guatemala - SPDIIS by wuzhenguang




         Social Profile         Economic Profile

Latin America - Guatemala                          1
    Population:                            Economy - overview:
     - 13,276,517 (July 2009 est.)         Guatemala is the most populous of the Central American
    Age structure:                        countries with a GDP per capita roughly one-half that of
     - 0-14 years: 39.4% (male             Argentina, Brazil, and Chile. The agricultural sector
     2,664,058/female 2,573,006)           accounts for about one-tenth of GDP, two-fifths of
     - 15-64 years: 56.8% (male            exports, and half of the labor force. Coffee, sugar, and
     3,655,184/female 3,884,331)           bananas are the main products, with sugar exports
     - 65 years and over: 3.8% (male       benefiting from increased global demand for ethanol. The
     231,652/female 268,286) (2009         1996 signing of peace accords, which ended 36 years of
     est.)                                 civil war, removed a major obstacle to foreign
    Population growth rate:               investment, and Guatemala since then has pursued
     - 2.066% (2009 est.)                  important reforms and macroeconomic stabilization. The
    Urbanization:                         Central American Free Trade Agreement (CAFTA)
     - urban population: 49% of total      entered into force in July 2006 and has since spurred
     population (2008)                     increased investment in the export sector, but concerns
     - rate of urbanization: 3.4%          over security, the lack of skilled workers and poor
     annual rate of change (2005-10        infrastructure continued to hamper foreign participation.
     est.)                                 The distribution of income remains highly unequal with
    Life expectancy at birth:             more than half of the population below the national
     - total population: 70.29 years       poverty line. Other ongoing challenges include increasing
     - male: 68.49 years                   government revenues, negotiating further assistance from
     - female: 72.19 years (2009 est.)     international donors, curtailing drug trafficking and
    Ethnic groups:                        rampant crime, and narrowing the trade deficit. Given
     - Mestizo (mixed Amerindian-          Guatemala's large expatriate community in the United
        Spanish - in local Spanish         States, it is the top remittance recipient in Central
        called Ladino) and European        America, with inflows serving as a primary source of
        59.4%, K'iche 9.1%, Kaqchikel      foreign income equivalent to nearly two-thirds of exports.
        8.4%, Mam 7.9%, Q'eqchi            Economic growth will slow in 2009 as export demand
        6.3%, other Mayan 8.6%,            from US and other Central American markets drop and
        indigenous non-Mayan 0.2%,         foreign investment slows amid the global slowdown.
        other 0.1% (2001 census)
    Religions:                                GDP (purchasing power parity):
     - Roman Catholic, Protestant,              - $68.75 billion (2008 est.)
     indigenous Mayan beliefs                  GDP - per capita (PPP):
    Literacy:                                  -$5,300 (2008 est.)
     - definition: age 15 and over can         Labor force - by occupation:
     read and write                             - agriculture: 50%
     - total population: 69.1%                  - industry: 15%
     - male: 75.4%                              - services: 35% (1999 est.)
     - female: 63.3% (2002 census)             Population below poverty line:
                                                 - 56.2% (2004 est.)


 Gender inequality in economic activity:
Economic activity rate, female (% aged 15 and older), 2005

 Latin America - Guatemala                                                                        2
Economic activity index (1990=100), female (aged 15 and older), 2005                            116
Economic activity rate (female rate as % of male rate, aged 15 and older), 2005                  41
Employment in agriculture, female (% of total female employment), 1995-2005                      18
Employment in agriculture, male (% of total male employment), 1995-2004                          50
Employment in industry, female (% of total female employment), 1995-2003                         23
Employment in industry, male (% of total male employment), 1995-2003                             18
Employment in services, female (% of total female employment), 1995-2003                         56
Employment in services, male (% of total male employment), 1995-2003                             27
Contributing family workers, women (% of total), 1995-2005                                        ..
Contributing family workers, men (% of total), 1995-2004


              Project Initiators :          NamasteDirect, a project of the Namaste
                                            Foundation, is a microcredit non-profit organization
                                            based out of San Francisco, California, United
                                            States. NamasteDirect is committed to alleviating
                                            poverty in rural communities in Guatemala and
                                            Mexico. They combine microcredit loans with a
                                            personal mentor, business education, and vocational

                                            In Guatemala, NamasteDirect partners with:
                                            a) FAPE (Fundación de Asistencia para Pequeña
                                            Empresa), Guatemala City, Guatemala
                                            b) Edubanco (A project of CARE International),
                                                Chichicastenango, Guatemala
                                            c) CES (Soluciones Comunitarias), Panajachel,

 Latin America - Guatemala                                                                      3
          Project Design:   NamasteDirect funds small loans to first-time
                            borrowers, primarily women, in some of the more
                            marginalized communities in Central America.
                            These loans are used to create or augment a small
                            business such that the borrower can reach economic
                            self-sufficiency for herself and her family.

