A Curriculum Framework of Teacher Development for ICT-Pedagogy Integration Miao Feng-chun Target Audience Course providers for the Asia-Pacific region. Regional or sub-regional teacher educators/trainers in teacher training institutions. Master teachers to organize local training or school-based professional development activities. Purpose of the Curriculum Framework The curriculum framework has been designed to specify a ICT-pedagogy Integration teacher training syllabi based on the competency-based standards. The syllabi is to outline a program for teacher course providers as a reference and benchmark to select or design training courses/training modules to the implement the specified ICT ICT-Pedagogy Integration curriculum. Rationale of the Curriculum Framework ICT is a relatively well-structured learning domain, and ICT knowledge and skills are mainly explicit concepts, so ICT units are suitable to act as anchors to specify learning outcomes and direct learning process. While pedagogy is ill- structured content domain and pedagogies are mainly tacit concepts which require trainees to construct their own understanding based on their prior knowledge and experiences. The best way to facilitate trainees to understand emerging pedagogies is to embed them into projects or connect them to concrete subject content or inter-disciplinary themes. And only by a way in which trainees have opportunities to access the pedagogies in real-world context and revisit them from different aspects in a crisscross way, could trainees get a cognitively- flexible understanding and cohesive schema of the pedagogies. And only by this way, could trainees get an active and practical pedagogy knowledge that can be easily retrieved in real teaching context. In contrast, if teach pedagogy directly, trainees could only memorize inert pedagogy knowledge that is difficult to be retrieved to solve real teaching problems. So we adopt ICT units and real teaching projects as main clue to organize the training modules and to frame the training program. Project-based training methodologies will be used to showcase or direct trainees to inquiry, discuss the educational potential and pedagogically-sound application of the ICT units. The project-based training methodologies will be designed to embed inherent the expected pedagogies, and showcase how the abstract pedagogies can be put in practice and how they can be linked to complex teaching case. Project-based learning activities or WebQuest projects will be designed for trainees who would like to get more systemic and deeper understanding of certain emerging pedagogy, and general pedagogical knowledge (learning theory background, general procedure, general teaching issues and effective coping strategies) and reference reading materials will be provided or introduced. Structure of the Curriculum The ICT-pedagogy integration curriculum is subdivided into five broad modules that are showed and briefly described in Table 1. Table 1 Five curriculum modules comprising the ICT-pedagogy integration curriculum Module Name of Module General Description A Integrating ICT productivity tools Designed for teachers to discover ICT tools, their general functions and potential for education. B Application of ICT in subjects/areas Designed for teachers to understand and teaching - learning practice how to use ICT tools and relevant resources in subject/area specific teaching and thereby to facilitate learners’ subject/area learning C Infusing ICT across the curriculum Designed to aid understanding of how and when to use ICT tools and appropriate resources to achieve particular purposes, but without being restricted to particular subjects. D Specializing in the use of ICT to create Designed for teachers who are exploring to innovative and open & flexible transform their pedagogy from focusing on learning environments teacher-centered teaching to the design and affordance of ICT-enhanced learner-centered, and learner-regulated learning environment, especially, the open and more flexible learning environment that makes anytime, anywhere, and self-paced learning possible. E Effective pedagogical practices with Designed to facilitate teachers to improve ICT their knowledge and practical skills about the emerging new pedagogies. The five curriculum modules and the units that comprise each module are elaborated in Appendices A, B, C, D, and E respectively. The details for each unit generally indicates broad and specific unit objectives, the context for teaching the unit, content coverage, training coursed/modules available, training methodology suggested, and resources required. The curriculum framework has been designed with the great diversity of the circumstances of countries in Asia-Pacific region in mind. The description is sufficiently detailed for coursed providers to be able to develop texts and for teacher training institutions to select training modules/courses of higher relevance to local circumstances and appropriate needs. Overall suggestion for Training Methodology .The training methodology must model the new pedagogies and the application of ICT resources for learning. Trainee-centered training approach should be adopted, in which, trainees’ current pedagogy knowledge and their other characteristics should be kept in mind when designing training method, and trainees should be engaged into active thinking