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Speeding-Aggressive Driving 9-07

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					Ohio State Highway Patrol


  Speeding and Aggressive
          Driving
Introduction
p Speeding is a serious safety issue.
p Speed reduces the time drivers have to avoid crashes
  and it increases the likelihood of crashing and the
  severity of crashes that do occur.
p According to the National Highway Traffic Safety
  Administration (NHTSA), speeding is one of the most
  prevalent reported factors associated with crashes.
p Year in and year out, excessive speed is a significant
  contributing factor in a high-percentage of fatal crashes
  in Ohio.
p NHTSA estimates the economic cost to society of speed-
  related crashes to be more than $29 billion each year.
  Health care costs alone are about $4 billion per year.
Effects of a crash
p In a high-speed crash, a passenger vehicle is subjected
  to forces so severe that the vehicle structure can't
  withstand the force of the crash and thus can't
  sufficiently protect occupants from serious injury.
p The performance of restraint systems such as airbags
  and safety belts are compromised in high-speed crashes.
   n   Also true of roadside hardware and safety features such as
       barriers, crash cushions, and bridge rails, which are designed
       to reduce crash severity by absorbing crash energy or
       redirecting errant vehicles away from stationary roadside
       objects.
p Higher truck speeds bring additional problems including
  increased tire tread wear, a rise in tire-weakening
  operation temperature, longer stopping distances, and
  increased brake wear.
Effects of a crash
pRoadway design factors, including how far
 ahead a driver can see, are compromised if
 vehicles travel faster than circumstances
 warrant.
pOther vehicles and pedestrians are put at risk by
 speeding drivers whose distances they may not
 be able to judge accurately.
pRecent studies have shown that drivers who run
 red lights are likely to be speeding and that
 motorcyclists who crash with other vehicles
 making left turns also are likely to be speeding.
Effects of Speed on Crashes
pThe higher the travel speed, the greater the risk
 of serious injury or death in a crash.
pVehicles and their occupants in motion have
 kinetic energy that is dissipated in a crash.
pThe greater the energy that must be dissipated,
 the greater the chances of severe injury or
 death.
pThe laws of physics tell us that crash severity
 increases disproportionately with vehicle speed.
 A frontal impact at 35 mph, for example, is one-
 third more violent than one at 30 mph.
Speed influences crashes in four
basic ways
p It increases the distance a vehicle travels from
  when a driver detects an emergency until the
  driver reacts.
p It increases the distance needed to stop a
  vehicle once an emergency is perceived.
p Crash severity increases by the square of the
  speed so that, when speed increases from 40
  to 60 mph, speed goes up 50 percent while the
  energy released in a crash more than doubles.
p Higher crash speeds reduce the ability of
  vehicles and restraint systems to protect
  occupants.
Young drivers speed more than all
other age groups
p In a study of drivers on limited access highways, high-
  speed drivers were more often male and more often
  judged to be younger than 30.
p Studies in California have found that the rate of speeding
  violations per mile traveled is at least three times as high
  for drivers 16-19 years old as it is for drivers age 30 and
  older.
p Although speeding is a problem among all driver age
  groups, the crashes and violations of young drivers are
  much more likely to be related to speed than is the case
  for drivers of other ages -- and the motor vehicle crash
  death rate per 100,000 people is especially high among
  16-24 year-olds.
Young drivers speed more than all
other age groups
pNHTSA analysis found that the relative
 proportion of speed-related fatal crashes
 decreases with increasing driver age. About 37
 percent of all drivers age 14-19 involved in fatal
 crashes nationally were in speed-related
 crashes, but the percentage among drivers 70
 and older decreased to seven percent.
pAt all ages, male drivers are more likely than
 female drivers to be involved in speed-related
 fatal crashes.
Does the speed limit matter?
Don’t drivers speed anyway?
pMany drivers tend to drive somewhat faster than
 posted speed limits, no matter what the limits.
pThe more important speed-related safety issue
 on freeways involves the proportion of vehicles
 traveling at very high speeds, not the proportion
 violating the speed limit.
pThe Insurance Institute for Highway Safety
 conducts frequent monitoring of free-flowing
 travel speeds on interstate highways. Results of
 these studies reveal that, in general, higher
 speed limits lead to greater proportions of cars
 traveling at very high speeds.
Does the speed limit matter?
Don’t drivers speed anyway?
p In New Mexico, which raised its limits to 65 mph on rural
  interstates in 1987, the proportion of motorists
  exceeding 70 mph grew from five percent shortly after
  speed limits were raised to 36 percent in 1993. After
