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Diabetes

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									DISEASES OF THE CIRCULATORY AND RESPIRATORY SYSTEMS
5th Grade South Carolina Science Curriculum Standard

DISEASES OF THE CIRCULATORY SYSTEM

Diabetes
A Circulatory System Disease that affects a person’s blood sugar levels. Types: Juvenile Diabetes-(born with it) --Type 1 Adult Diabetes- (not born with it )--Type 2 Gestational Diabetes—just during pregnancy

This disease can be deadly.

D I S E A S E S

Diabetes
Symptoms: Extreme thirst, blurred
vision, frequent urination, weakness

Diagnosis: The doctor tests your blood
to see how high your blood sugar is. It should be between 70 and 140.

Diabetes
Treatment—Eat a low sugar / low fat
diet, exercise. Check blood several times daily to make sure your blood sugar is in the proper range. Take medicine or possibly insulin shots.

One cause: Your pancreas cannot
produce the correct amount of insulin to use the sugar you intake.

Leukemia
A Circulatory System disease-cancer of the blood.

This disease can be deadly.

D I S E A S E S

Leukemia
Symptoms:
Bone and joint pain, feeling weak, loss of appetite, possible yellowing skin

Diagnosis:

Doctor gives a set of tests including a bone marrow test.

Treatment:

Chemotherapy (special chemicals given through an IV to work on cancer cells), and/or radiation therapy (a long type of Xray treatment that you take daily for several weeks) (Most children and adults who get leukemia today usually survive.)

Hemophilia
A Circulatory System disease that causes your blood to be unable to clot.

This disease can be deadly.

D I S E A S E S

Hemophilia
Symptoms: A minor cut will cause
major bleeding at an early age, causing parents and doctors to suspect hemophilia.

Diagnosis: The doctor will run blood
tests for blood counts.

Treatment: The doctor will give your
blood a clotting factor replacement regularly.

Hemophilia
Causes: This disease is genetic. A
woman with a hemophilia gene does not have the symptoms of Hemophilia, but is a “carrier”. This means she can pass the gene down to her children. Her sons may get Hemophilia. Her daughters may become “carriers” of this disease.

Sickle Cell Anemia
A Circulatory System Disease that mostly affects African Americans. Sickle-shaped, sticky blood cells clog the arteries, veins, and capillaries.
Can you see the microscopic sickle-shaped red blood cells that should be round?

D I S E A S E S

Sickle Cell Anemia
Symptoms: Extreme bruising, pain in
different body parts, tiredness, weakness, pale appearance, yellowing of the skin Diagnosis: The doctor runs a blood test to look for sickle-shaped red blood cells. Treatments: The doctor gives the patient medication to prevent infection, to break up clotting, and to ease the pain. Cause: Genetic (passed down through your family through your genes in your DNA.)

Anemia
A Circulatory System Disease that is usually caused by having low iron content in your blood, making you tired all the time.

D I S E A S E S

Anemia
Symptoms: Pale skin, extreme
tiredness, dizziness Diagnosis: The doctor gives a blood test to check the amount of iron in the blood.

Treatment: Iron (vitamin) supplements
and sometimes a blood transfusion. Causes: There are many, many causes. One is a lack of eating enough foods that are high in iron, like red meats and certain vegetables.

Stroke
A Circulatory System Illness--A heart disease problem that usually effects one side of the body and several functions of the brain.
X-ray of the brain after a large stroke.

This disease can be deadly.

D I S E A S E S

Stroke
Symptoms: Weakness on one side of
the body in the face, arm, and leg—trouble seeing and doing everyday things. Since strokes affect different centers of the brain, things like speech, motor functions (like walking, writing, using your hand), and thinking can be effected.

Stroke
Diagnosis: The doctor runs a CT scan
on the brain to check for stroke. Treatment: Rehabilitation (reteaching the person to do certain things or use certain parts of their body). Sometimes surgery is needed. They take medications for stroke. Causes: Alcohol, smoking, heart disease, an artery leakage, high cholesterol (which means clogged arteries).

Heart Disease
Circulatory System diseases that affect the heart and its function.
Stroke and heart attack are caused by heart disease.
This is a deadly disease.

D I S E A S E S

Heart Disease
Symptoms: High blood pressure (which
is Hypertension), high cholesterol (which is too much fatty goop in your blood vessels)

Causes: obesity (being at least twenty
pounds overweight), eating fatty foods, genetics (remember your genes???), getting very little exercise

Treatment: medication, exercise,
following a proper diet plan, and sometimes open heart surgery is needed followed by rehabilitation (exercise plans)

Hypertension
A Circulatory System Disease Hypertension is usually called “High Blood Pressure”, the cause of many other heart-related problems.

D I S E A S E S

Hypertension
Symptoms: Frequent Headaches Diagnosis: The doctor can take your
blood pressure with an arm cuff. A normal blood pressure is around 130 over 80. Causes: Obesity (overweight by at least 20 pounds), high stress, genetics (remember your genes???), poor eating habits (including high salt intake), little exercise. Treatment: High blood pressure medicine, low salt diet, exercise

DISEASES OF THE RESPIRATORY SYSTEM

Common Cold
Around two-hundred Respiratory System diseases that have most of the same symptoms.

The common cold is not deadly. However, it can lead to secondary infections that may be deadly.

D I S E A S E S

Common Cold Symptoms:
Diagnosis: Treatment: Causes:

runny nose, cough, aches, sneezing, sometimes fever and sore throat. Sometimes burning skin. One usually does not go to the doctor for a cold virus UNLESS it turns into a secondary infection. drink lots of warm and cold fluids every hour; take Tylenol for pain. Colds are very contagious. Touching anything that has cold germs, then touching your eyes, nose, or mouth can cause you to catch this illness. Not washing hands regularly during cold season can cause you to catch a cold.

