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					Kindergarten, First, and Second Grades Program Overview
The Grades K-2 physical education program establishes the foundation for the entire physical education curriculum. The developmentally appropriate physical education program considers each student’s developmental characteristics, including age, size, motor and cognitive development, past experiences, and skill level. The physical characteristics of students in Grades K-2 include large muscle groups that are more developed than small ones, bones that are somewhat soft, and hearts and lungs that are small in relation to students’ height and weight. These students experience a slow, steady growth rate and have limited muscular strength. They exhibit unrefined manipulative skills and lack of endurance in sustained activity. Students in Grades K-2 learn through exploration of the environment and through the manipulation of materials. Instruction, therefore, should include opportunities to explore, solve problems, integrate, analyze, communicate, and apply movement skills and concepts. Interactive behaviors, specifically those dealing with creating a safe environment and adherence to classroom procedures, are emphasized. Although health-enhancing activity is an important concept, the emphasis in these grades is on motor skill development and interactive behavior.

MOTOR SKILL DEVELOPMENT

INTERACTIVE BEHAVIOR

HEALTH-ENHANCING ACTIVITY

MORE EMPHASIS

LESS EMPHASIS

Alabama Course of Study: Physical Education

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Kindergarten
The foundation for the physical education curriculum is established in Kindergarten. Students in this grade typically have soft bones and a small heart and lungs. They experience a slow, steady growth rate and limited muscle strength. They also have limited attention spans and lack endurance in physical activity. In interacting with others, the kindergarten child is often egocentric, having difficulty relating to another’s point of view. The kindergarten classroom environment provides opportunities for challenge, exploration, self-expression, and social interaction. It also provides experiences for students that allow for success, maximum participation, and enjoyment. The primary physical education focus in Kindergarten is on the development of basic fundamental motor skills (locomotor, nonlocomotor, and manipulative skills) and the establishment of a movement vocabulary. Students begin to learn and utilize acceptable behaviors for physical activity settings and experience the joy and value of shared play. Health-enhancing activity, though not an emphasis in Kindergarten, is addressed through daily activity. In this way, students begin to associate physical activity with well-being.

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Alabama Course of Study: Physical Education

K
Kindergarten GOAL: MOTOR SKILL DEVELOPMENT
  Demonstrates competency in many movement forms and proficiency in a few movement forms. Applies movement concepts and principles to the learning and development of motor skills.

CONTENT STANDARDS

BENCHMARKS
As a result of participating in a quality physical education program, it is reasonable to expect that the student will be able to: Travel in different ways in a large group without bumping into others or falling. Travel in forward and sideward directions, changing directions quickly in response to signals and rhythms. Demonstrate a distinct contrast between slow and fast speeds while traveling. Travel, demonstrating a variety of relationships with objects (over, under, behind, alongside, through).

Students will:

Skill

1. Demonstrate initial level of efficiency in traveling by walking, running, and jumping.

2. Demonstrate initial level of efficiency in selected nonlocomotor skills, specifically turning and twisting.

Walk forward and sideward the length of a low beam without falling. Place a variety of body parts into high, middle, and low levels. Form round, narrow, wide, and twisted body shapes. Roll sideward (right and left) without hesitating or stopping. Begin to utilize leg flexion when jumping and landing in place.

3. Demonstrate progress toward the mature form of selected manipulative skills, specifically throwing, kicking, and striking with body parts.

Toss a ball and catch it before it bounces twice. Demonstrate the differences between overhand and underhand throws. Kick a stationary ball, using a smooth continuous running approach prior to the kick. Strike a balloon with a variety of body parts.

Alabama Course of Study: Physical Education

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K
GOAL: MOTOR SKILL DEVELOPMENT (CONTINUED)
  Demonstrates competency in many movement forms and proficiency in a few movement forms. Applies movement concepts and principles to the learning and development of motor skills.

CONTENT STANDARDS Students will:

BENCHMARKS
As a result of participating in a quality physical education program, it is reasonable to expect that the student will be able to:

Knowledge

4. Identify differences among fundamental Walk, run, hop, and skip in response to a signal. locomotor patterns. Examples: galloping, skipping, hopping, walking, running

5. Establish a beginning movement vocabulary that includes the terms personal space, high/low levels, fast/slow speeds, light/heavy weights, balance, and twist.

