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					     Appendix F of the Disability Equality Scheme 2006-09




This image was used in an advertisement promoting Suffolk County Council as an inclusive employer.




Glossary of equality, diversity and local
          government terms
                                    August 2006
                                         Version 2


This document has also been produced in large
print. We will on request produce this policy, or
 particular parts of it, into other languages and
  formats, in order that everyone can use and
           comment upon its content.
The following glossary is intended to give a brief explanation of terms frequently
related to promoting equality and tackling unfair discrimination, in addition to Local
Government Initiatives and policies. The document provides all Suffolk County Council
Staff with a guide to the meanings behind words often used across the organisation.

In addition to listing terms and wording, hyperlinks have been provided, to relevant
websites and in some cases to the actual text of the legislation. Where possible the
link is provided to the official version of the Act, Regulation, Directive or Convention, or
alternately to relevant National Organisations, sections of the SCC public website and
guide sites. The accuracy of such documents should not be relied on but can be used
as a guide to further information.

Lastly, it is hoped that this document is a useful resource and reference point. If you
have any difficulties using it or any suggestions for how it could be improved, please
email your comments to the Diversity and Equalities Specialists:

                         andy.yacoub@cexec.suffolkcc.gov.uk
                         nikki.young@socserv.suffolkcc.gov.uk
                          matt.hales@cexec.suffolkcc.gov.uk

           With thanks to Sheffield City Council & Greater London Authority


     Access
     Refers to the methods by which people with a range of needs (such as disabled
     people, people with children, people whose first language is not English) find out
     about and use services and information. For disabled people, access in Suffolk
     means the freedom to participate in the economy, in how Suffolk is planned, in
     the social and cultural life of Suffolk and in the life of the community.

     Asian
     Refers to people who self define as being Asian, East African Asian, British Asian
     or originate from India, Bangladesh, Pakistan, Sri Lanka, Nepal or China.

     Asylum Seeker
     Someone who has fled to another country in order to make an asylum claim i.e. a
     request for refugee status.
     http://www.homeoffice.gov.uk/ http://www.refugeecouncil.org.uk/

     Bisexual
     A man or woman who is emotionally, physically and/or sexually attracted to both
     males and females.

     Black
     Is an inclusive term that refers to all ethnic groups who have a common
     experience of discrimination on the basis of their skin colour. It also includes


                                                                                          1
those who self-define as black. In relation to statistical data collection, such as
the census, black has been more narrowly defined to refer to people who self
define as any of the black or black British categories which are: African,
Caribbean, or black other.

Black and minority ethnic people (BME)
This term needs to be explained in two parts. The term Black is used by some
African-Caribbean and Asian people as a conscious and political expression of
racist oppression and/or to denote unity of origin. The term minority ethnic
people refers to groups of people who share historical, cultural, or national origins
and who are numerically a minority in this society. There are 7 characteristics
that a group must have to fall within the meaning ‘ethnic group’ under the Race
Relations Act. In summary these are a long history, their own cultural tradition, a
common language, a literature, religion, a common geographical origin and being
a minority within a larger community. It does not matter if the size of a particular
ethnic group has diminished due to lapsed observance or intermarriage provided
they remain a distinct minority.
www.iscre.org.uk http://www.cre.gov.uk/
http://www.bmespark.org.uk/ODPMNovaWeb/Home/Login.asp

British Sign Language
Is a minority language and recognised as such by the county council. It has
grammar, tenses and word order that are different from to those of English. Deaf
babies sign naturally, in the same way that hearing babies experiment with
speech, and BSL is the first or preferred language of no less than 50,000 deaf
British people. For those who have been profoundly deaf since birth or infancy
BSL is at the heart of deaf culture.
http://www.signcommunity.org.uk/language/bslconsortium.php

Bullying
Offensive, intimidating, malicious, insulting or humiliating behaviour, abuse of
power or authority that attempts to undermine an individual or group and causes
them to suffer stress.
http://www.bullyonline.org/
http://www.suffolk.gov.uk/EducationAndLearning/CaringForChildrenAndYoungPe
ople/Bullying.htm

Civil Partnership
The Civil Partnership Act creates a new legal relationship of civil partnership,
which two people of the same-sex can form by signing a registration document. It
also provides same-sex couples who form a civil partnership with parity of
treatment in a wide range of legal matters with those opposite-sex couples who
enter into a civil marriage.

