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Sports Nutrition Enhancing Athletic Performance

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					Sports Nutrition: Hydration & Pre-competition Meals
Amy Boltz, RD, LDN

How Important is Adequate Hydration?
• One of the single most important nutrition practices to optimize performance • Adequate Fluid Intake
– – – – Improves Performance Lowers Perceived Exertion Lowers Heart Rate & Body Temperature Improves Running Speed

Effects of Dehydration
100% 100% 90% 80% 70% 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0% 79% 100%

Performance Level

52%

Optimal Hydration 2-4% Body Weight Loss

Strength Training

Aerobic Capacity

Type of Activity

Water Loss with Activity
• People often lose ~32-64 oz of fluid/hr (4-8 cups) with moderate exercise in a mild environment
– This equals 2-4 pounds of weight loss
– 3 pound weight loss = 2% in a 150 pound person

How will I know if I am becoming dehydrated?
• Warning Signs:
– – – – – – – Decreased stamina, speed, energy, muscle strength Headache Fatigue Confusion Nausea Muscle Cramps Dizziness

Preventing Dehydration
The best way to stay well hydrated for exercise is to drink • Before • During

• After

Remember! Drink regardless of whether you are thirsty or not!

What are My Fluid Needs?
• Fluid needs vary from person to person • No “one size fits all” fluid plan • Fluid losses are affected by:
– – – – – – Genetics Gender Body Weight Fitness Levels Climate (heat/humidity) Exercise Intensity

General Fluid Guidelines
2-3 Hours Before Exercise
Drink 16-24oz (2-3 cups) of fluid

30 Minutes Before Exercise
Drink 5-10oz (~½ - 1 cup) of fluid

Every 15 Minutes During
Drink 5-10oz (~½ - 1 cup) of fluid

After

Drink at least 20oz (2 ½ cups) for every pound of lost weight

>
Every 15 Minutes For each pound lost

Determining Personal Fluid Needs During Exercise
• Step 1: Determine Sweat Rate
– Equation for rate at which fluid is lost
• (Pre exercise wt – Post exercise wt) + wt of fluids consumed duration of activity

– Example
• • • • Pre-exercise wt = 150 lb Post-exercise wt = 146 lb Volume of fluid consumed during exercise = 16oz (1 lb) Exercise Duration = 2 hours

– Calculations:
• Fluid deficit = 150 lb-146 lb = 4 lb • Total Sweat loss = 4 lb (loss) + 1 lb (consumed) = 5 lb • Sweat rate = 5 lb/ 2 hrs = 2.5 lb per hour

Determining Personal Fluid Needs During Exercise (Cont.)
• Step 2: Develop Plan to Replace Fluid Losses
– Fluid needs = 16 oz (2 Cups) for each pound lost
• Example: – Sweat Rate = 2.5 lb per hour – 2.5 lb/hour X 16 oz/lb = 40 oz fluid per hour – 40 oz per hr / 4 = 10 oz every 15 minutes

Tips to Help Meet Fluid Needs
• Practice drinking during training sessions
– Your body adjusts to tolerate more fluids

• Drink small volumes frequently and start early
– Large volumes at once are not tolerated as well

• Drink before you are thirsty
– Thirst is not a good indicator of hydration status

• Palatable beverages increase consumption
– Flavored beverages – Cool beverages

• 1 gulp = ~1 oz

Can I Drink Too Much?
• Excessive fluid intake leads to Hyponatremia (low blood sodium levels) • Hyponatremia is rare, it most often occurs when:
– Exercise lasts more than 4 hours – Athletes consume more fluid than they lose – Low-sodium beverages are chosen
• This dilutes the blood/ doesn’t replace sodium losses in sweat

Signs and Symptoms of Hyponatremia
• Symptoms can be similar to dehydration
– Nausea, vomiting, extreme fatigue, dizziness, confusion, coma, seizures

• Symptoms unique to over hydration
– A headache that progressively gets worse – Swelling of hands and feet – Exercise core temperature is normal

Preventing Hyponatremia
• Fluid intake should match fluid losses
– Do not drink more fluids than you are losing – Weight gain indicates overdrinking

• Choose sports drinks that contain sodium • Do not restrict sodium in the diet
– Increase sodium intakes at meals when exercising in hot weather on continuous days

Why is Sodium Important?
• Sodium and chloride are the most abundant electrolytes in sweat.
– Repeated heavy sweating can lead to low levels – Some people are salty sweaters – Can cause muscle cramping & hyponatremia

• Replacing electrolytes
– Include adequate salt in diet
• i.e.- soups, table salt, foods with visible salts

– Salt tablets with 180 mg sodium with > 8 oz water

Which Beverage is Best?

