Racial Profiling The Discrimination System

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Racial Profiling The Discrimination System Powered By Docstoc
					The Discrimination System: Race and Public Policy
Barbara Reskin Department of Sociology University of Washington, Seattle January 3, 2004

Heuristic Model of System Analysis Subsystem B

Subsystem A
Subsystem C

Subsystem D

Disparities in Test Performance School Segregation Disparities in Access to Higher Education Disparities in Criminal Justice

Neighborhood Segregation

Racial Stigma

Labor Market Disparities

Disparities in Economic Status

Indices of Black-White Segregation, 2000
• • • • • • • • • • • • Detroit 85 New York 82 Milwaukee 82 Chicago 81 Newark 80 Cleveland 77 Miami 74 Indianapolis 71 Kansas City 69 Los Angeles 66 Atlanta 65 South Africa under apartheid: 92.5

Neighborhood Segregation Subsystem
Housing Market Discrimination Mortgage-Market Discrimination Location of Public Housing Zoning Decisions Disparate Economic Resources Opposition to Black Neighbors Neighborhood Segregation

Housing Market Discrimination
• 13% of black testers posing as house buyers were offered assistance in mortgage lending, compared with 24% of white testers. • Hispanics who asked about unadvertised units were 8 percentage points more likely to be steered toward relatively low-income neighborhoods than their Anglo counterparts • Blacks were quoted higher rents than whites for the same unit.
The Economist, June 1998

Effects of Neighborhood Segregation
School Segregation Achievement test scores Exposure to crime; arrest Transportation and other public services
Neighborhood Segregation

Job segregation Racial stigma Property values; community power

Disparities in Test Performance

School Segregation

Disparities in Access to Higher Education

Disparities in Criminal Justice

Neighborhood Segregation

Racial Stigma

Labor Market Disparities

Disparities in Economic Status

Trends in School Segregation: Percentage of Students of Color in Predominantly-Minority Elementary and Secondary Schools
1968 1969 1980 1999 77% 62% 70% 55% 75%

Blacks Hispanics

AP Classes by Race In predominantly-white suburban schools, advanced placement courses are universal. In poor and minority neighborhoods, only 43 percent of high schools offer AP classes

Number of Students per 1000 Who Took AP Exams, by Race, 1984-1997
140 120 100 80 60

40 20 0
1984 1986 1988 1990 1992 1994 1996 1997

National Center for Educational Statistics 2000

Unequal Treatment in the Classroom
In an experiment in which teachers gave performance feedback to students whom they could not see, the teachers gave less positive feedback after correct responses, briefer feedback for mistakes, and less coaching to students whom they believed to be black than they did for student whom they thought were white.
R. Ferguson 1998:294.

Disparities in Test Performance School Segregation
Disparities in Access to Higher Education

Disparities in Criminal Justice

Neighborhood Segregation

Racial Stigma

Labor Market Disparities

Disparities in Economic Status

The Likelihood of Encountering Discrimination When You’re Outnumbered
If just one white in seven treats African Americans unfairly because of their race, there would be one actively discriminating white for every black person in America.
Fischer et al. 1996:183.

Stereotype Threat
According to an experiment on the performance of white and black varsity athletes, when the experimenters told the athletes that miniature golf tested athletic ability, the black athletes outscored the whites; when they told the athletes that miniature golf tested athletic intelligence, the white athletes outscored the blacks.
Stone et al. 1999

College Attendance by Race (1990s)
% HS

grads in college White 45 Black 36 Hispanic 35

% students @ colleges community with mean SATs > 1000 colleges

% college students @

36 43 57

36 30 22

Percentage of Students Earning BAs at Schools with at Least Half Minority Students (1993) Race
Hispanic Black Asian
Jacobs 1996

Percentage
34 32 7

Disparities in Test Performance School Segregation Disparities in Access to Higher Education Disparities in Criminal Justice

Neighborhood Segregation

Racial Stigma

Labor Market Disparities

Disparities in Economic Status

Family Economics and College Admission
Academic Criteria What Money Can Buy

Class rank, GPA Standardized test scores

Tutoring Prep class up to $1K $60 per shot
Professional editor Professional editor Family social ties

