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What Do Faculty Think of Electronic Resources.ppt - The Scholarly

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					What Do Faculty Think of Electronic Resources?
               Findings from the
     2003 Academic Research Resources Study


              CNI Task Force Meeting
               Alexandria, Virginia
                  April 16, 2004

                  Kevin Guthrie
                Roger C. Schonfeld
                      Ithaka
               The Intended “Audience”

• Faculty only – This was not a survey of graduate students
  or undergraduate students.

• US only – We were unable to include faculty from other
  countries.

• Colleges and universities that grant the Bachelor’s Degree
  or higher – We did not include community colleges.
                     The Recipients

• 44,060 professors at U.S. colleges and universities were
  selected at random and sent a questionnaire.

• Surveys were mailed on September 29, 2003, with
  covering letter.

• Cut-off date November 12, 2003.

• Total of 7,403 completed surveys received

• Overall response rate of 16.8%
              Interpretation of the Findings

• The technological environment is changing rapidly. We need to
  collect and analyze data on current and emerging trends very
  rapidly.

• We have hired a firm that does business market research. The
  technique it uses involves asking similar questions in multiple
  ways, allowing for a sort of “triangulation” of current views. By
  comparing the answers to similar questions, evidence of
  consistency emerges that enhances the confidence we have in
  findings even at low response rates.

• Although we recognize that the findings presented here are not
  statistically significant by academic standards, the results we
  show are broadly consistent across multiple questions. We
  believe they have considerable value as inputs into strategic
  planning for librarians, information technologists, and
  others interested in scholarly communications.
Findings from 2000
                For the Vast Majority, Electronic
                Databases are Already Invaluable

How well does the following statement describe your point
of view?
“Electronic research resources, such as computer databases
of academic journals, are an invaluable research tool.”

  • Not well: 5%
  • Somewhat: 22%
  • Very Well: 73%
          Faculty Value Three Library Functions
                          Highly – by discipline

“How important is it to you that your library provides each of
the following functions?”
Percent rating each function as ‘very important’

                 All      Econ.        Math.        Hum.
 Gateway        65%       48%          56%          80%
 Archive         77        72           74           84
 Buyer           80        77           83           83
           But They Expect Libraries to Become
                  Less Important in these Areas


“Thinking about 5 years from now, how important will it be
that your library provides each function?”


  Today                               5 Years from Today
  • Gateway: 65%                            56%
  • Archive: 77%                            68%
  • Buyer: 80%                              76%
                      Electronic Archiving is a Very
                                 Important Concern

How well does the following statement describe your point of view?
“With more and more journals becoming available
electronically, it is crucial that libraries, publishers, or
electronic databases archive, catalog, and protect these
electronic journals.”

            All             Econ.         Math.         Hum.
 Very well 76%              73%           76%           71%
 Somewhat 21                 22            19            22
 Not well    3                4             3             5
                                    Conclusions


• Electronic resources are important to faculty.
• Humanists depend more on the library for
  access than social scientists.
• Library access role is expected to diminish.
• Electronic archiving is important to all.

Closing Question for Further Reflection:
Are the majority of library resources going toward
  disciplines that “value” the library’s access role
  the least?
General Trends
     Finding articles locally is becoming more difficult

“A substantial problem for me is that journal articles that I need are sometimes not available
       at my university or in my locale and I have to get them from another source”
        Faculty want tools to help them find information
“The process of locating information in academic journal literature is tedious and often hit-or-miss,
and the act of physically searching through hard-copy collections is much too time-consuming and
onerous. I would welcome access to new tools that improve my ability to locate and access journal
                                            literature.”
And dependence on them is expected to increase

“I will become increasingly dependent on electronic research resources in the future.”
Electronic resources have gained in importance

     “Electronic research resources are invaluable research tools”
                         Findings

• Use of electronic resources, and dependence on them, has
  increased since 2000.

• Notwithstanding the major progress in providing access
  electronically that has been achieved in the past three
  years, more faculty report having trouble finding the
  articles they need.

• Faculty want help, including new tools and resources, to
  make their research more effective and efficient.
Disciplinary Variations
            Starting Point for Research
Below are four possible starting points for academic research.
Typically, when you are conducting academic research, which of
these four starting points do you use to begin locating
information for your research?