Demonstrate a distinct contrast between slow and fast speeds while traveling. Travel in different ways in a large group without bumping into others or falling. Place a variety of body parts into high, middle, and low levels. Perform an appropriate movement concept on command to show understanding of movement vocabulary.

6. Identify differences among fundamental manipulative skills. Examples: throwing, catching, striking with short- and long-handled implements, volleying, dribbling

Identify selected manipulative skills such as throwing, catching, striking, volleying, and dribbling.

Application

7. Apply appropriate concepts to the performance of locomotor, nonlocomotor, and manipulative skills. Example: changing directions while running

Distinguish among straight, curved, and zigzag pathways while traveling in various ways. Travel in forward and sideward directions, changing direction quickly in response to signals and rhythms.

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Alabama Course of Study: Physical Education

K
GOAL: HEALTH-ENHANCING ACTIVITY
  Exhibits a physically active lifestyle. Achieves and maintains a health-enhancing level of fitness.

CONTENT STANDARDS Students will:

BENCHMARKS
As a result of participating in a quality physical education program, it is reasonable to expect that the student will be able to: Select an activity such as walking or jogging from available choices.

Knowledge Application

8. Identify likes and dislikes associated with participation in physical activities.

9. Engage in moderate physical activity sustained for a short period of time.

Sustain moderate physical activity in a variety of movement experiences according to student ability. Participate daily in moderate-to-vigorous physical activity.

10. Illustrate a physical activity performed outside the physical education class.

Dance, sing, draw, or act to illustrate a physical activity participated in outside the physical education class.

Alabama Course of Study: Physical Education

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K
GOAL: INTERACTIVE BEHAVIOR
   Demonstrates responsible personal and social behavior in physical activity settings. Demonstrates understanding and respect for differences among people in physical activity settings. Understands that physical activity provides opportunities for enjoyment, challenge, self-expression, and social interaction.

CONTENT STANDARDS Students will:

BENCHMARKS
As a result of participating in a quality physical education program, it is reasonable to expect that the student will be able to: Describe emotions experienced when participating in activities alone or with others. Seek opportunities to interact and play with others.

Knowledge

11. Identify positive outcomes associated with participation in a physical activity.

12. Recognize the attributes that individuals with differences can bring to group activities.

Choose playmates without regard to race, gender, or disability.

Application

13. Interact positively with others regardless of personal differences.

Participate in activities with playmates without regard to race, gender, or disability. Work in a group setting without interfering with others.

14. Work independently and on task for short periods of time.

Participate independently in small groups or in station activities, remaining on task.

15. Apply classroom rules, procedures, and safe practices with guidance. Example: sharing space and equipment with others

Take turns using a piece of equipment and storing it when not in use. Follow rules for participating during physical education class. Respond to teacher indications for attention. Respond to rule infractions when reminded once. Respond appropriately to emergency situations. Recognize unsafe practices that can cause personal injury.

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Alabama Course of Study: Physical Education

First Grade
The physical education curriculum for first grade continues to emphasize the development of fundamental motor skills. First-grade students typically have mastered some fundamental skills but may have little proficiency in others. Students may have difficulty performing in complex or dynamic environments, but they are beginning to demonstrate an understanding of movement concepts by participating successfully in simple games, dances, and gymnastic activities. Though their endurance is still developing, students’ activities are characterized by alternating degrees of high and low intensity. Instruction in first grade provides ample opportunities for problem solving, exploration, and questioning. The effective physical education program provides for maximum levels of participation and high levels of success. There are also increasing opportunities for students to work together in large and small groups. The development of fundamental motor skills continues to be a focus. The first-grade program helps students to refine locomotor, nonlocomotor, and manipulative skills; to begin to work more effectively with a group or partner; and to be able to recognize changes that occur within the body as a result of exercise. Opportunities provided throughout the year also enable students to apply movement concepts to the performance of learned skills.

Alabama Course of Study: Physical Education

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1st
First Grade GOAL: MOTOR SKILL DEVELOPMENT
  Demonstrates competency in many movement forms and proficiency in a few movement forms. Applies movement concepts and principles to the learning and development of motor skills.