Important rights and responsibilities will flow from forming a civil partnership,
helping same-sex couples to organise their lives together. Provisions in the Act
include:


                                                                                    2
      a duty to provide reasonable maintenance for your civil partner and any
       children of the family;
    civil partners to be assessed in the same way as spouses for child
       support;
    equitable treatment for the purposes of life assurance;
    employment and pension benefits;
    recognition under intestacy rules;
    access to fatal accidents compensation;
    protection from domestic violence; and
    recognition for immigration and nationality purposes.
   http://www.gro.gov.uk/gro/content/civilpartnerships/

Coming out
This is a term used by lesbians and gay men when they tell other people about
their sexuality.
http://www.outreachipswich.org.uk/

Community Cohesion
In essence, community cohesion is about recognising, supporting and celebrating
diversity. It is about creating an environment where there is mutual respect and
appreciation of the similarities and differences that make people unique.
http://www.idea-knowledge.gov.uk http://www.lga.gov.uk/home.asp

Comprehensive Performance Assessment
This is a report on the way the Council is run. The Audit Commission performs
an inspection and makes an assessment.
http://www.audit-commission.gov.uk/

Consultation
Consultation can best be described as a dialogue leading to a decision.
Consultation involves two-way communication, and to be meaningful it must feed
directly into a decision.
http://apps.suffolk.gov.uk/consultations/SummaryPage.aspx

Council’s Vision Statement
This represents the overall purpose of the Council.

Culture
Culture could be defined as the total of the inherited ideas, beliefs, and
knowledge, which constitute the shared bases of social action or the total range
of activities and ideas of a community.

Disability Discrimination Act (DDA)
This act is the main anti-discrimination legislation for disabled people. It came
into being in 1995. It provides rights for disabled people in the areas of
Employment, access to goods and services and transport. Amendments were
made under DDA 2005. The amendments specifically placed a duty on public


                                                                                3
bodies to publish a Disability Equality Scheme. The amended Act requires
attitudinal changes.
http://www.drc.org.uk/ http://www.radar.org.uk
http://www.opsi.gov.uk/acts/acts1995/1995050.htm

Disabled Person
A disabled person is an individual who has an impairment and whose
experiences are continually affected by contemporary social, educational,
environmental or economic trends which take little or no account of her/his ‘rights’
as a person to reach her/his maximum potential and, consequently, to participate
fully in society. This view of disabled people is known as the Social Model of
Disability.
http://www.drc.org.uk/

Discrimination
This term is used here in the sense of unfair discrimination i.e. using information,
which is unfair, or irrelevant to influence a decision on the way someone is
treated.

Diversity
The term diversity refers to the presence in one population of a wide variety of
cultures, opinions, ethnic groups, socio-economic backgrounds, and so on.
With regard to the workplace, diversity is about the culture within the
organisation. Many organisations recognise the business benefits of diversity
and developing a culture in which all individuals. Diversity is often defined as
something like 'A culture in which all individuals are enabled to give their best and
make the best of themselves, which benefits both the individual and the
organisation'

Domestic Abuse
Domestic Abuse is any abuse, which takes place in a personal or family
relationship. In reality, it overwhelmingly concern’s men’s abuse of power over
their female partners or ex partners, and the children of those women. The abuse
may be physical, sexual, emotional / psychological, financial or more likely, a
combination of these. Domestic Abuse describes all forms of violent, controlling
behaviour, and is inclusive of the experiences of children and young people living
in fear of that behaviour. Domestic abuse can occur in a range of intimate or
family relationships – for example a son being violent to his mother, a woman
acting abusively to her male partner, abuse in same sex relationships.
www.victimsupport.org.uk

Helpline numbers:
English National Domestic Violence Helpline
0808 2000 247
Northern Ireland Women's Aid 24 Hour Domestic Violence Helpline
028 9033 1818



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Scottish Domestic Abuse Helpline
0800 027 1234
Wales Domestic Abuse Helpline
0808 80 10 800
Male Advice & Enquiry Line
If you are a man experiencing domestic violence or you want to call on behalf of a
male friend or relative, you can contact the Male Advice & Enquiry Line.
0845 064 6800

Equalities
Used as a shorthand term to refer to all work addressing issues of discrimination
and disadvantage, particularly as it relates to race equality, disability, gender,
sexuality, faith and age.
http://www.edf.org.uk/ http://www.caade.net http://www.efa.org.ukns

Equality
The vision or aim of creating a society (or aspects of society) where power and
quality of life is shared equally and both individuals and groups are able to live
their lives free from discrimination and oppression.
http://www.opsi.gov.uk/acts/acts1998/19980042.htm