  speed limits were further increased to 75 mph in 1996,
  more than 42 percent of motorists exceeded 75 mph.
p In Maryland, which retained 55 mph limits on rural
  interstates until 1995, the proportion traveling faster
  than 70 mph remained virtually unchanged at seven
  percent during 1988-93. By 1994, 12-15 percent of cars
  were exceeding 70.
p In Virginia, which switched to 65 mph limits, the
  percentage exceeding 70 mph went from eight percent
  in 1988 to 29 percent by 1992 and 39 percent by 1994.
Speed Limits
p Speed limits are typically set based on roadway design.
p Design speed is not necessarily a safe travel speed.
p The American Association of State Highway and Transportation
  Officials defines design speed as, “The maximum safe speed that
  can be maintained when conditions are so favorable that the design
  features govern.”
p It is the maximum speed at which drivers can maintain a safe level
  of vehicle control on a particular section of highway under the
  conditions for which the highway was designed.
p Speed limits are set somewhat lower because conditions are not
  always favorable and design features do not always warrant higher
  speeds. Many motorists also assume there is a kind of built-in
  tolerance factor in speed limit enforcement, so they exceed the limit
  regardless of what it is.
Commercial Vehicle Speeds
p Large trucks require much longer distances than cars to stop. Lower
  speed limits for trucks make heavy vehicle stopping distances closer
  to those of lighter vehicles.
p Slower truck speeds allow automobile drivers to pass trucks more
  easily.
p Crashes involving large trucks not only can cause massive traffic tie-
  ups in congested areas, but they put other road users at great risk.
p Nationally, a total of 98 percent of the people killed in two-vehicle
  crashes involving a passenger vehicle and a large truck are
  occupants of the passenger vehicles.
p Insurance Institute for Highway Safety studies have shown that
  lower speed limits for trucks on 65 mph highways lower the
  proportion traveling faster than 70 mph without increasing variation
  among vehicle speeds.
Aggressive drivers – Who are
they?
p These high risk drivers climb into the anonymity of an automobile
  and take out their frustrations on anybody at any time.
p For them, frustration levels are high, and level of concern for fellow
  motorists is low.
p They run stop signs and red lights, speed, tailgate, weave in and
  out of traffic, pass on the right, make improper and unsafe lane
  changes, make hand and facial gestures, scream, honk, and flash
  their lights.
p They drive at speeds far in excess of the norm which causes them
  to: follow too closely, change lanes frequently and abruptly without
  notice (signals), pass on the shoulder or unpaved portions of the
  roadway, and leer at and/or threaten - verbally or through gestures
  - motorists who are thoughtless enough to be in front of them.
What to do when confronted by
an aggressive driver
pFirst and foremost make every attempt to get
 out of their way.
pPut your pride in the back seat. Do not challenge
 them by speeding up or attempting to hold-your
 -own in your travel lane.
pWear your safety belt. It will it hold you in your
 seat and behind the wheel in case you need to
 make an abrupt driving maneuver and it will
 protect you in a crash.
pAvoid eye contact.
What to do when confronted by
an aggressive driver
p Ignore gestures and refuse to return them.
p Report aggressive drivers to the appropriate authorities
  by providing a vehicle description, license number,
  location, and if possible, direction of travel.
p If you have a cell phone, and can do it safely, call the
  Highway Patrol at 1-877-7-PATROL to report aggressive
  drivers or other potential driving dangers, or to receive
  non-emergency highway help
   n   In the event of an emergency, call 9-1-1.
p If an aggressive driver is involved in a crash farther
  down the road, stop a safe distance from the crash
  scene, wait for law enforcement police to arrive and
  report the driving behavior that you witnessed.
Tip on how to deal with
aggressive drivers

pAvoid the challenges or
 confrontations of an aggressive
 driver and support law enforcement's
 efforts to rid the streets and
 highways of this menace.
Final Thought
pAccording to a NHTSA study:
  n   The majority of drivers in the United States consider
      speeding and other forms of unsafe driving to be a
      major threat to the personal safety of themselves and
      their families. More than six out of 10 drivers (61%) say
      that speeding by other people is a major threat to
      personal safety of themselves and their families.
  n   The threat of unsafe driving is real, rather than
      hypothetical for many drivers. More than six out of 10
      drivers (62%) report that the behavior of another driver
      has been a threat to them or their passengers within the
      past year.
Ohio State Highway Patrol


  Speeding and Aggressive
          Driving
      Questions? Comments?
      Personal Experiences?

   http://www.statepatrol.ohio.gov

				
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posted:11/15/2013
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