Rationale of the Curriculum Framework by wuzhenguang


									   A Curriculum Framework of Teacher
 Development for ICT-Pedagogy Integration
                                 Miao Feng-chun

Target Audience
       Course providers for the Asia-Pacific region.
       Regional or sub-regional teacher educators/trainers in teacher training
       Master teachers to organize local training or school-based
        professional development activities.

Purpose of the Curriculum Framework
  The curriculum framework has been designed to specify a ICT-pedagogy
Integration teacher training syllabi based on the competency-based standards.
The syllabi is to outline a program for teacher course providers as a reference
and benchmark to select or design training courses/training modules to the
implement the specified ICT ICT-Pedagogy Integration curriculum.

Rationale of the Curriculum Framework
   ICT is a relatively well-structured learning domain, and ICT knowledge and
skills are mainly explicit concepts, so ICT units are suitable to act as anchors to
specify learning outcomes and direct learning process. While pedagogy is ill-
structured content domain and pedagogies are mainly tacit concepts which
require trainees to construct their own understanding based on their prior
knowledge and experiences. The best way to facilitate trainees to understand
emerging pedagogies is to embed them into projects or connect them to concrete
subject content or inter-disciplinary themes. And only by a way in which trainees
have opportunities to access the pedagogies in real-world context and revisit
them from different aspects in a crisscross way, could trainees get a cognitively-
flexible understanding and cohesive schema of the pedagogies. And only by this
way, could trainees get an active and practical pedagogy knowledge that can be
easily retrieved in real teaching context. In contrast, if teach pedagogy directly,
trainees could only memorize inert pedagogy knowledge that is difficult to be
retrieved to solve real teaching problems.
   So we adopt ICT units and real teaching projects as main clue to organize the
training modules and to frame the training program. Project-based training
methodologies will be used to showcase or direct trainees to inquiry, discuss the
educational potential and pedagogically-sound application of the ICT units. The
project-based training methodologies will be designed to embed inherent the
expected pedagogies, and showcase how the abstract pedagogies can be put in
practice and how they can be linked to complex teaching case.
  Project-based learning activities or WebQuest projects will be designed for
trainees who would like to get more systemic and deeper understanding of
certain emerging pedagogy, and general pedagogical knowledge (learning theory
background, general procedure, general teaching issues and effective coping
strategies) and reference reading materials will be provided or introduced.

Structure of the Curriculum
  The ICT-pedagogy integration curriculum is subdivided into five broad modules
that are showed and briefly described in Table 1.
Table 1 Five curriculum modules comprising the ICT-pedagogy integration curriculum
Module             Name of Module                                General Description
  A      Integrating ICT productivity tools         Designed for teachers to discover ICT
                                                     tools, their general functions and potential for
  B      Application of ICT in subjects/areas        Designed for teachers to understand and
         teaching - learning                         practice how to use ICT tools and relevant
                                                     resources in subject/area specific teaching
                                                     and thereby to facilitate learners’ subject/area
  C      Infusing ICT across the curriculum          Designed to aid understanding of how
                                                     and when to use ICT tools and appropriate
                                                     resources to achieve particular purposes, but
                                                     without being restricted to particular subjects.
  D      Specializing in the use of ICT to create    Designed for teachers who are exploring to
         innovative and open & flexible              transform their pedagogy from focusing on
         learning environments                       teacher-centered teaching to the design and
                                                     affordance of ICT-enhanced learner-centered,
                                                     and learner-regulated learning environment,
                                                     especially, the open and more flexible
                                                     learning environment that makes anytime,
                                                     anywhere, and self-paced learning possible.
  E      Effective pedagogical practices with       Designed to facilitate teachers to improve
         ICT                                        their knowledge and practical skills about the
                                                    emerging new pedagogies.
  The five curriculum modules and the units that comprise each module are
elaborated in Appendices A, B, C, D, and E respectively. The details for each unit
generally indicates broad and specific unit objectives, the context for teaching the
unit, content coverage, training coursed/modules available, training methodology
suggested, and resources required. The curriculum framework has been
designed with the great diversity of the circumstances of countries in Asia-Pacific
region in mind. The description is sufficiently detailed for coursed providers to be
able to develop texts and for teacher training institutions to select training
modules/courses of higher relevance to local circumstances and appropriate
Overall suggestion for Training Methodology
    .The training methodology must model the new pedagogies and the
     application of ICT resources for learning.
    Trainee-centered training approach should be adopted, in which, trainees’
     current pedagogy knowledge and their other characteristics should be kept
     in mind when designing training method, and trainees should be engaged
     into active thinking and hands-on activities, with trainers as facilitators and
    Trainers should choose or design learning opportunities and learning
     environment appropriate to the features of training contents and expected
     learning outcomes.
    Necessary resources affordance and appropriate cognitive scaffolding
     should be integrated into the training methodology.
                                     Table 2 A framework for Module A Integrating ICT Productivity Tools

                                                                                                                           Training Material
                        Objectives                                       Content               Training Methodology            Available