• The library building
• A general-purpose search engine on the Internet or World Wide Web,
  such as Yahoo or Google
• Your online library catalog
• A specific electronic research resource or computer database
Starting Point for Research: Disciplinary Groupings
Starting Point for Research: Specific Disciplines
Different expectations for future dependence on e-resources
“I will become increasingly dependent on electronic research resources in the future.”
Cancellation of print versions would be tolerated differently
  “If my library cancelled the current issues of a print version of a journal but
 continued to make them available electronically, that would be fine with me.”
  Preference for using the computer for research
“I often find using the library to be difficult and time-consuming - I’d much rather
        get the information I need from a computer in my office or home.”
                         Replacement of hardcopies…
“Assuming that electronic collections of journals are proven to work well and are readily accessible,
    I would be happy to see hard-copy collections discarded and replaced entirely by electronic
                                   collections.” (Well or Very Well)
            Importance of Maintaining Hard Copies
       “Regardless of How Reliable and Safe Electronic Collections of Journals May Be,
It Will Always Be Crucial for Some Libraries to Maintain Hard-Copy Collections of Journals.”
   Individual disciplines whose faculty most use CMSes
 “Blackboard and WebCT are two examples of commercial course management programs, which
some academic institutions license for a fee, that offer an array of web-based tools and services
  that help you manage the courses that you teach. To what extent would you say that you use
these commercial course management programs?” Percent responding sometimes or frequently.
                  Value of Library Functions

“How important is it to you that your library provides
  each of the following functions?”

• The library is a starting point or “gateway” for locating
  information for my research.

• The library pays for resources I need, from academic journals to
  books to electronic databases.

• The library is a repository of resources – in other words, it
  archives, preserves, and keeps track of resources.
The Library Is Valued Differently, by Discipline Grouping
  “How important is it to you that your library provides each of the following functions?”
                     Percent rating each function as ‘very important’
                                  Humanists
“How important is it to you that your library provides each of the following functions?”
                   Percent rating each function as ‘very important’
                              Mathematicians
“How important is it to you that your library provides each of the following functions?”
                   Percent rating each function as ‘very important’
                                  Economists
“How important is it to you that your library provides each of the following functions?”
                   Percent rating each function as ‘very important’
                                    Gateway
“How important is it to you that your library provides each of the following functions?”
                   Percent rating each function as ‘very important’
                                     Archive
“How important is it to you that your library provides each of the following functions?”
                   Percent rating each function as ‘very important’
                                      Buyer
“How important is it to you that your library provides each of the following functions?”
                   Percent rating each function as ‘very important’
            The Importance of Electronic Archiving
“With more and more journals becoming available electronically, it is crucial that libraries,
publishers, or electronic databases archive, catalog, and protect these electronic journals.”
                            Findings
• Notable disciplinary variations exist, with humanities faculty
  reporting different attitudes and preferences from other faculty.

• Biological scientists are more concerned than might be expected
  that paper backfiles be retained, perhaps largely because of their
  dependence on images. How will their needs be met in the new
  environment?

• The data seems to suggest an increasing reliance on and
  enthusiasm for e-resources in fields like economics and
  business/finance. Studying changes in the information needs and
  research behavior of economists in the past three years might
  offer predictive insights for other fields that expect e-resources
  to become more important in the future.

• These disciplinary comparisons may suggest implications
  for how libraries should serve faculty on their campuses.
Archiving
   Faculty Are Not Yet Ready to Part with Paper Backfiles
“Assuming that electronic collections of journals are proven to work well and are readily accessible,
    I would be happy to see hard-copy collections discarded and replaced entirely by electronic
                                             collections.”
                       Archiving:


“Preserving and protecting access to a collection of scholarly
literature in perpetuity, without regard for how frequently or
         infrequently these materials are being read.”
The Importance of Archiving Is Widely Recognized…
                         …Across Institutional Sizes




•Note: Current Market Only
                     …And Across Disciplines:
    Disciplines in Which Less than 80% Rate It Very Important



