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					                                 Department Professional Journal 2012
                            School-Based Management (SBM):
                  Meaning and Implications to Quezon National High School
                              CARLO M PACINOS, MAED
                               SST III English Department


       Management is lexically defined as noun; it is the act, manner, or practice of managing;
handling, supervision, or control.

       Giving meaning or defining very broad terms as school and management unrest the
networks of scholars including its community scholars. Today more and more theoretical and
experimental studies are being made to further school’s management.

       The Philippine educational system itself may be considered a complexity. It is just
enough reason why the Department of Education and school authorities have to relearn school
management every now and then. Thus, to significantly reflect and to discuss some implications
of School Based Management (SBM) to Quezon National High school.

         The Local Government Code of 1991 can be a dramatic development if our local
government executives (LGE) and its units (LGU) demonstrate sincerity of purpose and improve
in their capacity the manner of managing schools.

       Former Secretary of Education Dr. Isidro Carino stated that good school management can
be defined in four ways: 1. Good management is doing things right, 2. Good management is
planning, leading, organizing, and controlling, 3. Good management is multiplying oneself
through others, planning of projects, effectively allocating scarce resources as resources refer to
people, materials, equipment and time, and 4. Good management is synonymous to deciding,
operating, planning, controlling, organizing, ruling [sic], leading, motivating and accomplishing

        Explicitly Dr. Carino (2001) explains that things must be done right using a system,
which is directed and followed to achieve goals. Good management like School Based
Management (SBM) that we practice today does not need a trial-and-error instead a certain target
for intended results. With a very close relationship to a process, it is in SBM that one has to lay
down careful plan. To take the lead entails planning and so is organizing as what the QNHS are

        School-based management (SBM) is the decentralization of levels of authority to the
school level. Responsibility and decision-making over school operations is transferred to
principals, teachers, parents, sometimes students, and other school community members. The
school-level actors, however, have to conform to, or operate, within a set of centrally determined

                                                             Quezon National High School   1
                                 Department Professional Journal 2012
        In school, community scholars including those internal (principal, administrative
staff,faculty, personnel as well as janitors , students, cooperative store managers and external
(Alumni, friends of QNHS, Parent Teacher Association, Local Government Units, private
citizens, community, barangay, and/or townfolks) and external factors as people, materials,
equipment, resources, etc. would find difficulty to lead, manage without a clear perspective of
plan as what are reflected in Annual Improvement Plan (AIP) and School improvement Plan
(SIP). These plans should be viewed comprehensively with the aid of collaborative minds by
careful planning for specific aims and target goals.

        Students as stakeholders are not the only role of students, but the student is used as a
determining factor for some aspects of education. The student determines the educational
services offers such as special education for those who are gifted and learning challenged. The
number and needs of students can be a determining factor for allocating resources. As a result of
their participation students gain the skills and knowledge needed to be productive and viable part
of our society. Students as stakeholders possess both intrinsic and extrinsic motivational factors.
The intrinsic motivation comes with understanding the value of an education. Extrinsic
motivations are the accolades students receive for successful completing their education.

        Therefore, putting all up together human workforce, material and immaterial resources
are essential to effectively and efficiently implement the objectives of SBM.

        Agee (1994) describes aforementioned stakeholders as those who analyze social,
economic, environmental, and political trends that may have impact on the entire school so that
future problems may be avoided or alleviated. Thus, in SBM shared governance among school’s
stakeholders is required to create and evaluate developments in the four domains: leadership and
governance, curriculum and learning, accountabilities, and management of resources.

        Agee views school principal as top authority who is responsible to forecast aspects of her
educational institution. She takes into consideration intellectual, emotional, physical, spiritual,
social and other influences that may have impact on her school. In a broader view, she looks into
the networks as extended partners for the improvement of her school.

       Cutlipet. al (1994) posited that SBM is both inclusive and exclusive in a school system.
Likewise he cited four-step problem solving process in SBM: 1. Defining the problem (or
opportunity), 2. Planning and programming, 3.Taking action and communicating (SBM’s
Monitoring), and 4.evaluating (SBM’s evaluation). Hence, AIP and SIP are simple as engineer’s
blueprint, a captain or a pilot’ navigator for his ship or his plane.


        One essential figure in a school management once poked during our casual sharing of
observations on the kind of manager the person is, “It is so lonely at the top!” To maintain
respect and delight with my lunch I just kept calm and said, “I think it was not the position that
makes you happy or lonely”. I certainly believe it is something on what you do or how you run
the system.

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                                Department Professional Journal 2012
         School-Based Management is a very complex process by nature that can be easily given
technical definitions nonetheless difficult to offer easy disposition, imposition and decision. A
lot of factors must be considered in the formulation and implementation of Annual Improvement
Plan (AIP) and School Improvement Plan (SIP). In Quezon National High School, all
stakeholders both internal and external should take part in carrying out the objectives of this
project/program. However, the principal as the manager of the school has to have the will-power,
guts and nerve to foresee the seemingly invisible, indestructible forces that control and/or
influences the development of the school in general.

        With all these factors, SBM is a dynamic as nature which needs indispensable studies by
higher school authorities together with the school linkages or partners for progress. The need to
collaborate in manning the school and its entire system calls due attention and action. While
internal contributing factors within the school have to be empowered with their rights and
privileges as well as those external factors to concretize the aims of Department of Education
through SBM. More so, the utmost beneficiary of such endeavor is the entirety of a school
system and those other schools by its examples.


Agee, Warren K. et. Al. 1994.Introduction to mass Communications, 11th ed. Philippines:
Goodwill Trading Co., Inc.

Cutlip, Scott M., Center, Allen H. & Broom, glen M. 1994.Effective Relations, 7th ed. Singapore:
Prentice Hall International Editions.,,contentMDK:2

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