After the training of module A, trainees should be able to:    A1 Basic Concepts of ICT       • Flexible combination of   • Microsoft:
• Demonstrate expertise in basic computer operation            A2 Using the Computer and        vicarious learning (in      Integrating ICT
  and utilizing computer peripherals                            Managing Files                  which, learners observe     Skills into Teaching
•Demonstrate expertise in working with productivity            A3 Word Processing               and following trainers’     and Learning(for
                                                               A4 Working with a                operation) and enactive     grades 5-8); Using
  tools, such as word processing; working with a                Spreadsheet                     learning (in which,         MS Office XP for
  spreadsheet, a database, presentation and e-mail             A5 Working with a Database       learners engaged into       Learning Projects
•Apply productivity tools in learning context in authentic     A6 Composing Presentations       active thinking and         (for grades 6-12)
  environment: using spreadsheet to create class lists          with text and graphics          operation); self-study/   • Integrating ICT
  for assessment or using presentation software for            A7 Information &                 operation and               productivity tools in
  developing instructional lecture                              Communication                   cooperative learning or     learning practices
•Differentiate functional differences of various digital and   A8 Social and Ethical Issues     team work.                  developed by Dr.
  non-digital technologies to support teaching and             A9 Teachers’ Professional      • Project/problem-based       Majumdar
  learning                                                      Development and/with ICT        ICT application for
•Apply active, intentional and collaborative learning                                           teaching
  principles while designing learning and teaching                                            • Hands-on lesson plan or
  materials                                                                                     courseware design
•Develop positive attitudes of utilizing ICT for learning
•Demonstrate appropriate understanding about the
  related social and ethical issues, and using ICT in a
  legal and responsible way
                         Table 3 A framework for Module B Application of ICT in Subject/Ares Teaching – Learning

                                                                                             Training            Training Material Available
                       Objectives                                   Content
Based on the objectives of Module A, after the training       S1* ICT in             • Flexible combination     • Microsoft: Integrating ICT Skills
  of module B, trainees should be able to:                       Languages             of vicarious learning      into Teaching and Learning(for
•Understand the relationship between a range of ICT           S2* ICT in Natural       (in which, learners        grades 5-8); Using MS Office XP
   resources and the concepts, processes and skills in           Sciences              observe and                for Learning Projects (for grades
   their subject, and use their subject expertise to select   S3* ICT in               following trainers’        6-12)
   appropriate ICT resources (both subject-specific              Mathematics           operation and            • Integrating ICT productivity tools
   software and more generic resources) which will help       S4* ICT in Social        discuss showcase           in learning practices; Enhancing
   them meet the specific learning objectives                    Science               lesson plan or             teaching & Facilitating learning
• Be aware of the potential of ICT both in terms of their     S5* ICT in Art           courseware) and            using multi-modal instruction
  contribution to improve learners’ basic knowledge,          B1 Measurement           enactive learning (in      developed by Dr. Majumdar
  skills and concept , and to challenge learners’ thinking    B2 Modeling and          which, learners          • Intel: Intel® Teach to the Future
  and extending their learning in a subject                      Simulation            engaged into active        Program (2003)
• Know how to prepare and plan lessons where ICT is           B3 Robots and            thinking, ICT            • ISTE: Learning & leading with
  used in ways which will challenge pupils’                      Feedback              operation, and             Technology on Subject T-L,
  understanding and promote greater thinking and                 Devices               instructional design);     such as Learning & leading with
  reflection                                                  B4 Statistics            self-study/ operation      Technology on Mathematics:
• Demonstrate expertise in application of multimedia          B5 Creating Graphics     and cooperative            Making Math Success happen
  tools (such as authoring, animation, graphics, audio        B6 Music                 learning or team         • UNESCO Schoduler: Science,
  and video) to create appropriate subject/area learning      E1 Design and            work                       Math, and English as Second
  environment and in designing & developing subject              creation of         • Project/Problem –          Language teaching in
  specific multimedia based courseware/materials, when           courseware            based and hands-on         Secondary Schools.
  necessary.                                                                           activities, including    • BECTA:
• Demonstrate expertise in applying ICT properly (such                                 design and               • FiT-ED Web-based Learning
  as tutorials, drill and practice, simulation, games etc.)                            application of: e-       • Wordlinks: telecollaboration
  to implement the lesson plans, and use appropriate                                   lesson plans,            ——Need to be confirmed with
  ICT to manage the learning process, when necessary.                                  multimedia based           Cedric
• Apply ICT to plan assessment, develop items, and                                     courseware/material,
  administer both subject/area specific formative and                                  templates, rubrics or
  summative assessment; apply ICT to analyze                                           assessment
  assessment data and provide report.
•Demonstrate an understanding of the significance to
  ensure learner’s equitable and safe access to
• Demonstrate legal and ethical use of ICT and digital
Note: JFIT project will not develop training modules for S1-S5, while encouraging course providers and teacher training institutions to
develop relevant materials specified by the standard and the syllabi.
                                   Table 4 A framework for Module C Infusing ICT across the Curriculum

