Sports Injury Prevention _download PowerPoint file_ - Injury Free

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					Sports Injury Prevention: It’s Not Whether You Win or Lose

Michael A. Gittelman, MD Assistant Professor, Division of Emergency Medicine Cincinnati Children’s Hospital Medical Center Cincinnati, Ohio


• Millions of children participate daily
in sports activities

• Children learn to improve:
– Physical fitness – Coordination – Team play

• There is a risk of injury just by

Problems with Surveillance

•Difficult to track injuries

•No standard method of reporting
– May report by

– All injuries don’t get reported – Best data from team physicians and trainers

• Body part injured • Amount of time a player missed practice or a game • Type of injury sustained

Magnitude of the Problem

• 3.5 million sports injuries for children
< 15 years of age treated in medical settings
– ¼ of all Emergency Department visits

• For children involved in organized sports
– 770,000 physician visits – 90,000 hospitalizations / year – 70-80% injuries are minor (< 1 wk of practice missed) – 60% occur during practice

Injury Mechanisms

• < 10 years of age

– Often injured during individual recreational activities – Usually within the first week of the activity – Examples = bike riding, roller skating, sledding – Greater weights, greater force = more severe collision – Usually occur during organized sporting events – Examples = Football, Wrestling, Basketball

• Pubertal child

Sports Causing Significant Injuries at High School & Intercollegiate Level

•Football •Wrestling •Gymnastics

Types of Injuries Acute vs. Chronic

• Both types usually involve muscle & bone • Acute
• Chronic / Overuse
– Result from a collision or sudden twist – Examples = Sprains/Strains, Contusions, Fractures – Repetitive, small injuries due to repeat motions – Increased today as children strive for excellence at younger ages – Examples = Pitching a baseball, Running cross country

Body Parts Injured May Vary By

•Sport Played
– Some sports emphasize different body parts – Lower extremity = soccer, basketball – Upper extremity = tennis, baseball

•Equipment Used
– Projectiles may cause ocular injury – Examples = baseball, tennis

Body Parts Injured May Vary By (Continued)
• Age •
– Younger children often injure upper extremity

– Older children usually injure lower extremity Sex – Some sports injure one sex differently than an another – Females tend to have more knee injuries in basketball than males – In general, shoulder more male, knee/ankle more female

Catastrophic Injuries

• Injuries that result in permanent,
severe neurologic disability Direct Catastrophic Injury
– Trauma from active participation in sport – Example = Football, Ice Hockey – Result from overexertion while playing a sport – Causes – Dehydration or sudden cardiac death

• Indirect

Preventing Sports Injuries

•Field / Equipment
• •

Changes Rule Changes / Coaching Individual Preparation

Field/Equipment Changes

• Add equipment as injuries become
– Examples
• Helmets & Face Masks in youth hockey • Chin protector in Little League Baseball

• Field modifications to prevent injuries
– Avoid potholes, grates, rocks near field – Change field as injuries seen
• Example = Anchoring soccer goals

Rule Changes/Coaching

• Rule changes to adjust for injury
– Example = “spearing” in football

• Officials must enforce the established • Coaches
– Teach the appropriate techniques – Encourage discipline in preparation (stretching, etc)


Individual Preparation Prior to Participation

• Learn about the game prior to signing
– Is this sport appropriate for your child? – Does your child wish to participate? – Who will be supervising practices/games?

• Purchase the recommended

• •

equipment Pre-participation physical exam Preseason conditioning

Individual Preparation At Participation

• Practice within your limits • Stay well-hydrated • Know and follow the rules of the game • If injured
– Seek medical attention prior to returning to play – Adequate rehabilitation is essential


• All sports pose a risk of injury • Research the interested sport prior to

• Know the rules, equipment needed, and
who will supervise / coach your child

• Seek a pre-participation physical exam • Have fun and play hard

• Widome MD, ed. American Academy of
Pediatric’s Committee on Injury and Poison Prevention. Sports safety. In: Injury Prevention and Control for Children and Youth, 3rded. 1997. American Academy of Pediatrics
participation. In: Sullivan JA, Anderson SJ, ed. Care of The Young Athlete. 2000. American Academy of Orthopedic Surgeons & American Academy of Pediatrics

• Rice SG. Risks of injury during sports

• •