•   Math / Statistics : 78%
•   Political Science:   78%
•   Sociology:           76%
•   Theater / Drama : 76%
•   Law :                75%
•   Business / Finance : 74%
•   Economics :          73%
    Electronic Archiving Is Growing in Importance: I
 “With more and more journals becoming available electronically, it is crucial that libraries,
publishers, or electronic databases archive, catalog, and protect these electronic journals.”
Electronic Archiving Is Growing in Importance: II
      Importance of Long-Term Preservation of Electronic Journals
…Leading Most to Want Both Versions Archived
          Version Of Journal That Must Be Archived
More Than Half Of Faculty Feel That Print Versions Of
          Current Issues Are Expendable
    “If my library cancelled the current issues of a print version of a journal but
   continued to make them available electronically, that would be fine with me.”
      Uncertainty about Current Preservation Practices
Satisfaction With The Way Electronic Journals Are Being Preserved For The Long Term
So, E-Archiving Doesn’t Drive Publishing Choices
“How important is the archiving of electronic versions of journals in determining
                       where you publish your articles?”
                          Findings

• Archiving is strongly supported, in principle, by all faculty,
  and electronic archiving is a priority that is growing in
  importance.

• A majority of faculty are prepared for the cancellation of
  print current issues, yet a majority also would prefer to
  see both the print and electronic versions archived – two
  findings that are incompatible.

• Current practices for electronic archiving are poorly
  understood by faculty and do not drive publication
  choices. Electronic archiving is complicated and the
  problem is not well-defined in their minds.
   Shelf Space /
Paper Repositories?
              Paper Repositories Are Clearly Desired
“Regardless of How Reliable and Safe Electronic Collections of Journals May Be, It Will
 Always Be Crucial for Some Libraries to Maintain Hard-Copy Collections of Journals”
         But Local Solutions May Be Needed as Well
“Regardless of How Reliable and Safe Electronic Collections of Journals May Be, It Will
   Always Be Crucial for My Library to Maintain Hard-Copy Collections of Journals”
           Retaining Hard-Copies Is Somewhat More Important
                   among Faculty at Larger Institutions
 Regardless of How Reliable and Safe Electronic Collections of Journals May Be, It Will Always Be
                Crucial that Hard-Copy Collections of Journals Be Maintained by …




•Note: Current Market Only (to exclude scientists)
  And More Valued by Faculty in the Humanities and Area Studies
Regardless of How Reliable and Safe Electronic Collections of Journals May Be, It Will Always Be
               Crucial that Hard-Copy Collections of Journals Be Maintained by …
                          Findings

• There is broad support for the concept of paper
  repositories, at minimum, in the archiving system.

• By institutional size, there are some notable differences in
  which faculty prefer to retain local hardcopies, leading to
  some suggestive possibilities for an eventual system of
  paper repositories.
Faculty Attitudes Toward Journals
            Important Journal Characteristics
How important to you is each of the following possible
  characteristics of an academic journal?

a) The journal makes its articles freely available on the Internet, so
   there is no cost to purchase or to read.
b) The journal permits scholars to publish articles for free, without
   paying page or article charges.
c) Measures have been taken to ensure the protection and
   safeguarding of the journal’s content for the long term.
d) The current issues of the journal are circulated widely, and are
   well read by scholars in your field.
e) The journal is highly selective; only a small percentage of
   submitted articles are published.
f) The journal is available to readers not only in developed
   nations, but also in developing nations.
     Preferences for Academic Journals
Characteristics that are “very important” to faculty in a journal
Wide Circulation and Reading…
Preservation Is Assured…
No Cost to Publish…
Available for Free…
Highly Selective…
Available in the Developing World…
                         Findings
• The three most important characteristics in an academic
  journal are wide circulation and reading; preservation;
  and no cost to publish.

• Scientists appear to value two characteristics less than
  other faculty: no cost to publish (perhaps because they
  often have grant funding available) and selectivity
  (perhaps because some scientists have begun to utilize
  open access resources like arXiv).

• Availability in the developing world is more important
  among area studies faculty than others, but, even
  among them, it does not rise as high in value as
  might have been expected.
Conclusions
                        Conclusions

• General trends are towards greater use of and
  dependency on electronic resources.

• The disciplinary comparisons indicate apparent differences
  in faculty attitudes toward and use of electronic resources.
  This has implications for how libraries should serve faculty
  on their campuses.

• All faculty value archiving, but the issue is complicated
  and the problem is not well-defined in their minds.
What Do Faculty Think of Electronic Resources?
               Findings from the
     2003 Academic Research Resources Study


              CNI Task Force Meeting
               Alexandria, Virginia
                  April 16, 2004

                  Kevin Guthrie
                Roger C. Schonfeld
                      Ithaka

				
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