                            NamasteDirect raises money from private donors
                            and foundations, and channels these funds to
                            established,        well-managed       microcredit
                            organizations, initially in Guatemala.

                            NamasteDirect makes such grants primarily as an
                            incentive to serve first-time borrowers in rural areas
                            who would otherwise not have access to credit

                            Microcredit, also known as Microfinance, uses the
                            simple but powerful principle of social collateral
                            and works like this:

                            1. Loans of $100 to $200 are offered to women
                            who own small businesses, such as raising chickens,
                            making jewelry, or weaving mats.
                            2. Borrowers are placed into groups and agree to
                            be responsible for each other's debt.
                            3. They must make up the difference if a group
                            member defaults; otherwise, they lose their
                            opportunity to borrow again at the next cycle.
                            4. This responsibility gives the women incentive to
                            follow through on their business plans. They keep
                            tabs on each other and encourage each other to
                            make deposits into their savings accounts.
                            5. New loans are never available until the previous
                            one is paid off.
                            6. These loans are secured by nothing more than
                            the borrowers' integrity, thus the term "social

                            Banks have an average default rate of about 3
                            percent, but Microcredit typically has a mere 1
                            percent default rate. This is because with a bank, if
                            a borrower is delinquent, there are notices, fines and
                            credit report consequences. But in a Mayan village,
                            if a woman is having problems making her
                            payments, the other women in her group are likely

Latin America - Guatemala                                                      4
                            to pay her a visit and see how they can help her get
                            back on her feet (http://www. anti-poverty-
                            s_guatemalan_women - 42k -).

          Project Impact:   Since its founding, NamasteDirect has funded
                            microloans to capitalize the tiny enterprises of over
                            4,000 women in rural communities of Guatemala
                            and Chiapas, Mexico.

                            (a) FAPE (Fundación de Asistencia para
                            Pequeña Empresa), Guatemala City, Guatemala

                            Number of clients: 3,300 (92% women)

                            Started in 1984 with a small amount of seed capital,
                            FAPE supports micro-enterprise development in the
                            most marginalized communities. A change in
                            leadership three years ago brought about a more
                            focused and professional approach to microfinance,
                            and the organization has methodically built its
                            financial and management capabilities since then.
                            FAPE is now an important part of a thriving
                            microfinance community, serving a vital role by
                            reaching out to under served communities in rural
                            areas of Guatemala. Its methodology is primarily
                            group lending through a model called Bancos de
                            Mujeres de Confianza ("Banks of Trustworthy
                            Women"), although as of recently FAPE also offers
                            solidarity group loans and individual loans. FAPE’s
                            loan repayment rates are on the order of 95-97%.

                            (b) Edubanco      (A     project   of   CARE
                            International), Chichicastenango, Guatemala

                            Number of clients: 1,695 (100% women)

                            The EDUBANCO project provides microcredit
                            loans and seeks to support elementary education for
                            borrowers' children. Women receive discounts on
                            loan interest if their daughters remain in school.
                            This project seeks to empower women and their
                            daughters simultaneously by supporting women's
                            economic opportunities and girl's education, helping
                            to address the education gender gap in Guatemala.

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                            CARE collaborates with the Ministry of Education,
                            local partners, teachers and associations in
                            implementing education reform and strengthening
                            the quality of primary education.