CONTENT STANDARDS Students will:

BENCHMARKS
As a result of participating in a quality physical education program, it is reasonable to expect that the student will be able to: Walk, run, and jump efficiently, using correct form according to definition. Travel in a variety of ways, changing direction quickly and safely. Roll forward and backward. Jump and land using a combination of one- and two-foot take-offs and landings. Leap, leading with either foot.

Skill

1. Demonstrate the ability to walk, run, and jump using mature motor patterns. • Hopping • Sliding • Galloping • Leaping • Skipping

2. Demonstrate a developmentally appropriate level of nonlocomotor skills, specifically stretching, curling, bending, and transferring weight. • Twisting • Turning • Leaning • Swinging 3. Demonstrate momentary stillness while balancing on a variety of body parts.

Stretch, bend, and curl body parts smoothly. Use nonlocomotor movements in a rhythmic sequence. Form letters of the alphabet using nonlocomotor movements.

Balance, demonstrating momentary stillness in symmetrical and asymmetrical shapes, on a variety of body parts.

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Alabama Course of Study: Physical Education

1st
GOAL: MOTOR SKILL DEVELOPMENT (CONTINUED)
  Demonstrates competency in many movement forms and proficiency in a few movement forms. Applies movement concepts and principles to the learning and development of motor skills.

CONTENT STANDARDS Students will: 4. Demonstrate a developmentally appropriate level of manipulative skills, including throwing, catching, dribbling, kicking, striking with paddles, and striking with body parts.

BENCHMARKS
As a result of participating in a quality physical education program, it is reasonable to expect that the student will be able to: Use the inside or instep of the foot to kick a slowly rolling ball into the air or along the ground. Throw a ball, demonstrating an overhand technique and a side orientation, while stepping with the foot opposite the throwing hand. Catch a gently thrown ball using properly positioned hands. Dribble a ball continuously, using the hands or feet, without losing control. Strike a ball toward a target using different body parts. Strike a ball repeatedly with a paddle. Strike consistently a ball on a tee or cone, using correct grip of a bat and side orientation.

Knowledge

Skill

5. Demonstrate functional understanding of movement vocabulary. Examples: locomotor skills, nonlocomotor skills, manipulative skills, effort qualities, spatial qualities, relationships

Perform similar movement concepts in a variety of skills. Use locomotor, nonlocomotor, and manipulative skills and space, effort, and relationship concepts in a variety of ways.

6. Identify cues for selected manipulative skills. Examples: striking, throwing, catching, dribbling, kicking

Name cues for throwing such as opposition, eyes on target, and follow-through.

Alabama Course of Study: Physical Education

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1st
GOAL: MOTOR SKILL DEVELOPMENT (CONTINUED)
  Demonstrates competency in many movement forms and proficiency in a few movement forms. Applies movement concepts and principles to the learning and development of motor skills.

CONTENT STANDARDS Students will:

BENCHMARKS
As a result of participating in a quality physical education program, it is reasonable to expect that the student will be able to: Travel, changing speeds and directions, using a variety of asymmetrical shapes. Combine various traveling patterns in time to music. Participate in a wide variety of activities that involve locomotion and nonlocomotion. Demonstrate skills of chasing, fleeing, and dodging to avoid or catch others. Apply movement concepts to the performance of a variety of skills. Apply teacher feedback to improve movement skills.

Application

7. Apply appropriate concepts of space, effort, and relationship to performance. Examples: traveling at high, medium, and low levels; changing direction while running

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Alabama Course of Study: Physical Education

1st
GOAL: HEALTH-ENHANCING ACTIVITY
  Exhibits a physically active lifestyle. Achieves and maintains a health-enhancing level of fitness.

CONTENT STANDARDS Students will:

BENCHMARKS
As a result of participating in a quality physical education program, it is reasonable to expect that the student will be able to: Identify activity choices for in-school and outof-school activities.

Knowledge Application

8. Identify preferences in physical activity. Examples: jumping rope, jogging, walking

9. Engage in moderate-to-vigorous physical activity for short periods of time.

Sustain activity while participating in locomotor activities in physical education class and in other settings. Support body weight for climbing, hanging, and momentarily taking weight on hands. Participate in daily moderate-to-vigorous activities.