and hands-on activities, with trainers as facilitators and co-learners. Trainers should choose or design learning opportunities and learning environment appropriate to the features of training contents and expected learning outcomes. Necessary resources affordance and appropriate cognitive scaffolding should be integrated into the training methodology. Table 2 A framework for Module A Integrating ICT Productivity Tools Training Material Objectives Content Training Methodology Available After the training of module A, trainees should be able to: A1 Basic Concepts of ICT • Flexible combination of • Microsoft: • Demonstrate expertise in basic computer operation A2 Using the Computer and vicarious learning (in Integrating ICT and utilizing computer peripherals Managing Files which, learners observe Skills into Teaching •Demonstrate expertise in working with productivity A3 Word Processing and following trainers’ and Learning(for A4 Working with a operation) and enactive grades 5-8); Using tools, such as word processing; working with a Spreadsheet learning (in which, MS Office XP for spreadsheet, a database, presentation and e-mail A5 Working with a Database learners engaged into Learning Projects •Apply productivity tools in learning context in authentic A6 Composing Presentations active thinking and (for grades 6-12) environment: using spreadsheet to create class lists with text and graphics operation); self-study/ • Integrating ICT for assessment or using presentation software for A7 Information & operation and productivity tools in developing instructional lecture Communication cooperative learning or learning practices •Differentiate functional differences of various digital and A8 Social and Ethical Issues team work. developed by Dr. non-digital technologies to support teaching and A9 Teachers’ Professional • Project/problem-based Majumdar learning Development and/with ICT ICT application for •Apply active, intentional and collaborative learning teaching principles while designing learning and teaching • Hands-on lesson plan or materials courseware design •Develop positive attitudes of utilizing ICT for learning •Demonstrate appropriate understanding about the related social and ethical issues, and using ICT in a legal and responsible way Table 3 A framework for Module B Application of ICT in Subject/Ares Teaching – Learning Training Training Material Available Objectives Content Methodology Based on the objectives of Module A, after the training S1* ICT in • Flexible combination • Microsoft: Integrating ICT Skills of module B, trainees should be able to: Languages of vicarious learning into Teaching and Learning(for •Understand the relationship between a range of ICT S2* ICT in Natural (in which, learners grades 5-8); Using MS Office XP resources and the concepts, processes and skills in Sciences observe and for Learning Projects (for grades their subject, and use their subject expertise to select S3* ICT in following trainers’ 6-12) appropriate ICT resources (both subject-specific Mathematics operation and • Integrating ICT productivity tools software and more generic resources) which will help S4* ICT in Social discuss showcase in learning practices; Enhancing them meet the specific learning objectives Science lesson plan or teaching & Facilitating learning • Be aware of the potential of ICT both in terms of their S5* ICT in Art courseware) and using multi-modal instruction contribution to improve learners’ basic knowledge, B1 Measurement enactive learning (in developed by Dr. Majumdar skills and concept , and to challenge learners’ thinking B2 Modeling and which, learners • Intel: Intel® Teach to the Future and extending their learning in a subject Simulation engaged into active Program (2003) • Know how to prepare and plan lessons where ICT is B3 Robots and thinking, ICT • ISTE: Learning & leading with used in ways which will challenge pupils’ Feedback operation, and Technology on Subject T-L, understanding and promote greater thinking and Devices instructional design); such as Learning & leading with reflection B4 Statistics self-study/ operation Technology on Mathematics: • Demonstrate expertise in application of multimedia B5 Creating Graphics and cooperative Making Math Success happen tools (such as authoring, animation, graphics, audio B6 Music learning or team • UNESCO Schoduler: Science, and video) to create appropriate subject/area learning E1 Design and work Math, and English as Second environment and in designing & developing subject creation of • Project/Problem – Language teaching in specific multimedia based courseware/materials, when courseware based and hands-on Secondary Schools. necessary. activities, including • BECTA: • Demonstrate expertise in applying ICT properly (such design and • FiT-ED Web-based Learning as tutorials, drill and practice, simulation, games etc.) application of: e- • Wordlinks: telecollaboration to implement the lesson plans, and use appropriate lesson plans, ——Need to be confirmed with ICT to manage the learning process, when necessary. multimedia based Cedric • Apply ICT to plan assessment, develop items, and courseware/material, administer both subject/area specific formative and templates, rubrics or summative assessment; apply ICT to analyze assessment assessment data and provide report. •Demonstrate an understanding of the significance to ensure learner’s