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					International Journal of Electronics and Communication Engineering & Technology (IJECET), ISSN 0976 –
         INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF ELECTRONICS AND
6464(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6472(Online) Volume 4, Issue 5, September – October (2013), © IAEME
 COMMUNICATION ENGINEERING & TECHNOLOGY (IJECET)

ISSN 0976 – 6464(Print)
ISSN 0976 – 6472(Online)                                                       IJECET
Volume 4, Issue 5, September – October, 2013, pp. 214-217
© IAEME: www.iaeme.com/ijecet.asp
Journal Impact Factor (2013): 5.8896 (Calculated by GISI)
                                                                             ©IAEME
www.jifactor.com




 IMPLEMENTATION OF RAINBOW TECHNOLOGY USING GRAY SCALE

               Vismay Pandit, Devansh Sanghvi, Bhargav Mehta, Jinesh Doshi
                     B.E (EXTC.), D. J Sanghvi college of Engineering, Mumbai



ABSTRACT

        Storing audio, video, text, image etc. Data on a piece of paper instead of using CD’s &
DVD’s. With the advent in the techniques of compression and encryption it will become possible to
store data equivalent to CD’s or DVD’s on a piece of paper in near future. After reading data we
need to scale down their sampling values between 0 and 1. We will construct gray scale image from
this values. So now data in the form of image can be distributed using measures like printouts. The
paper can then be read through a normal scanning and the contents are decoded from matrix to
reconstruct the sampled values which can be viewed or played. Though we are not able completely
reconstruct noise free original data, we firmly believe that this will be important for future
advancement of this idea. This extremely low cost technology will drastically reduce the cost of the
storage and will provide high-speed storage as well. There are many advantages of storing data on
paper such as biodegradability, cost, duplication, data transfer, speed, size, and security.

Keywords: Compression, Encryption, Gray Scale, Biodegradability.

1. INTRODUCTION

        When entire world is busy in inventing how to store more and more data on small size of
silicon chips, idea to store data on paper has opened new directions in the horizon of data storage.
Rainbow technology, a breakthrough in digital data storage enables us to store up to a massive
450GB on just a piece of paper. Rainbow Storage is a group of techniques to store digital data in
some colors, color combinations and some symbols known as rainbow format, and therefore a
rainbow picture will be generated. The technique is used to achieve high-density storage. With the
help of Rainbow system we would be watching full-length high-definition videos from a piece of
paper!
        The main attraction is the cheap paper. The Rainbow technology is feasible because printed
text, readable by the human eye is a very wasteful use of the potential capacity of paper to store data.
By printing the data encoded in a denser way much higher capacities can be achieved. Paper is, of
course, bio-degradable, unlike CDs or DVDs. And sheets of paper also cost a fraction of the cost of a
CD or DVD.
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International Journal of Electronics and Communication Engineering & Technology (IJECET), ISSN 0976 –
6464(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6472(Online) Volume 4, Issue 5, September – October (2013), © IAEME

Why to use paper?
1] Biodegradable-The biggest advantage of this technology would be the biodegradable nature of this
storage device which would do away with the e-waste pollution.
2] Cost-This is also one of the big advantages since cost of paper is very low compared to current
data storage devices.
3] Duplication-It is not quite as easy to copy an optical disk. This draw back can be resolved by
paper storage which can easily duplicate data using Xeroxes etc.
4] Data transfer-Data stored on paper can be send to remote places easily via fax.
5] Speed-These devices are faster than current storage devices.
6] Size-size is smaller than that of actual data.
7] Security-Security of signal can be increased.

2. WORKING PRINCIPLE

Software Implementation

        Storing an audio file and text file on paper in a form of image. We will take print out of this
paper and by scanning it we can retrieve the data stored on paper back. Representing data in the form
of black and white image is basic step, but here we have discussed conversion in to gray scale image
directly as it leads to smaller image size and more compression.

Encoding from audio signal in to gray scale image

        We will initially read ‘audio’ file to get sampled values of audio file which will be between -
1 and 1. Now convert this value between 0 to 1. To overcome limitations of normal printer and
scanner we replicated each sampled value two times, this will control error till some extent. To
obtain proper image we will convert this array into matrix with aspect ratio 4:3. Like this we have
successfully created image whose pixel values are between 0 to 255 which corresponds to range 0
to 1.
        After that print out of this image is taken. The first image shown below represents image
obtained after conversion of audio file and second image represents scanned image which can be
used to reconstruct audio file.