Equality Impact Assessment
An Equality Impact Assessment (EIA) is a way of systematically and thoroughly
assessing the effects that a proposed policy or project is likely to have on
different groups within the County.
Policies will affect different people in different ways. It is possible that they have
the potential to discriminate against certain groups, even if this is not an intention.
An EIA will not necessarily provide all the answers, but it will ensure that equality
is considered as a core part of project planning, rather than after the policy or
project.
http://www.suffolk.gov.uk/CouncilAndDemocracy/EqualOpportunities/
http://colin.suffolkcc.gov.uk/ourorganisation/keyinitiatives/diversity_and_equality/i
ndex.html

Equal opportunities
The development of practices that promote the possibility of fair and equal
chances for all to develop their full potential in all aspects of life and the removal
of barriers of discrimination and oppression experienced by certain groups.
http://www.eoc.org.uk/

Equalities Objectives
There are specific strategic objectives in the area of equalities and should set out
what services are seeking to achieve in each area of service in terms of equality.

Equality Planning
As a Council we are aiming to make equality core to everything we do. We need
to ensure that we are consistently monitoring and assessing our services to


                                                                                     5
ensure that they are meeting the needs of all Suffolk residents. The aim of
Equality Planning is to:
    Provide a set of standard forms for monitoring use of services
    Provide guidance on how to set equality targets and remove barriers to
       services
    Assess the impact of policies and services on different groups

Equality Standard for Local Government
The Equality Standard for Local Government is designed to ensure that local
authorities consider gender, race and disability equality issues at all levels of
council policy and practice. The Equality Standard is a framework to help local
authorities introduce a comprehensive and systematic approach to dealing with
equality issues. Local authorities will be able to assess their progress based on
five levels:
    1. Commitment to a Comprehensive Equality Policy
    2. Assessment and Consultation
    3. Setting equality objectives and targets
    4. Information systems and monitoring against targets
    5. Achieving and reviewing outcomes
http://www.idea-knowledge.gov.uk/ http://www.lge.gov.uk/

Equality Targets
Each directorate and service must include equality targets in their service plans.
Targets may arise from initial equality monitoring. They are important in
measuring progress towards equality. Without equality targets, there is a danger
that equal opportunity policies will not be translated into practice. Equality targets
should also be included in the work objectives of relevant staff. Like all other
targets, equality targets should be SMART – that is Specific, Measurable,
Achievable, Realistic and Time-related.

Ethnicity
There are many different definitions of ethnicity. The word ‘ethnicity can be used
to describe how people are defined, differentiated, organized and entitled to
group membership based on shared physical or cultural characteristics. Ethnicity
can also be used in reference to a consciously shared system of beliefs, values,
practices and loyalties shared by members of a group who perceive themselves
as a group. Ethnicity can essentially be thought of as an attachment that a person
or a group feels towards a common cultural heritage.
http://www.ethnicbritain.co.uk

Faith and religion
Faith is important to the social identity of many UK citizens. Over three-quarters
of respondents to the 2001 census reported having some religious affiliation.
http://www.interfaith.org.uk/ http://www.sifre.org.uk/ http://www.eefa.net




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Finger Spelling
Spelling out words using finger and hand shapes to depict letters of the alphabet.
This is not a sign language and it is quite slow and difficult.
http://www.rnid.org.uk

Gay
This term is preferable when referring to gay men or women. The word
homosexual is clinical in origin (implying a condition or illness) and is usually
viewed as an offensive term by gay people. The word gay is normally attributed
to men. However at times it can be used as an all-encompassing term for gay
men, lesbians and bisexual people.

Gay man
A man who is emotionally, physically and/or sexually attracted to men.
http://www.stonewall.org.uk/

Gender
A concept that refers to the social differences between women and men that have
been learned are changeable over time and have wide variations both within and
between cultures. The term is often used to differentiate from sex, which refers to
biological differences. Taking a ‘gender perspective’ means looking separately at
the different needs and experiences of men and boys and women and girls.
http://www.womenandequalityunit.gov.uk/ http://www.fawcettsociety.org.uk/
http://www.gendertrust.org.uk

Gender Dysphoria
This is where a person experiences conflict between their physical sex and their
mental gender. It is a recognised medical condition that responds well to
appropriate medical interventions.
http://www.mind.org.uk/

Gender Reassignment
Gender reassignment is defined as a process, which is undertaken under medical
supervision for the purpose of reassigning a person’s gender by changing
physiological or other characteristics of their sex, and includes any part of such a
process.