                                                                                                                      Training Material
                      Objectives                                        Content           Training Methodology            Available
Based on the objectives of Module A, after the training    T1 Four Pillars of Education   • Flexible combination of   • Intel: Intel® Teach
  of module B, trainees should be able to:                 T2 ESD                           vicarious learning (in      to the Future
•Understand the relationship between a range of ICT        T3 Life Skills                   which, learners             Program (2003)
   resources and the comprehensive concepts, open          T4 HIV/AIDS                      observe and following     • Facilitating learning
   processes in inter-disciplinary learning, be aware of   P1 (Pedagogical Module 1)        trainers’ operation and     using multi-modal
   the potential of ICT to challenge learners’ thinking                                     discuss showcase            instruction
   and support their inquiry, choose appropriate ICT                                        lesson plan or              developed by Dr.
   resources according to the projects’ needs                                               courseware) and             Majumdar
• Know how to prepare and plan inter-disciplinary ICT-                                      enactive learning (in     •Integrate UNESCO
  enhanced projects                                                                         which, learners             Four Pillars of
• Demonstrate expertise in application of a wide range                                      engaged into active         Education into
  of multimedia tools to create appropriate learning                                        thinking, ICT               Classrooms in the
  environment and in designing & developing                                                 operation, and              Information Age
  multimedia based courseware/materials.                                                    instructional design);      developed by
• Demonstrate expertise in applying ICT properly to                                         self-study/ operation
  scaffold learners’ learning process.                                                      and cooperative             Professor Zhu
• Apply ICT to plan and implement assessment                                                learning or team work       Zhi-Ting
  appropriate to inter-disciplinary learning                                              • Project/Problem –
•Recognize which kinds of class organization will be                                        based and hands-on
  most effective for the projects with ICT, and which                                       activities, including
  kinds ICT affordance will be most effective for the                                       design and application
  learning implementation                                                                   of: e-lesson plans,
                                                                                            multimedia based
                                                                                            templates, rubrics or
   Table 5 A framework for Module D Specializing in the use of ICT to create innovative and open & flexible learning environments

                                                                                                                     Training Material
                     Objectives                                      Content              Training Methodology           Available
Based on the objectives of Module C, after the training   SP1 Algorithm and Programming   • Jigsaw learning with     • Microsoft:
 of module D, trainees should be able to:                 SP2 Design, Creation and          vicarious learning (in     Developing basic
•Demonstrate expertise in web based learning                 maintenance of a Website       which, learners watch      applications using
 management systems and tools                             SP3 Design and Application of     and analyze showcase       VB Net
•Develop web based instructional software for                Web-based Interactive          lesson plan and/or       •Intel: Intel® Teach
 collaborative learning                                      Learning Environment           video) and enactive        to the Future
                                                                                            learning (in which,        Program (2003)
•Use ICT for project based, case based and learning                                         learners engaged into    • Integrating open &
 team centered instructions models                                                          active thinking and        flexible learning
•Manage effectively student directed learning                                               instructional design);     strategies in online
 discourses using ICT                                                                       self-study/ operation      education
•Explore global web resources and publish local                                             and cooperative            developed by Dr.
 knowledge                                                                                  learning or team work      Majumdar
•Promote autonomous learning by sharing                                                   • Project/Problem -        • FiT-ED Web-based
 responsibilities with students using ICT                                                   based courseware/          Learning
•Distinguish synchronous and asynchronous learning                                          lesson design.           • Wordlinks:
 models in web application                                                                                             telecollaboration
•Be aware about copyright issues while using web                                                                     ——Need to be
 resources created by others                                                                                         confirmed with
•Manage learning process with ICT supported
 strategies: electronic portfolio, grading books,
 computer generated tests and learning style
                                  Table 6 A framework for Module E Effective pedagogical practices with ICT

                                                                                                                    Training Material
                       Objectives                                          Content         Training Methodology         Available
Linked to all other Modules, the module is designed to         P1 Project/Problem based    • Introduction of        •Intel: Intel® Teach
  facilitate trainees to:                                         learning                   necessary background     to the Future
• Construct systemic knowledge and understanding of            P2 Collaborative learning     knowledge                Program (2003)
  certain emerging pedagogy, such as the learning              P3 WebQuest                 • Case-based analysis
  theory background, general procedure, general                                              and discussion
  teaching issues and effective coping strategies                                          • Project/Problem -
• Build the capacity to put the pedagogy into practice                                       based courseware/
  effectively based on effective pedagogical cases,                                          lesson design.
  analysis, discussion and lesson design, and
  construct       pragmatic   pedagogical     principles
  appropriate to personal teaching profession
• Recognize the significance and know how to adapt the
 pedagogy to fit the characteristics of the learners, taking
 account of age, gender, culture, and so on.
• Develop the capacity to design and administer the
 evaluation appropriate to the pedagogy, such as assessing
 the effectiveness of the teaching through the assessment
 of learners.

To top