                            (c) CES (Soluciones Comunitarias), Panajachel,

                            CE Solutions was founded in May 2004 by former
                            Guatemala Peace Corps Volunteers Greg Van Kirk
                            and George B Glickley. ded to stay on to complete
                            "unfinished work". The CE Solutions team works to
                            transfer both knowledge and resources to local
                            individuals so that they can improve their quality of
                            life and of those of others in their community. Their
                            success is derived from creating practical, low cost
                            and flexible solutions that address real needs and
                            offer compelling opportunities. CE Solutions
                            conducts extensive analysis to ensure that the
                            designed solution and implementation mechanism is
                            one that is appropriate for the local environment and

                            Focus on Women-Owned Businesses
                            According to the study “Tracking the Progress of
                            239 Microcredit Program Participants in
                            Guatemala” by Bruce Wydick, Economics
                            Professor at the University of San Francisco,
                            “Enterprises operated by female entrepreneurs
                            appeared in many ways to be more stable than those
                            operated by men." This is possibly because in
                            Guatemala and much of the world, it is the women
                            who seek medical care, purchase school supplies
                            and strive for decent housing and meals for their

                            While a Microcredit loan can finance a business run
                            jointly by husband and wife, in most models it is the
                            wife's name on the loan documents, and it is she
                            who is ultimately responsible for repayment. She
                            knows that if she defaults, her family may not

                            How Cottage Industries Benefit
                            If a Mayan woman living in rural Guatemala raises
                            chickens, she might use money from a loan to buy

Latin America - Guatemala                                                     6
                            chicks for $2 apiece. She would spend portions of
                            her loan feeding them, sheltering them and
                            vaccinating them. Then, in under six months she
                            would sell them on the open market for about $4
                            each. To be able to buy in bulk makes a huge
                            difference in her profit margin, and the increased
                            capital gives her more buying power in the
                            marketplace. This might mean new shoes for her
                            sons, three meals a day instead of two, or buying
                            school books.

                            Individual achievers

                            Ofelia Marina, a woman who used her loan to
                            become her own boss. Ofelia’s loan enabled her to
                            get out from underneath dependence on a patrón
                            and to develop her own, custom apron sewing
                            business. Ofelia’s customers come directly to her
                            and order custom aprons to be sewn for them.
                            Microcredit has given Ofelia Marina control over
                            her                    own                   destiny

Latin America - Guatemala                                                    7
                            BRIDGE), PANAJACHEL, GUATEMALA

          Project Initiators :   Friendship Bridge is a non-profit, non-governmental
                                 organization that provides microcredit and
                                 educational programs so women and their families
                                 can create their own solutions to poverty. It was
                                 founded by Connie and Ted Ning as an NGO to
                                 help Vietnamese people suffering from highly
                                 preventable diseases. Seeking a more sustainable
                                 solution to the issue of global poverty, Friendship
                                 Bridge turned to microcredit, the provision of small
                                 loans to women to enhance or start businesses.

                                 In 1998, Friendship Bridge expanded its work to
                                 Guatemala, another country ravaged by war and
                                 fraught with poverty. Continuing to believe that
                                 microcredit has the most direct impact on the
                                 welfare of women and their families. The program
                                 in Guatemala today has over 14,000 women who
                                 take part in its Microcredit Plus program.

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          Project Design:   Working in Guatemala since 1998, Friendship
                            Bridge is committed to reaching the poorest areas of
                            rural Guatemala and providing credit and education
                            to women (primarily Mayan). Topics on business
                            development, self esteem, and women's health are
                            delivered through regularly scheduled repay

                            In addition, in an effort to support clients desires to
                            enable their children's education, Friendship Bridge
                            offers scholarships and school supplies to thousands
                            of children, and operates a children's learning center
                            in the remote village of Nebaj.

                            The Friendship Bridge Microcredit program offers
                            small loans to the women of Guatemala for the
                            establishment or expansion of a small business. The
                            loans range from $50 to $1,000 and carry 4 to 12
                            month terms. Loans are used in businesses such as
                            handicraft production, commerce and animal
                            husbandry. Profits from these businesses boost
                            overall household income. As loans are repaid, they
                            are re-loaned. The reinvestment of loan funds
                            multiplies the impact of each dollar loaned.

                            Through Friendship Bridge's Microcredit Program,
                            women form groups of 10-30 members. This group
                            becomes a Trust Bank that develops business plans
                            together, co-guarantees individual member's loans,
                            and participates in the non-formal education
                            sessions that are part of every repayment meeting.

                            Each Trust Bank elects from their members an
                            executive committee that includes a president, vice-
                            president, treasurer, secretary, and sometimes an at-
                            large member. Elections are held at the beginning of
                            each loan cycle. This elected group is responsible
                            for the management and leadership of the group.
                            They problem solve when there are attendance or
                            repayment issues with individual members, they
                            work with the facilitator (loan officer) to conduct
                            effective meetings, and they handle banking (make
                            deposits into and withdrawals out of their account)
                            on behalf of the group.