The Sexual Discrimination (Gender Reassignment) Regulations 1999 have been
in force since 1 May 1999. The Regulations amended the Sex Discrimination Act
1975 to provide the right for transsexuals not to be discriminated against. The
Regulations introduced express prohibitions against discrimination on grounds of
gender reassignment in the fields of employment and vocational training only.
Discrimination on grounds of gender reassignment in relation to pay or other
contractual conditions is brought within the Sex Discrimination Act rather than the
Equal Pay Act.
http://www.pfc.org.uk/ http://www.womenandequalityunit.gov.uk/



                                                                                   7
Harassment
Unwanted conduct which negatively affects the dignity of people. It may be
related to age, sex, race, disability, religion, nationality or any personal
characteristic of the individual, and may be persistent or an isolated incident. The
key is that the actions or comments are viewed as demeaning and unacceptable
to the recipient.

Harassment can also have a specific meaning under certain laws (for instance if
harassment is related to sex, race or disability, it may be unlawful discrimination).
From December 2003 the law also gave protection against harassment relating to
religion or belief and sexual orientation.
http://www.acas.org.uk/

Hermaphrodite
The term "hermaphrodite" has historically been used to describe people with
ambiguous genitalia or biological sex. The broader term intersexual is often used
and is preferred by many such individuals and medical professionals.

Heterosexism
This is a system of ideas, an ideology and set of practices based on a set of
beliefs about heterosexuality being the ‘natural’ form of sexuality for both women
and men, and all other sexualities, in particular, homosexuality being deviant.
This ideology provides the rationale for and facilitates ongoing institutional and
personal discrimination against lesbians and gay men.

Heterosexual
This term refers to a person, male or female, who is sexually and emotionally
attracted to people of the opposite sex.

Homophobia
This is a lasting irrational fear or great abhorrence of lesbians and gay men.

Homosexual
This term refers to a person, male or female, who is sexually and emotionally
attracted to people of the same sex. It is both a legalistic and medical term and
so, its use is often seen to be oppressive.
http://www.stonewall.org.uk/

Human Resources
The purpose of this function is to provide support to both managers and
individuals, to make sure there is a consistent and fair approach to employment
matters across Suffolk County Council. A particular focus is supporting managers
and change processes to achieve service excellence.
http://colin.suffolkcc.gov.uk/csd/hr/
http://www.unison.org.uk/ http://www.tuc.org.uk/




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Impairment is a physical or mental condition of lacking all or part of a limb or
having a limb, organ or mechanism of the body that is not functioning, or not fully
functioning.
http://www.dh.gov.uk/

Implementation
This term is used here to refer to the steps taken to turn policy into practice.

Induction loop A major obstacle to understanding speech is background noise.
Hearing aids amplify all sound which means speech can often be distorted or
drowned out. The loop cuts out all background noise. It is a coil of wire round a
room or an area that transmits audio frequencies by means of a magnetic field.
The systems are used by hearing aid users to allow them to participate in
meetings by switching their aids to ‘T’ to receive the transmission. Some systems
work by placing a single stationary microphone within the room that the meeting
is taking place. Other systems require people to speak through a microphone.
These microphones may not be attached to a personal address system, which
means that only hearing aid users can pick up the signal from the system. It is
important that if this system is used, participants in meetings wait for the
microphone to reach them before they speak, otherwise hearing aid users will be
excluded.
http://www.rnid.org.uk/

Institutional Racism
Institutional racism is concerned with racial discrimination which has been
incorporated into structures, processes and procedures of organisations, either
because of racial prejudice or because of a failure to take into account the
particular needs of black and minority ethnic people.

Institutional Sexism
This refers to structures, procedures or practices that have been established on
the basis of a belief that women can only undertake certain roles. It is concerned
with sexual discrimination, which has been incorporated into structures,
processes and procedures of organisations, either because of sexual prejudice or
because of a failure to take into account the particular needs of women.

Interpretation
Interpretation, or interpreting, is an activity that consists of establishing
communication between people who use different languages made up of words,
gestures or other symbols. For example, an interpreter who understands both
English and Urdu could help an English-speaker and an Urdu-speaker
understand what each other is saying by listening to each person speak then
relaying what each one is saying to the other person in the language they
understand.
A distinction is made between translation, which consists of transferring ideas
expressed in writing from one language to another, from interpreting, which



                                                                                   9
consists of transferring ideas expressed orally, or by the use of gestures (as in
the case of sign language), from one language to another. In gestural
interpreting a spoken language (for example, English) is interpreted into a visual
one like, for example, British Sign Language (BSL) which is used by Deaf or
hearing-impaired people, or vice versa. People may need interpreters at
conferences, in meetings, interviews or any other situation where people need to
understand each other but do not communicate using the same symbols or
words.
http://www.suffolk.gov.uk/PolicingAndPublicSafety/DiscriminationOrHarassment/I
nterpretingAndTranslatingServices.htm
www.languageline.co.uk

Intersexual
An intersexual or intersex person (or animal of any unisexual species) is one who
is born with genitalia and/or secondary sexual characteristics of indeterminate
sex, or which combine features of both sexes. (The terms hermaphrodite and
pseudohermaphrodite, which have been used in the past, are now considered
pejorative and inaccurate and are no longer used to refer to an intersexual
person.) Sometimes the phrase "ambiguous genitalia" is used.