Influenza
A Respiratory System Disease This is similar to a cold, but is about thirty times worse! (opinion)
1918 Influenza Epidemic

Can be deadly for people under the age of four and over the age of 65 or people with health problems like diabetes. (You can get it at any age.)

D I S E A S E S

Influenza
Symptoms: Diagnosis: Treatment:
Extreme cold symptoms but also including extreme joint pain and extreme skin sensitivity to touch. A person with the flu does not feel like lifting his head off of the pillow. Flu test Flu medicines, bed rest, plenty of fluids, pain medication.

Causes: Highly contagious Prevention: Take a flu shot if you are in a
high-risk group. Wash hands regularly during flu season. Make sure people do not come to work or school with the flu since it is so highly contagious.

Bronchitis
A Respiratory System infection of the bronchial tubes and sometimes the lungs.

D I S E A S E S

Bronchitis
Symptoms: Diagnosis:
Sometimes fever, sore chest, chills, trouble breathing, greenish-rusty mucous coming up through the throat from the bronchial tubes The doctor listens to your chest and may take a chest x-ray. He does a sputum (mucous) culture with a Q-Tip to test for bacteria (which would mean a bacterial infection).

Treatment:

If it is bacterial, the doctor will give antibiotic drugs, a bronchial dilator, and/or breathing treatments. WARNING: A doctor will NOT give antibiotics for viruses!!! (This could cause your body to resist antibiotics when you really need them to work.)

Causes:

This is caused by environmental pollution like smoking. It can also be caused as a secondary infection from the common cold.

Pneumonia
A Respiratory System disease An infection in the lungs that can be viral or bacterial.
This pneumonia was caused by a bad case of chicken pox. Can be deadly, especially to children under 4 and adults over 65.

D I S E A S E S

Pneumonia
Symptoms:
possible back or chest pain, tiredness, weakness

Diagnosis:

The doctor listens to your chest. He might give you a chest x-ray.

Treatment:

If it is viral--bed rest. If it is bacterial—antibiotics, medicines, and bed rest.

Prevention:

People who get pneumonia regularly should take a pneumonia vaccination. People who have surgery or a bad illness should walk around some several times a day to keep fluids from building up in the lungs.

Allergies
A Respiratory System Disease Allergies are the body’s reactions to something a person comes in contact with.
Microscopic View of a Dust Mite that lives in dust Can be deadly, especially if the throat swells, causing breathing to be cut off.

D I S E A S E S

Allergies
Symptoms: Sneezing, runny nose, itchy
eyes, coughing. Food allergies can sometimes cause headaches or swelling. Bug allergies can cause extreme swelling.

Diagnosis: The doctor will give allergy
tests to see what you are allergic to.

Treatment: Medicines and shots. Prevention: Stay away from the things
you are allergic to.

Asthma
A Respiratory System Disease that affects a person’s ability to breathe.
People with asthma use inhalers to get the medicine to their lungs quickly.

Can be deadly for children under age 18.

D I S E A S E S

Asthma
Symptoms: Wheezing, difficulty
breathing, some coughing, chest pain

Diagnosis: The doctor listens to your
chest. He notices if you have a lot of breathing attacks over a few months. You take the lung function test and additional tests.

Treatment: Breathing treatments,
medications in an inhaler

Lung Cancer
A Respiratory System Disease Cancer of the lungs Usually caused by smoking or exposure to environmental chemicals A lung with
cancer.
This is a deadly disease.

D I S E A S E S

Lung Cancer
Symptoms: Difficulty breathing,
coughing up blood Causes: a history of smoking or working near air-borne chemicals that damage the lungs Diagnosis: Chest X-Rays and tests

Treatment: Chemotherapy (special
chemicals given through an IV to work on cancer cells), radiation, partial removal of the diseased lung

Emphysema
A Respiratory System disease An environmental disease caused by smoking or working in a chemical environment that damages the lungs.
A deadly disease

D I S E A S E S

Emphysema
Symptoms: Difficulty breathing,
wheezing, tiredness, weakness

Diagnosis: The doctor takes a chest xray and other tests.

Treatment: Breathing treatments
including an oxygen tank and mask

Causes: A long-time exposure to
environmental airborne chemicals, several years of smoking, second-hand smoke

Tuberculosis
A Respiratory System Disease In the 1800s, Tuberculosis was called Consumption and killed whole families and communities. Today, it is a disease of the lungs that we cure with antibiotics.
Can be deadly without a full nine months of antibiotics

Microscopic View of Tuberculosis

D I S E A S E S

Tuberculosis
Symptoms:
a severe cough, in later cases coughing up blood, extreme liquid in the lungs

Diagnosis:

Chest X-Ray, Tuberculin Test (a small shot in lower arm—a raised bump within three days indicates possible Tuberculosis.)

Treatment:

Nine months of antibiotic drugs that HAVE to be finished to cure you.

Prevention:

This is a highly contagious disease, but there are not many cases in the US. If you go out of the country, you’ll need to be watched for the disease.

Asbestosis
A Respiratory System Disease This disease of the lungs is caused by particles of asbestos reaching the lungs.
Asbestosis scarring of the lungs Normal lungs

This is a deadly disease.

D I S E A S E S

Asbestosis
Symptoms: Lung problems Diagnosis: Lung X-Ray and other tests Cause: A lot of time spent around asbestos fibers floating in the air. Treatment:

CREDITS
We would like to thank Mrs. C. Bennett’s 5th grade academically Gifted / Talented students as well as a regular science class for their research and editing of this disease information. Excelsior Middle School Union, South Carolina


								
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