          Project Impact:   The benefits of Microcredit include:

Latin America - Guatemala                                                       9
                            • A greater ability to weather economic     shocks,
                            such as illness or natural disaster
                            • Decreased malnutrition
                            • Decreased spousal abuse
                            • Improved hygiene and health care
                            • Increased number of children attending school,
                            especially girls
                            • Increased support, camaraderie, and self- esteem
                            among borrowers
                            • Increased level of family planning (borrowers
                            are 50% more likely to have fewer     children)

                            Friendship Bridge provides microcredit and
                            education in Guatemala to help women and their
                            families create their own solutions to poverty.

                            1.     Natalia

                            Comfortably nestled between a man fanning flies
                            away from the shrimp he is selling and a woman
                            offering a variety of beans, Natalia sits behind her
                            mangos and pineapple, having already sold about
                            half of her stock for the day. The heat of Yepocapa
                            makes her colorful fruit irresistible, and as we talk
                            several customers stop to purchase this refreshing
                            and nutritious treat. Read more about Natalia.

                            Natalia begins selling at 9 am and continues until
                            about 2 pm, after which she travels about 45
                            minutes to the coast of Guatemala to purchase the
                            fruit for the next day. Each day she purchases
                            seven baskets full of fruit; she buys the pineapple
                            for 40 quetzales per dozen (5 USD) and can sell
                            them for 8 quetzales a piece (1 USD), and the
                            mangos can be sold for 2 quetzales each.

Latin America - Guatemala                                                     10
                            Natalia used to sell indoors at the same market, but
                            she made the move outdoors because fruit sells
                            much better there, as she is located on the main
                            street where several people pass by, not just market
                            customers. This allows for more ‘impulse’
                            purchases, which have helped her income greatly.
                            Natalia is very happy with her loans from
                            Friendship Bridge, which allow her to purchase
                            greater quantities of fruit daily. She is looking
                            forward to more loans in the future

                            2.     Elisabet Jerez Chamale

                            Elisabet Jerez Chamale is finishing up her batch of
                            tortillas for lunchtime. In addition to her weaving
                            business, Elisabet has begun a small tortilla
                            business, renting a stove two blocks from her home.
                            She is full of joy, and so excited to be able to show
                            us how the tortillas are prepared and cooked.
                            Excitedly, she takes a dozen cooked tortillas out of
                            their covered basket and places them back on the
                            stove so we can see exactly how she cooks and
                            turns them to perfection.

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                            With this loan, her second with Friendship Bridge,
                            Elisabet purchased several pounds of thread in bulk,
                            with which she is quite busy filling orders for
                            huipiles (the traditional Mayan blouse), as well as
                            producing extras to sell in the market. The huipiles
                            are very time consuming, taking up to a couple
                            months to produce, and every minute that she is not
                            cooking tortillas, Elisabet is weaving. She invested
                            the rest of her loan in ingredients for the tortillas.
                            She sells five for one quetzal (about .15 USD), and
                            can sell about 150 tortillas a day.

                            Elisabet laughs energetically and says how much
                            she loves being a part of Friendship Bridge. She is
                            already noticing a difference in her ability to
                            generate income and has been able to save a small
                            amount of money each week. She is optimistic
                            about the future and her ability to provide continued
                            education for her children, as well as improve their
                            living conditions. She says she’s definitely planning
                            on taking out another loan, and hopes that she can
                            someday invest in a store of her own that can
                            double as a tortillería as well as a locale from which
                            to sell her weavings, and possibly as a home for her

Latin America - Guatemala                                                      12

      Project Initiators:   Project Concern International (PCI) began working
                            in Guatemala in 1974, bringing basic health care to
                            Mayan communities around Lake Atitlan.
                            Throughout the 1980s, during the civil war that
                            ravaged Guatemala, PCI trained an extensive
                            network of volunteers and local leaders to deliver
                            health services to families in need. Building on

Latin America - Guatemala                                                   13
                            three decades of experience, PCI/Guatemala
                            continues to work with rural communities to
                            improve the lives of vulnerable populations, with a
                            focus on women of reproductive age and children.