Lesbian / Gay
Lesbians and gay men prefer these terms rather than “homosexual”. Lesbians
also prefer the term lesbian rather than “gay woman” because it reflects their
separate identities and experiences. The order of reference is also important: the
term “lesbians and gay men” is preferred as it seeks to challenge the false
assumption that male behaviour is defining and female behaviour is diminutive.
http://www.stonewall.org.uk/

Learning Difficulty / Disability
Learning disability includes the presence of:
    a significantly reduced ability to understand new or complex information;
    to learn new skills (impaired intelligence), with;
    a reduced ability to cope independently (impaired social functioning);
    which started before adulthood, with a lasting effect on development.

This definition encompasses people with a broad range of disabilities. The
presence of a low intelligence quotient, for example an IQ below 70, is not, of
itself, a sufficient reason for deciding whether an individual should be provided
with support. An assessment of social functioning and communication skills
should also be taken into account when determining need. Many people with
learning disabilities also have physical and/or sensory impairments. The
definition covers adults with autism who also have learning disabilities, but not
those with a higher level autistic spectrum disorder who may be of average or
even above average intelligence – such as some people with Asperger’s
Syndrome. Learning disability’ does not include all those who have a ‘learning
difficulty which is more broadly defined in education legislation.
http://www.valuingpeople.gov.uk/


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Lip-reading
Is a way in which a deaf person can gain information about what is being said by
reading patterns of lip movement of spoken language.
http://www.rnid.org.uk/

Local Strategic Partnership (LSP)
A Local Strategic Partnership (LSP) is a multi-agency body that brings together at
a local level the different parts of the public, private, community and voluntary
sectors to tackle social and physical regeneration issues, which require a range
of responses from different bodies. Local partners working jointly through a LSP
are expected to take many of the major decisions about priorities for their local
area delivering sustainable economic, social and physical regeneration, or
improved public services, that meet the needs of local people. LSPs were
developed because the Government felt that a combination of organisations, and
the community, working co-operatively as part of an LSP would have a far greater
chance of success than different organisations operating alone.
http://www.suffolk.org.uk/lsp.html/

Mainstreaming
Mainstreaming equality is essentially concerned with the integration of equal
opportunities principles, strategies and practices into the every day work of
Government and other public bodies from the outset, involving 'every day' policy
actors in addition to equality specialists. In other words, it entails rethinking
mainstream provision to accommodate gender, race, disability and other
dimensions of discrimination and disadvantage, including class, sexuality and
religion.

It is a long-term strategy to frame policies in terms of the realities of people's daily
lives, and to change organisation cultures and structures accordingly. It puts
people, and their diverse needs and experiences, at the heart of policy-making.

Minority Ethnic People
This term is widely used as a general term to refer to people who belong to an
ethnic group numerically smaller than the predominant white group in the UK This
includes groups distinguished by their skin colour, as well as others, such as
Irish, Turkish, Cypriot, Jewish, Gypsy and Travelling people.
http://www.cre.gov.uk/

Monitoring
The term is used here to refer to the process of collecting information to use in
evaluating services.

Multicultural
Relating to many cultures, including people who have many different customs
and beliefs. For example, Britain is increasingly a multicultural society.



                                                                                      11
Nationality
Relates to the country of which the person is a citizen by birth, by naturalization
or by other legal right.
http://www.ind.homeoffice.gov.uk/applying/nationality/citizenshipceremonies/

National origin
Relates to the country where someone was born, regardless of where they are
now living and their current citizenship.
http://www.opsi.gov.uk/acts/acts2002/20020041.htm

National Statistics for Diversity and Equalities Research

http://www.statistics.gov.uk/
UK's home of official statistics. Provides free access to statistical publications
from the Office for National Statistics and government departments. Areas of the
website of particular interest are:
http://www.statistics.gov.uk/onlineproducts/default.asp
The Virtual Bookshelf which brings together links to a range of online
publications.
http://www.statistics.gov.uk/census2001/default.asp
Information on the 2001 Census of Population.
http://www.neighbourhood.statistics.gov.uk/Default.asp?nsid=false&CE=True&S
E=True
Neighbourhood statistics, which provide statistics for local areas including
results from the 2001 Census.
http://www.statistics.gov.uk/timeuse/default.asp
Details of and results from the 2000-01 UK Time Use Survey.
http://www.statistics.gov.uk/genderstatistics
Details of the National Statistics review of gender statistics and access to the
revised Brief Guide to Gender Statistics.