equitable and safe access to appropriate • Demonstrate legal and ethical use of ICT and digital resources Note: JFIT project will not develop training modules for S1-S5, while encouraging course providers and teacher training institutions to develop relevant materials specified by the standard and the syllabi. Table 4 A framework for Module C Infusing ICT across the Curriculum Training Material Objectives Content Training Methodology Available Based on the objectives of Module A, after the training T1 Four Pillars of Education • Flexible combination of • Intel: Intel® Teach of module B, trainees should be able to: T2 ESD vicarious learning (in to the Future •Understand the relationship between a range of ICT T3 Life Skills which, learners Program (2003) resources and the comprehensive concepts, open T4 HIV/AIDS observe and following • Facilitating learning processes in inter-disciplinary learning, be aware of P1 (Pedagogical Module 1) trainers’ operation and using multi-modal the potential of ICT to challenge learners’ thinking discuss showcase instruction and support their inquiry, choose appropriate ICT lesson plan or developed by Dr. resources according to the projects’ needs courseware) and Majumdar • Know how to prepare and plan inter-disciplinary ICT- enactive learning (in •Integrate UNESCO enhanced projects which, learners Four Pillars of • Demonstrate expertise in application of a wide range engaged into active Education into of multimedia tools to create appropriate learning thinking, ICT Classrooms in the environment and in designing & developing operation, and Information Age multimedia based courseware/materials. instructional design); developed by • Demonstrate expertise in applying ICT properly to self-study/ operation scaffold learners’ learning process. and cooperative Professor Zhu • Apply ICT to plan and implement assessment learning or team work Zhi-Ting appropriate to inter-disciplinary learning • Project/Problem – •Recognize which kinds of class organization will be based and hands-on most effective for the projects with ICT, and which activities, including kinds ICT affordance will be most effective for the design and application learning implementation of: e-lesson plans, multimedia based courseware/material, templates, rubrics or assessment Table 5 A framework for Module D Specializing in the use of ICT to create innovative and open & flexible learning environments Training Material Objectives Content Training Methodology Available Based on the objectives of Module C, after the training SP1 Algorithm and Programming • Jigsaw learning with • Microsoft: of module D, trainees should be able to: SP2 Design, Creation and vicarious learning (in Developing basic •Demonstrate expertise in web based learning maintenance of a Website which, learners watch applications using management systems and tools SP3 Design and Application of and analyze showcase VB Net •Develop web based instructional software for Web-based Interactive lesson plan and/or •Intel: Intel® Teach collaborative learning Learning Environment video) and enactive to the Future learning (in which, Program (2003) •Use ICT for project based, case based and learning learners engaged into • Integrating open & team centered instructions models active thinking and flexible learning •Manage effectively student directed learning instructional design); strategies in online discourses using ICT self-study/ operation education •Explore global web resources and publish local and cooperative developed by Dr. knowledge learning or team work Majumdar •Promote autonomous learning by sharing • Project/Problem - • FiT-ED Web-based responsibilities with students using ICT based courseware/ Learning •Distinguish synchronous and asynchronous learning lesson design. • Wordlinks: models in web application telecollaboration •Be aware about copyright issues while using web ——Need to be resources created by others confirmed with Cedric •Manage learning process with ICT supported strategies: electronic portfolio, grading books, computer generated tests and learning style inventories Table 6 A framework for Module E Effective pedagogical practices with ICT Training Material Objectives Content Training Methodology Available Linked to all other Modules, the module is designed to P1 Project/Problem based • Introduction of •Intel: Intel® Teach facilitate trainees to: learning necessary background to the Future • Construct systemic knowledge and understanding of P2 Collaborative learning knowledge Program (2003) certain emerging pedagogy, such as the learning P3 WebQuest • Case-based analysis theory background, general procedure, general and discussion teaching issues and effective coping strategies • Project/Problem - • Build the capacity to put the pedagogy into practice based courseware/ effectively based on effective pedagogical cases, lesson design. analysis, discussion and lesson design, and construct pragmatic pedagogical principles appropriate to personal teaching profession • Recognize the significance and know how to adapt the pedagogy to fit the characteristics of the learners, taking account of age, gender, culture, and so on. • Develop the capacity to design and administer the evaluation appropriate to the pedagogy, such as assessing the effectiveness of the teaching through the assessment of learners.
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