametophytes are
            alternate in the life cycle of a plant.                   typically similar in appearance
        e. Plants with secondary growth are                      d. meiosis in sporophytes produces
            typically the smallest                                    haploid spores
                                                                 e. in plants, either the gametophyte or
29. Which kinds of adaptations contributed to                         the sporophyte is unicellular
    plants’ ability to colonize land?
        a. Structural                                   35. You are studying a plant from the arid
        b. Chemical                                         southwestern United States. Which of the
        c. Reproductive                                     following adaptations is LEAST likely to have
        d. All of the above                                 evolved in response to water shortages?
        e. None of the above                                     a. Closing the stomata during the hottest
                                                                    time of the day
30. Danger of dessication and the need for gas                   b. Development of large leaf surfaces to
    exchange are two conflicting problems that                      absorb water
    were partially solved through the evolution of               c. Formation of a fibrous root system
        a. Phloem                                                   spread over a large area
        b. Stomates                                              d. Mycorrhizae associated with the root
        c. Cuticle                                                  system
        d. Only B and C are correct                              e. A thick waxy cuticle on the epidermis
        e. A, B, and C are correct
                                                        36. A youngster such as yourself drives a nail into a
31. Which of the following is NOT a fundamental             tree that is 3 meters tall. The nail is 1.5 meters
    difference between monocot and dicot                    from the ground. Fifteen years later, she
    morphology and anatomy? Monocots have                   returns and discovers the tree has grown to a
    ________, while dicots have _________.                  height of 30 meters. The nail is now ______
         a. One cotyledon; two cotyledons                   meters from the ground.
         b. Parallel veins, netted veins                        a. 0.5
         c. Fibrous roots; taproots                             b. 1.5
         d. Vascular bundles in a ring; vascular                c. 3.0
             bundles scattered throughout the                   d. 15.0
             stem                                               e. cannot be predicted
         e. Flower parts in 4’s and 5’s; flower parts
             in multiples of 3.                         37. Plant growth and development depends
                                                            primarily on these three main components:
32. Phloem transport of sucrose can be described a              a. Nitrogen, carbon & oxygen
    going from “source to sink.” Which of the                   b. Potassium, carbon & oxygen
                                                                c. Oxygen, carbon & hydrogen
       d. Phosphorous, nitrogen, oxygen           b. Water neutralizes the pH of the soil
                                                  c. The roots cannot get air
                                                  d. Water will attract parasites
38. Overwatering a plant will kill it. Why?
       a. Water does not have all the necessary
           minerals for plants to grow

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