                            Specifically, in 2000, in partnership with a local
                            association     of    midwives,      PCI/Guatemala
                            established the Casa Materna (Mother’s House), an
                            integrated reproductive and maternal health
                            program aimed at reducing maternal and infant
                            morbidity and mortality in the western and central
                            highlands of the country. PCI has also successfully
                            implemented numerous projects in the country
                            designed      to    increase      commercialization
                            opportunities, diversify agricultural practices and
                            improve the health and nutritional status of
                            vulnerable                             communities

                            In 1961, a young doctor from San Diego
                            volunteering at a Tijuana clinic saved the lives of
                            two small children who were dying of pneumonia.
                            This experience led Dr. Jim Turpin to found Project
                            Concern International and forever change the lives
                            of millions of children around the world by
                            providing health and poverty solutions.

                            Motivated by the suffering of people in the world’s
                            most impoverished communities, Dr. Jim Turpin
                            moved his family to Hong Kong and opened a
                            floating clinic that offered basic medical services to
                            the residents of Kowloon. His vision for the future
                            was to provide the world’s children with access to
                            essential health care services.

                            Since then, thousands of dedicated individuals and
                            groups have been inspired by this vision and have
                            lent their voices to help establish our current
                            programs in eleven different countries on five
                            continents. Each voice has made an impact, helping
                            Project Concern reach millions of people in need.

                            Today, the underlying vision of the organization has
                            remained true to its founder: Project Concern works
                            in    vulnerable      communities by     preventing
                            disease, providing poverty solutions and creating

Latin America - Guatemala                                                      14
                                long-term change by helping people to help

                                But there is still much to be done. Please lend you
                                voice and spread our message of global concern.
                                Each of us can make a child at a

      Project Design:           Mission
                                Project Concern International's mission is to prevent
                                disease, improve community health, and promote
                                sustainable development.

                                Motivated by our concern for the world's most
                                vulnerable children, families, and communities,
                                Project Concern International (PCI) envisions a
                                world where abundant resources are shared,
                                communities are able to provide for the health and
                                well being of their members, and children and
                                families can achieve lives of hope, good health, and

                                Operating Principles
                               Accountability: We implement programs with
                                meaningful, concrete, and measurable results. We
                                set clear goals and track our progress. We hold
                                ourselves fully accountable to our donors and those
                                we serve.

                               Integration: Improving community health requires
                                an integrated approach in order to achieve lasting
                                impact. Our programs address factors that influence
                                health, such as access to nutritious food, clean
                                water, education, gender equity, and economic

                               Capacity   Building:     We are committed to
                                community-based       health    and     development
                                programs. We empower local communities,
                                organizations, and networks by equipping them
                                with the tools and resources they need to deliver
                                and sustain effective programs. We form
                                partnerships with local organizations that emphasize
                                mutual respect, two-way and innovative learning
                                methods, and application of new knowledge and

Latin America - Guatemala                                                         15
                               Responsiveness: While having the technical and
                                organizational experience, expertise, and resources
                                of a global organization, we stay grounded and
                                responsive to community needs in order to achieve
                                effective and sustainable solutions to local problems

                                Providing health and poverty solutions

                                In places where access to health care is severely
                                limited, the best way to implement poverty
                                solutions and protect the health of children,
                                mothers, and families is to show parents,
                                community volunteers, and local governments ways
                                of preventing disease and illness. Project Concern
                                International employs an integrated approach to its
                                work by focusing on the following main
                                intervention areas:

Latin America - Guatemala                                                         16
                            Preventing Disease

                            In addition to improving and sustaining medical
                            care for children and their families, PCI works with
                            over 8,000 community health volunteers on ways of
                            preventing disease in the community and providing
                            basic health care to their neighbors. PCI plays a
                            leadership role around the world addressing the
                            HIV/AIDS pandemic by providing prevention
                            services, care and support, food, and shelter for
                            those most affected by the disease.

                            Maternal Child Health

                            PCI improves maternal child health by promoting
                            healthy behaviors such as prenatal care, child
                            immunizations, and breastfeeding.

Latin America - Guatemala                                                    17
                            Water and Sanitation

                            PCI works with communities to dig wells, build
                            latrines, and construct safe water and sewage
                            systems. PCI also trains volunteers to teach their
                            communities about proper hygiene and sanitation.

                            Food Security

Latin America - Guatemala                                                  18
                            PCI ensures that children grow up healthy and
                            strong by providing nutritious meals in schools,
                            promoting family vegetable gardens, and providing
                            farmers with techniques for improved agriculture
                            and livestock production.