Encoded Audio data-




                                        Grayscaleimage.bmp


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International Journal of Electronics and Communication Engineering & Technology (IJECET), ISSN 0976 –
6464(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6472(Online) Volume 4, Issue 5, September – October (2013), © IAEME

Scanned Image-




                                    Scannedgrayscaleimage.bmp

Decoding from gray scale image to audio signal

        In decoding part scanned gray scale image is converted back in to audio file. We will select
desired area of paper and read content of selected area. These values are between 0 to 255 we will
convert this to values between 0 to1. This matrix of aspect ratio 4:3 is converted in to array. Now
take average of two successive pixels to get actual value of pixel. Convert this value between -1 to 1.
This is the reconstructed audio file now play this audio file.

Block Diagram

ENCODING                                                DECODING




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International Journal of Electronics and Communication Engineering & Technology (IJECET), ISSN 0976 –
6464(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6472(Online) Volume 4, Issue 5, September – October (2013), © IAEME

ADVANTAGES

   •   Data can be stored on an ordinary paper.
   •   Larger amount of data can be had on lesser space.
   •   The extremely low-cost technology will drastically reduce the cost of storage and provide for
       high speed storage too.
   •   Files in any format like movie files, songs, images, text can be stored using this technology.
   •   The biodegradable nature of the storage devices would do away with the e-waste pollution.
   •   With the help of disposable storage, a high density data storage is made possible even on
       paper or plastic sheets, any type of computer files can be stored and distributed this way, so
       instead of giving CD’s with the computer magazines, its content can be printed in a page,
       video albums, software etc. Can be distributed at a very low cost with the help disposable
       storage

APPLICATION

   •   It can be used for faster audio transfer over the internet with much less interference.
   •   Morphing can be implemented to modify vocal information.
   •   It can be used in identification systems.
   •   As it is said earlier that we are going to implement it for audio and text file, it can also Be
       developed for storing video files, images and any other data.
   •   It can be used for faster audio transfer over the internet with much less interference.
   •   It is more confidential then any other storage device.
   •   It can be used in identification systems.

REFERENCES

 1. "Data Can Now Be Stored on Paper" by M. A. Siraj, Arab News (published November 18,
     2006; accessed November 29, 2006).
 2. Paper storage man misunderstood — The Inquirer article, 12 December 2006 (retrieved 15
     December 2006.
 3. "Store 256GB on an A4 sheet" by Chris Mellor, Techworld (published November 24, 2006;
     accessed November 29, 2006).
 4. http://news.techworld.com/storage/7424/store-256gb-on-an-a4-sheet/.
 5. http://jalaj.net/2007/01/20/90gb-to-450gb-of-data-on-a4-paper/http://lwn.net/Articles/242735/.
 6. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rainbow_Storage.
 7. http://www.theinquirer.net/inquirer/news/1013362/paper-storage-misunderstood.
 8. Gopal Thapa, Kalpana Sharma and M.K.Ghose, “Multi Resolution Motion Estimation
     Techniques for Video Compression: A Survey”, International Journal of Computer Engineering
     & Technology (IJCET), Volume 3, Issue 2, 2012, pp. 399 - 406, ISSN Print: 0976 – 6367,
     ISSN Online: 0976 – 6375.
 9. Tushar Sawant, Prof. Sanjay Deshmukh, Shilen Jhaveri and Siddharth Bhatt, “Implementation
     of Usb to Usb Bridge for Computer Independent Data Transfer”, International Journal of
     Computer Engineering & Technology (IJCET), Volume 3, Issue 2, 2012, pp. 399 - 406,
     ISSN Print: 0976 – 6367, ISSN Online: 0976 – 6375.
 10. Soamil Vora, Monil Shah, Jigar Kapadia and Gautami Nadkarni, “Computer Independent
     Device for Usb Data Transfer”, International Journal of Advanced Research in Engineering &
     Technology (IJARET), Volume 4, Issue 5, 2013, pp. 56 - 62, ISSN Print: 0976-6480,
     ISSN Online: 0976-6499.
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