Personal essay Recommendations

Family Economics and College Admission
Nonacademic Criteria Musical, athletic “talent” “Character” (volunteers) Extracurricular activities Interesting experiences Campus interview In-state tuition Donations to institution Legacy status What Money Can Buy Private lessons, equipment No part-time job No part-time job Unpaid internships Travel abroad Travel expenses $3000-$10,000 6-figure donations Family members alumni

Disparities in Test Performance School Segregation Disparities in Access to Higher Education
Disparities in Criminal Justice

Neighborhood Segregation

Racial Stigma

Labor Market Disparities

Disparities in Economic Status

Hiring Discrimination
• In more than 2,000 audits, employers discriminated against minorities between 20 and 25 percent of the time • Employers favored whites in invitations to interview, job offers, compensation, job assignments, and information about unadvertised opportunities
Fix, Galster, & Struyk; Kenney & Wissoker, 1994.

Hiring Discrimination
Faxed applications from “applicants” with names like Kristin, Meredith, Brad and Jay to employers that had advertised for entrylevel jobs were 50 percent more likely to be called by employers than applications signed by people with names like Lakisha, Tamika, Rasheed, and Darnell.
Bertrand and Mullainathan 2002

Unemployment by Race and Sex, 2002
Adult Teens Men 14.1 5.0 28.2 10.0 Adult Women 4.2 8.9

White Black

Current Population Survey, 2003

Labor Force Participation by Sex and Race (in percent) White Black Teens 47 29 Men Women 60 77 64 72

Current Population Survey, 2003

Occupational Segregation
Indices of Occupational Segregation with Same-Sex European-Ancestry Whites
 African Americans

30-35 32-40 44-45

 

Mexican Americans Southeast Asians

2002 Median Earnings by Race and Sex for Full-Time Year-Round Workers
Men Non-Hispanic white 41,400 African American 32,257 Hispanic 26,493
U.S. Bureau of the Census 2003

Women 30,890 27,351 22,192

Numbers (in 1000s) of Black and White Males Incarcerated in Federal and State Prisons and Jails
900 800 700 600 500 400 Black Males 300 200 100 0 1985 1990 1995 2000 White Males

Disparities in Test Performance School Segregation Disparities in Access to Higher Education

Disparities in Criminal Justice

Neighborhood Segregation

Racial Stigma

Labor Market Disparities

Disparities in Economic Status

Hiring Discrimination
Milwaukee employers preferred white applicants to matched black applicants, and applicants without prison records to applicants with records. But they preferred white applicants with a prison record to matched black applicants who had no prison record.
Pager, American Journal of Sociology 2003

Disparities in Test Performance

School Segregation

Disparities in Access to Higher Education

Disparities in Criminal Justice

Neighborhood Segregation

Racial Stigma

Labor Market Disparities

Disparities in Economic Status

Disparities in Wealth
Middle-class blacks . . . earn seventy cents for every dollar earned by middleclass whites, but they possess only fifteen cents for every dollar of wealth held by middle-class whites.

Black Wealth/White Wealth , Melvin Oliver and Thomas M. Shapiro

Black-White School Segregation in the South: Percentage of Black Students in Majority-White Schools, 1958-1998
40

30 20 10
0
1954 1960 1964 1967 1968 1970 1972 1976 1980 1986 1988 1991 1994 1996 1999 2002

Source: Orfield, 2003.

EEOC CHARGE HANDLING PROCESS
77,444 cases filed

EEOC dropped 68,000 charges

EEOC: no cause 8,248

8248 cases resolved through conciliation

431 filed in court

ca. 338 dismissed 2040 resolved for complainant < 100 settled for complainant

< 100 go to trial < 50 win at trial

Remedies for Discrimination Subsystems
Brown v. Bd. of Educ. School Segregation Busing Neighborhood Segregation Criminal Justice Automatic Sentencing Racial Stigma
Public assistance Economic Standing and Social Status Labor Markets Higher Education


				
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