Soda ?

Water ?

Iced Tea ?

Sports Drinks ?
100% Juice ? Milk ?

How to Choose a Beverage
• Sports drinks are best for intense exercise lasting > 1 hour. • Choosing a Sports drinks
– – – – 6-8% carbohydrate (14-19 gm carbohydrate/ 8 oz) Look for blend of sucrose, glucose & fructose Stay away from carbonated beverages Examples: Gatorade, Powerade, Accelerade

• Do not dilute sports drinks

Pre-Competition Meals
Goal: To provide adequate carbohydrate energy and optimal hydration

Eat to Compete
 It takes 1- 4 hours for food to leave your stomach

 High Carb foods are digested quickly
High Protein foods can increase water requirements Foods high in Fat can stay in your stomach for more than 4 hours

Best choice for pre-game meals is something high in Carbs - easy to digest and becomes quick energy !

Carbohydrates
• Stored as glycogen in the muscles
– Preferred/ Major source of energy – Broken down rapidly – Important in maximal exercise

• What happens when carbohydrate intakes are low:
– Decreased athletic performance – Muscle loss (protein used for energy) – Fatigue

Pre-Competition Meals
Time before exercise 1 hour 2 hours Grams of carbs needed per pound of weight 0.45 0.9 Your weight (pounds) # of carbs you need to eat before practice

3 hours
4 hours

1.4
1.8

X weight

= _____ .

You have 2 so… 0.9 hours times

140 lbs

126 gm carbs

Training Diet
Food 1/2 cup pasta Grams of Carb 20

1 slice of bread Large baked potato
Banana

13 30-50
27

1 Cup Apple Juice 1 Cup low-fat Yogurt
1 cup low-fat milk 1 cup of most beans

29 42
12 40-45

High Carbohydrate Breakfast Ideas
(Each Meal Has Over 100gm Carb) • Breakfast 1
– Bagel (bagel-shop size) – 1 Tbsp Jelly – 8 oz Orange Juice

• Breakfast 2
– 1 Cup Raisin Bran w/ 1 Cup Skim Milk – 1 Banana – 8 oz Apple Juice

• Breakfast 3
– 2 6” Pancakes w/ 2 Tbsp Syrup – 8 oz Skim Milk

High Carbohydrate Dinner/Lunch
Each Meal has more than 100 gm CHO • Sandwich:
– – – – Turkey Sandwich 8 oz Low-Fat Yogurt Pear 8oz Skim Milk

• Pasta:
– 1 ½ Cup Pasta w/ ½ Cup Sauce – ½ Cup Green Beans – 8 oz Skim Milk

• Pizza:
– 2 Slices of Thick Crust Pizza – 12 oz Juice

• Mexican:
– 1 Chicken and Bean Burrito – 1 Cup Mexican Rice – 8 oz Lemonade

Tips for Precompetition Meals
• Know your body
– People tolerate different amounts/types of foods

• Always eat familiar foods before competition
– Experiment when training not competing

• Liquid meals often tolerated closer to exercise
– Examples: Ensure, Boost, Slim Fast

Nutrition Needs During the Competition
• When exercise lasts > 1 hour, carbohydrate:
– Enables athletes to exercise longer – Improves running times

• Consume 30-60 gm carbohydrate per hour
– – – – – 24 oz sports drink 6-8% CHO = 42-57gm Banana = 30 gm 2 Gels = 50 gm Power bar = ~45 gm 30 Jelly Beans = 32 gm

So What Should I Do for Tomorrow?
• Marathon Starts: 7:00 am • Start the night before
– Large, high-carb dinner with lots of fluids – PM snack that is high in carbs with fluids

• Breakfast as tolerated
– – – – Ideal to eat by 5 am Tried-and-true foods High carb, low-moderate protein, low fat Drink Fluids

• During event
– Be sure to drink and consume carbs as tolerated, replace sodium

Contact Information
• Phone: (267) 339-3722 • E-mail: amy.boltz@rothmaninstitute.com • Websites:
– www.rothmaninstitute.com
• Presentation is available on our website • Click on the “Health and Wellness” link

– www.nutritionwithamy.com

Questions?


				
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