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Grammar Review_ Parallelism

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					Grammar Review: Parallelism
       Monday, Nov. 28th
           What is Parallelism?
• When two or more equal ideas are expressed
  in matching form
  – Helps words flow smoothly and clearly


• Without parallelism sentences are awkward
  and difficult to read
        Parallel Structure Explained
• For a list of actions or items, you must maintain
  parallel structure
• To do this, use equal grammatical units
    At the garden store, Lisa bought        ,          , and         .

    At the garden store, Lisa bought plastic pink flamingos, ceramic gnomes, and
    a concrete mermaid.


• If the first item is a noun, then the following
  items must also be nouns
• If the first item is a verb, then make the other
  items verbs as well
                Parallel Structure
• Parallelism looks like this:
   Shane    ,        , and       .



   Shane    ,        , and       .


  Shane ate the pizza, wiped his lips, and
  burped with contentment.
                   ate = past tense verb
                 wiped = past tense verb
                 burped = past tense verb
            Nonparallel Structure
 You make problems when you mix different tenses
•Nonparallel structure looks like this:
    Shane    ,         , and       .


    Shane    ,         , and       .



Ex: Shane ate the pizza, wiped his lips, and burping
with contentment.
                    ate = past tense verb
                   wiped = past tense verb
                 burping = present participle
             Correcting Nonparallel Items
• You have two options to fix nonparallel items
   1. Make the nonparallel item conform to the other
      grammatical items in the sentence:        icip
                                                    le phr
                                                           ase
                                                          Part
  Parti
       c
        We spent the hour in the waiting room reading old magazines,
 phra iple
      se
        eating stale cookies from the vending machine, and we wiggled
                                                                      e
                                                            in c laus
        on the plastic chairs.                         A ma




        Corrected: We spent the hour in the waiting room reading
        old magazines, eating stale cookies from the vending
        machine, and wiggling on the plastic chairs.
   2. Or, alter the first two items instead:
      In the waiting room, we read old magazines, ate stale cookies
      from the vending machine, and wiggled on the plastic chairs.

   Another example…

Nonparallel: My aunt is selfish, impatient, and she is not a
             kind person.

     To be parallel, she is not a kind person should have a
           form that matches selfish and impatient.

Parallel: My aunt is selfish, impatient, and unkind.
Not Parallel: Every morning I have to feed the dog and
              bringing in the mail.
In order for the sentence to be parallel, both feed the dog and bringing in the mail
                                       must be in the same form.
Parallel: Every morning I have to feed the dog and bring in
              the mail.

Not Parallel: Our neighbors spend a lot of time shopping,
              visiting friends, and they go to the movies.
The sentence lists a series of activities. Shopping and visiting both end in –ing. To
                   be parallel, they go to the movies must be revised to include an
                                                –ing word.

    Parallel: Our neighbors spend a lot of time shopping,
                  visiting friends, and going to the movies.
             Recognize Special Cases
• Not only … but also, either … or, and neither … nor all
  require special attention when you are proofreading for
  parallelism
• These conjunctions require equal grammatical units after
  both parts of the conjunction
• Options for correcting include:
   – Using two main clauses
     Not only did Jerome buy flowers for his mother, but he also purchased a
     bouquet for Yolanda, his wife.
   – Using two prepositional phrases
     Jerome bought flowers not only for his mother but also for Yolanda, his wife.
   – Using two nouns
     Jerome bought flowers for not only his mother but also Yolanda, his wife.
                            Practice
Select the sentence that is correct.
a.During class, Sam spent his time flirting with Brittney, eating candy,
and doodling on the assignment sheet.
b.During class, Sam spent his time flirting with Brittney, he ate candy,
and doodling on the assignment sheet.
c.During class, Sam spent his time to flirt with Brittney, to eat candy,
and doodling on the assignment sheet.
Select the letter which completes the sentence correctly.
Kimberly won’t date Terry because he is too short, too noisy, and
_________________.
a.because he picks his teeth with his fingers
b.too impolite
c.is the most impatient man she has ever met
d.picking his teeth with his fingers
            Independent Practice
• Complete Test 4 page 181

    Select the sentence that uses parallelism correctly.
1. a. Mowing the lawn and to weed the garden are two
       chores I must complete on Saturday.
   b. To mow the lawn and weeding the garden are two
       chores I must complete on Saturday.
   c. Mowing the lawn and weeding the garden are two
       chores I must complete on Saturday.
                 Homework
• Complete the packet for Tuesday
• English III – IR Test tomorrow; Also bring your
  yellow textbook to class tomorrow
• AP – Complete packet for Wednesday; Bring
  your Language Comp book tomorrow

				
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