Needs
The term is used here to refer to the type and level of services people require.

Operational objectives
These represent a refinement of the strategic objectives in terms that are capable
of measurement.

Performance indicators
All effective organisations measure their performance in order to know how well
they are doing and to identify opportunities for improvement. Performance
indicators are a range of statistical measures indicators intended to offer an
objective assessment of how an organisation is performing. All local authorities
(and other organizations) have to report their performance against a set of
Performance Indicators determined by the Audit Commission (the body




                                                                                   12
responsible for ensuring public money is spent efficiently).       The purpose of
performance indicators in local government is to:

   provide reliable information on the nature and performance of local
    authorities –including that of Suffolk County Council
 allow comparisons between local authorities
 enable local authorities to benchmark their own performance (to see how we
    are doing against everyone else)
 inform policy developments
http://www.bvpi.gov.uk/pages/CompareOverTime.asp
http://www.audit-commission.gov.uk/performance/guidance.asp
http://www.bvpi.gov.uk/pages/Index.asp

Positive action
This is a term used here to refer to the ways in which Councils / organisations
lawfully seek to overcome the effects of past discrimination against
disadvantaged groups, in the provision of services and in the employment of
staff.

Prejudice
Means to pre-judge someone, knowing next to nothing about them but jumping to
conclusions because of some characteristics, like their appearance.
http://www.cre.gov.uk/legal/rra_positive.html

Procurement
Procurement can be defined as the responsibility for obtaining (whether by
purchasing, lease, hire or other legal means) the services, equipment, materials
or supplies required by an organisation so it can effectively meet its business
objectives.

Racism
This term is used to describe a whole range of myths, ideas and attitudes that are
used to justify placing (a) particular racial group(s) in an inferior position to
another. The Race Relations Act states that “a racial group” means a group of
persons defined by colour, race, nationality, or ethnic or national origins. These
negative attitudes often lead to discriminatory or oppressive behaviour. Black
and minority ethnic people can experience racism in all aspects of their lives. On
an institutional level, racism takes many forms. Essentially it encourages the
design and support of systems and procedures that exclude or limit services, jobs
and opportunities to Black and Ethnic Minority people.
http://www.cre.gov.uk/

Racial discrimination
The Race Relations Act makes racial discrimination unlawful in employment,
training and related matters, in education, in the provision of goods, facilities and
services, and in the disposal and management of premises. The Act gives



                                                                                    13
individuals a right of direct access to the civil courts and industrial tribunals for
legal remedies for unlawful discrimination.

The Race Relations Act (1976) defines two kinds of racial discrimination: Direct
and Indirect.

       Direct Racial Discrimination
       Arises where a person is treated less favourably on racial grounds (i.e. on
       grounds of colour, race, nationality (including citizenship) or ethnic or
       national origins).

       Indirect Racial Discrimination
       Consists of treatment that may on the face of it appear equal but in fact is
       discriminatory.

Racial group
According to the Race Relations Act (1976) a racial group means a group of
persons defined by colour, race, nationality or ethnic or national origins.

Racial harassment
Racial harassment is a harmful and distressing form of discrimination. It is used
to mean all those racially motivated actions and practices by a person or group of
people which are directed at one or more individuals and which are unwanted,
cause humiliation, offence or distress, focus on a person’s race, colour,
nationality, ethnic or national origin. It may range from an extreme event such as
physical assault to the more common forms of behaviour and attitudes, which
create an intimidating and negative working environment for those it is directed
against.
http://www.cre.gov.uk/

Reasonable Adjustment
Reasonable adjustments are changes to physical premises or working practices
that remove the disadvantage they present to a person with a disability. There
are no strict rules about what qualifies as a reasonable adjustment as every case
is different and must be assessed on its merits.
http://www.employers-forum.co.uk http://www.drc.org.uk/

Refugee
Those who have been awarded refugee status that allows the individual to
remain in the UK. Also, those asylum seekers who have been given the right to
work in the UK (and claim Job Seekers Allowance) where their asylum claims
were made prior to April 2000.
http://www.refugeecouncil.org.uk

Registered disabled
This is a legal term for people who have, in the past, registered as disabled with
Jobcentre Plus Under the Disabled Persons (Employment) Act 1944 Registration


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was voluntary and many people chose not to do so. The register was abolished
under the Disability Discrimination Act 1995. The term is also used by those
people ‘registered’ with their Social Services as needing particular help due to
impairment.
http://www.drc.org.uk/

Resources
The term is used here to refer to money, time, people, buildings, and equipment
used in the provision of services.