                            Humanitarian Relief and Assistance

                            While PCI's main focus is building sustainable
                            healthy communities worldwide, often times there
                            are emergency situations that require our
                            programmatic expertise and immediate attention in
                            order to alleviate suffering and prevent health crises
                            that often result from a catastrophic natural disaster.

          Project Impact:   Producing quality coffee in Guatemala

                            Francisca Ortiz and her husband Bacilio Ramos live
                            in the village of El Guayabo, which is located 15
                            minutes from the center of Olopa, Guatemala. Life
                            was hard for these two coffee farmers who, despite
                            all their toil, still lived in dire poverty. Ten months
                            ago their luck changed.

                            Project Concern International, with partner
                            Asociacion de Mujeres Olopenses, began providing

Latin America - Guatemala                                                       19
                            small loans and business training to more than
                            1,300 women producers in rural Guatemala.
                            Participants learned how to analyze market prices
                            and develop marketing plans for their coffee, as
                            well as gained enhanced farming skills.

                            “We have lived off of coffee production since I was
                            a little girl,” remarks Ortiz. “Today, the coffee that
                            we cultivate is better thanks to the technical
                            assistance we receive.”

                            According to Hamblin Duarte, agronomist engineer
                            employed by Asorech, “The land of Olopa is meant
                            to be cultivated. The coffee produced here is
                            organic coffee grown at high altitudes, which is
                            classified as ‘strictly hard’.”

                            Due to this classification, the market price paid for
                            this type of bean improved last year. Following this
                            increase, Project Concern International launched a
                            campaign by utilizing local radio stations to inform
                            coffee growers about the new, fair market price for
                            their product.

                             “The idea was to inform the growers about the
                            selling and buying prices so that they aren’t cheated
                            by intermediaries,” said Ronaldo Trigueros,
                            Technical Coordinator for Project Concern

                            The results paid off. This year, Francisca and her
                            husband were able to export their coffee abroad
                            thanks to the contacts they made through the

Latin America - Guatemala                                                      20
                                program. The family sold 22 sacks of coffee at 700
                                Quintales ($92) each; last year, they received only
                                250 Quintales ($33) for the same amount.

                                Improving economic opportunities for families in

                                Small coffee farmers often receive prices for their
                                coffee that are less than production costs, forcing
                                them into a vicious cycle of poverty and debt.

                                Project Concern, with partner Asociacion de
                                Mujeres Olopenses, is providing training and small
                                loans to more than 1,000 women producers in
                                rural Guatemala to combat this trend. Participants
                                are learning how to analyze market prices and
                                develop marketing plans for their coffee, as well as
                                gaining new and better farming skills. The
                                program's radio campaign broadcasts coffee prices,
                                enabling producers to better negotiate sale prices for
                                their products.

                                Project Concern and partners recently hosted a
                                regional coffee fair, where world-renowned coffee
                                tasters gave high marks to the local product. Nearly
                                3,000 people attended the fair, and coffee producers
                                were able to sell approximately 10,000 pounds of

                               "Project Concern not only gave us loans, but also
                                teaches us to be more analytical," says Dona
                                Isabela, one of the program's participants. "They are
                                teaching us to find good solutions to our problems
                                ourselves" (

Latin America - Guatemala                                                          21

   1. A ready fund paves the way
   2. A collectively felt need justifies the efforts
   3. An enlightened board of policy makers show the way
   4. An efficient on the ground mechanism guarantees implementation
   5. A global-local network makes it happen
   6. A special emphasis on remotely located women adds value to the project
   7. A special emphasis on chronically neglected women adds value to the project
   8. A special emphasis on physically disabled women adds value to the project
   9. Training for targeted women is the imperative of their economic empowerment
   10. Physical and mental health is pre-requisite of economic empowerment.
   11. Respect for the women’s existential right makes the difference.
   12. Creative techniques ensure women’s accessibility to empowerment.
   13. Faith in women as effective leaders for change in their families and communities
       secures success of projects


Central       Intellegence     Agency.        2009.      The       world      factbook.

UNDP. 2007. Human Development Report 2007 – Country Facts                         Sheet.

World Economic Forum. 2009. The Global Gender Gap 2009 Report: Country Profiles. - 35k -

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http://www.anti-poverty- - 42k -

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