10. Describe activities that take place during and outside of physical education class that require physical exertion.

Share activities taking place outside the physical education class with others.

Alabama Course of Study: Physical Education

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1st
GOAL: INTERACTIVE BEHAVIOR
   Demonstrates responsible personal and social behavior in physical activity settings. Demonstrates understanding and respect for differences among people in physical activity settings. Understands that physical activity provides opportunities for enjoyment, challenge, self-expression, and social interaction.

CONTENT STANDARDS

BENCHMARKS
As a result of participating in a quality physical education program, it is reasonable to expect that the student will be able to: Identify experiences that contribute to personal feelings of success and failure.

Students will:

Knowledge

11. Describe emotions associated with physical activity. 12. Identify the attributes that individuals with differences can bring to group activities.

Identify benefits of diversity such as caring, sharing, helping, and tolerance.

Application

13. Work independently or harmoniously with a partner or a small group while remaining on task.

Work cooperatively with the teacher and others to improve performance. Display consideration of others in physical activity settings. Practice specific skills as assigned until the teacher signals the end of practice.

14. Apply rules, procedures, and safe practices with minimal reinforcement.

Use equipment and space safely and properly. Respond positively to an occasional reminder about a rule infraction.

15. Share space and equipment with others.

Invite a peer to take a turn using appropriate equipment before repeating one’s own turn. Show respect for personal space of others.

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Alabama Course of Study: Physical Education

Second Grade
The second-grade curriculum emphasizes the refinement of fundamental motor skills. Attention is focused on student progress toward the development of the mature form of locomotor and nonlocomotor skills and on the acquisition of some manipulative skills. Students continue to exhibit slow, steady growth and begin to demonstrate a greater ability to maintain attention. Endurance is improving, and students are able to maintain moderate-tovigorous activity for longer periods of time. Second-grade students can also follow directions and work effectively alone, with a partner, or in a group. In second grade, the instructional setting increases in complexity while allowing for the developmental level of each child. Students are encouraged to maintain moderate-to-vigorous activity for longer periods of time and have opportunities to explore the relationship of activity to fitness and well-being. Instruction includes situations in which students apply skills and concepts in more complex games, dances, and gymnastic activities and perform skills in simple combinations. Students work in small and large groups, and time is provided for exploration and problem-solving activities. Students begin to express their feelings through activity, to function as members of a group, and to work cooperatively with a partner. The focus of instruction in second grade is on the refinement of fundamental skills, the ability to combine these skills, and the application of movement concepts in games, dances, and gymnastic activities. Health-enhancing activities and the connection of physical activity to well-being are increasingly emphasized.

Alabama Course of Study: Physical Education

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2nd
Second Grade GOAL: MOTOR SKILL DEVELOPMENT
  Demonstrates competency in many movement forms and proficiency in a few movement forms. Applies movement concepts and principles to the learning and development of motor skills.

CONTENT STANDARDS Students will:

BENCHMARKS
As a result of participating in a quality physical education program, it is reasonable to expect that the student will be able to: Gallop, hop, and slide efficiently, using correct form according to definition. Demonstrate control in traveling activities. Travel, changing speed and direction, in response to a variety of rhythms. Travel, without hesitating, into and out of a rope turned by others. Balance momentarily on a variety of body parts. Swing a leg or an arm in various patterns. Balance on floor and on an apparatus.

Skill

1. Demonstrate the ability to gallop, hop, and slide using mature motor patterns. • Walking • Running • Jumping • Leaping • Skipping 2. Demonstrate developmentally appropriate levels of selected nonlocomotor skills, specifically swinging and balancing. • Twisting • Turning • Leaning • Stretching • Curling • Bending • Transferring weight 3. Demonstrate control in weight bearing by balancing on a variety of body parts.

Balance, demonstrating control in symmetrical and asymmetrical shapes, on a variety of body parts. Perform inverted balances such as headstands and tripods.