Reviewing
The term is used here to refer to the process of checking progress against aims.

Service aims
These are statements of the general purposes of the main parts of the
Directorates, they are derived from each Directorate’s overall service delivery
statement.

Service delivery
The term used here to refer to all the ways in which the Council provides services
in Suffolk both directly e.g. designing and maintaining roads, running schools,
operating libraries, running homes for elderly people etc; and indirectly e.g.
through personnel, legal and financial administration support.

Service user/Customer
This term is used here to refer to anyone affected by or seeking a Council
Service. It applies to people not necessarily seeking or aware of Council
Services e.g. using the roads, having a child in care, benefiting from pollution
control etc.

Sex
Sex is determined by whether we are born male or female. In most contexts it is
preferable to use the term gender as the term sex has for some people
connotations of sexual acts per se. Gender roles are the expected social roles
attached to being women or men. The legislation in this area is entitled the Sex
Discrimination Act.
http://www.expectrespect.org.uk/

Sexism
Sexism is a term that is used to describe a whole range of myths, ideas and
attitudes that are used to justify placing women in an inferior position to men.
These negative attitudes often lead to discriminatory or oppressive behaviour.
Women can experience the effects of sexism in all aspects of their lives. On an
institutional level sexism takes many forms. Institutionally it encourages the
design and support of systems and procedures that exclude or limit services, jobs
and opportunities to women.


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http://www.eoc.org.uk/ http://fathersdirect.clients.imaginet.co.uk/

Sexual harassment
Sexual harassment is a harmful and distressing form of discrimination almost
exclusively directed at women although gay men also experience it. It covers a
wide range of offensive behaviour which focuses on a person’s gender, by one
person or a group – it involves actions or practices which are unwanted,
objectionable, and which cause offence or distress. It may range from an
extreme event such as sexual assault to the more common forms of behaviour
and attitudes, which create an intimidating working environment for those it is
directed against.

Sexual discrimination
The Sex Discrimination Act (1975) defines 2 types of sex discrimination: Direct or
Indirect.

      Direct sex discrimination
      Applies where a person is treated less favourably on the grounds of their
      gender, for example, passing women over for promotion because she is
      going on maternity leave.

      Indirect sex discrimination
      Consists of treatment, which may, on the face of it, appear to be equal, but
      which in fact comprises some unnecessary requirements which women
      are less able to comply with. The Act stipulates under Section Six that the
      creation of intolerable working conditions for a woman, which may be
      “subjecting her to debasement” is unlawful.
      http://www.eoc.org.uk/

Sexuality
This term refers to the general sexual preferences of people i.e. both lesbian and
gay and heterosexual. It is often a preferable term to use to that of sexual
orientation.

Sexual Orientation
This term is often used to define the sexual preferences of people.
http://www.expectrespect.org.uk/

Social Exclusion
Where individuals or groups are not able to participate fully in society because of
unemployment, low skill levels, poverty, bad health, poor housing or other factors.
Social Inclusion is about removing the barriers and factors, which lead to
exclusion so people can participate.
http://www.socialexclusion.gov.uk
http://sticerd.lse.ac.uk/case/

Social Inclusion


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A position from where someone can access and benefit the full range of
opportunities available to members of society. It aims to remove barriers for
people or for areas that experience a combination of linked problems such as
unemployment, poor skills, low incomes, poor housing, high crime environments,
poor health and family breakdown.
http://www.socialexclusion.gov.uk
http://www.eastspace.net/eecpe/

Social Model of Disability
Suffolk County Council rejects the medical model of disability and accepts:

a) That disability is a social phenomenon; b) that while many individuals have
physical or sensory impairments or learning difficulties or are living with mental
health needs, it is the way society responds to these that creates disability and
not the impairment; c) that disablism is a form of oppression in the same way as
is for example racism, sexism and homophobia. The medical model of disability
encourages explanations for the discrimination and disadvantage experienced by
disabled people in terms of the features of an individual’s body. The social model,
however, encourages explanations in terms of characteristics of social
organisation. When people think about disability in an individual way they tend to
concentrate their efforts on ’compensating’ people with impairments for what is
’wrong’ with their bodies by targeting ’special’ welfare benefits at them and
providing segregated ’special’ services for them. The medical model of disability
also affects the way disabled people think about themselves. Many disabled
people internalise the negative message that all disabled people’s problems stem
from not having ’normal’ bodies. Disabled people too can be led to believe that
their impairments automatically prevent them from participating in social
activities. This internalised oppression can make disabled people less likely to
challenge their exclusion from mainstream society. The social model of disability
makes the important distinction between ’impairment’ and ’disability’ and is the
response of the disabled people’s civil rights movement to the oppression of
disabled people. Disability is caused by ’barriers’ or elements of social
organisation that take no or little account of people who have impairments. It
follows that if disabled people are to be able to join in mainstream society, which
is their human right, the way society is organised must be changed. Removing
the barriers that exclude i.e. disable people who have impairments will bring
about this change. These barriers can be: prejudice and stereotypes; inflexible
organisational procedures and practices; inaccessible information; inaccessible
buildings; and, inaccessible transport.
http://www.drc-gb.org/
http://www.employers-forum.co.uk http://www.radar.org.uk

Stereotyping
This is the process of assigning a person to a particular group (e.g. on the basis
of physical appearance) then generalising based on a belief that all members of
the group share certain characteristics (the stereotype), then finally inferring that
the individual must share these characteristics. Stereotyping underestimates


                                                                                    17
variation within groups and stereotypes can be used to justify hostility,
discrimination, and oppression. http://www.edf.org.uk/
Strategic objectives
These should be derived from each service’s aims and set out what services are
seeking to achieve in each specific area of service.

Targets
A target should be set for each performance indicator. Targets indicate what
level of performance the Council should be able to achieve.

Translation
The act or process of changing the written word (text) from one language to
another. This is distinct from interpretation (see entry for interpretation).
http://www.suffolk.gov.uk/PolicingAndPublicSafety/DiscriminationOrHarassment/I
nterpretingAndTranslatingServices.htm
www.languageline.co.uk

Transgendered
An acceptable term for referring to a person with a recognised medical condition
known as gender dysphoria, where an individual has the desire to live and be
accepted as a member of the opposite sex (men who feel they should have been
born a woman and vice versa). Another term commonly used is transsexual. The
terms trans man (female to male) and trans woman (male to female) are also
acceptable.
http://www.pfc.org.uk/

Transgenderist
A male or female living as a member of the opposite gender without the need for
surgery or medication.

Transsexuals
Transsexuals live with a conviction that their physical anatomy is incompatible
with their true gender role. Medical recognition has been relatively recent.
Transsexuals still face discrimination of a very basic nature and social exclusion.
They have difficulty getting into employment and are likely to suffer the indignity
of being singled out and isolated at work and to be dismissed for reasons
connected with their condition or subjected to adverse treatment short of
dismissal. If dismissed, transsexuals are likely to have particular difficulty in
getting new employment. The rate of occurrence of transsexuality is not
accurately known. Because of the social stigma attached to being transsexual
arising from a widespread lack of awareness of the true nature of the condition it
is often kept hidden. It is only possible to collect statistics on the number of
declared transsexuals and such figures undoubtedly represent only a proportion
of those affected. The Beaumont Society, the largest self-help group for
transgendered people in Europe, estimate that there are 35,000 transsexuals in
the UK. The UK is among a small minority of European countries in which



                                                                                  18
transsexual people cannot change their birth certificates, although this has
recently been successfully challenged
http://www.gendertrust.org.uk
Transsexual Female
This term is used to describe a male having gender reassignment to become
female.

Transsexual Male
This term is used to describe a female having gender reassignment to become
male.

Transvestism
Transvestism is when individuals clothe themselves in other garments usually of
the opposite sex. This falls outside the scope of the legislation. Employees
would be expected to adhere to standards of dress that complied with Health and
Safety risk assessments whilst at work.

Victimisation
This term is used here to refer to a situation where a person is given less
favourable treatment than others because he or she has exercised his or her
rights under this policy or the relevant legislation.

Workers’ Forums
To provide an opportunity for workers form specific Equality groups e.g. women,
disabled workers, black workers, LGBT workers in the council to learn from each
other and share working experiences to promote best practice in the employment
of those workers

Work force Profile
What our workforce looks like. Make up of the people who work for an
organization. Analysing the workforce profile allows us to see how many people
from different groups work for the organization, how many men, how many
women, how many disabled people, how many people from different ethnic
groups, how many lesbian and gay people. It also allows us to see what kind of
jobs people do, how much they are paid/at what grades to see if there are any
patterns. For example, if all women in the authority were in low paid jobs and
concentrated in one service area then the Council would put in place policies and
procedures to try and change this – are people receiving training to enable them
to move up etc.




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