4. Demonstrate selected manipulative skills, including throwing, catching, dribbling, and kicking.

Use the inside or instep of the foot to kick a slowly rolling ball into the air or along the ground. Throw a ball with force, demonstrating an overhand technique, a side orientation, and opposition. Catch a gently thrown ball using properly positioned hands. Dribble a ball continuously, without losing control, using the hands or feet.

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Alabama Course of Study: Physical Education

2nd
GOAL: MOTOR SKILL DEVELOPMENT (CONTINUED)
  Demonstrates competency in many movement forms and proficiency in a few movement forms. Applies movement concepts and principles to the learning and development of motor skills.

CONTENT STANDARDS Students will: 5. Strike a variety of stationary and moving objects with body parts, paddles, and long-handled implements.

BENCHMARKS
As a result of participating in a quality physical education program, it is reasonable to expect that the student will be able to: Strike a ball to send it toward a target, using different body parts. Strike a ball repeatedly with a paddle. Strike consistently a ball on a tee or cone, using correct grip of a bat and side orientation.

Knowledge

Skill

6. Identify the critical elements of basic locomotor and manipulative skills.

Recognize performance cues such as using a step-hop pattern when skipping or side-totarget pattern when striking.

Application

7. Demonstrate motor patterns in simple combinations.

Demonstrate smooth transitions between sequential motor skills. Perform two rolls in sequence. Perform the actions of running, jumping, landing, and rolling. Combine various traveling patterns in time to music. Travel, changing speeds and direction, in response to a variety of rhythms. Combine simple movements into a gymnastic routine.

8. Exhibit the ability to adapt and adjust movement skills in open and closed environments.

Participate in a wide variety of activities that involve locomotor, nonlocomotor, and manipulative skills. Demonstrate skills of chasing, fleeing, and dodging to avoid or catch others.

Alabama Course of Study: Physical Education

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2nd
GOAL: HEALTH-ENHANCING ACTIVITY
  Exhibits a physically active lifestyle. Achieves and maintains a health-enhancing level of fitness.

CONTENT STANDARDS Students will:

BENCHMARKS
As a result of participating in a quality physical education program, it is reasonable to expect that the student will be able to: Match one physical activity to each healthenhancing physical activity component. Identify at least one activity associated with each component of health-enhancing physical activity.

Knowledge Application

9. Identify the components of a healthrelated physical activity, including flexibility, strength, endurance, body composition, and cardiovascular fitness.

10. Engage in physical activity that causes an increased heart rate and heavy breathing.

Continue participation in an activity for extended periods of time.

11. Identify moderate-to-vigorous physical activities that may be performed outside the physical education class.

Document activities such as jumping, running, walking, and riding a bike that may be performed outside the physical education program.

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Alabama Course of Study: Physical Education

2nd
GOAL: INTERACTIVE BEHAVIOR
   Demonstrates responsible personal and social behavior in physical activity settings. Demonstrates understanding and respect for differences among people in physical activity settings. Understands that physical activity provides opportunities for enjoyment, challenge, self-expression, and social interaction.

CONTENT STANDARDS Students will:

BENCHMARKS
As a result of participating in a quality physical education program, it is reasonable to expect that the student will be able to: Identify the benefits that accompany cooperation with others in physical activity settings, including benefits such as accomplishing tasks more quickly and playing together for enjoyment.

Knowledge

12. Identify the benefits of cooperating with others.

13. Discuss the attributes that individual differences can bring to group activities.

Describe the benefits of diversity in group situations.

Application

14. Play with others without regard for personal differences.

Assist partner by sharing observations about skill performance during practice. Display consideration of others in physical activity settings.

15. Resolve conflicts in a socially acceptable manner. 16. Apply general rules, procedures, and safe practices while remaining on task. Examples: working cooperatively with a partner or small group, working independently

Demonstrate the elements of acceptable conflict resolution techniques. Respect space of others. Use equipment and space safely and properly. Respond positively to an occasional reminder about a rule infraction. Practice specific skills as assigned until teacher indicates the end of practice. Begin and end an activity immediately after the signal to do so. Invite a peer to take a turn using appropriate equipment before repeating one’s own turn.

Alabama Course of Study: Physical Education

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Alabama Course of Study: Physical Education


				
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