Unit 2 Smart cars
Background information Text analysis Text summary Exercises
Do you want to own a car?
state out your reason.
1.According to the song, will the world be a better or worse place in a few hundred years’ time? 2.Will the use of drugs to change the way we think and feel be common in the future? 3.What does the song writer feel about the future? Is he optimistic or not? 4.Do you share the views of the song writer about the effects of modern science and technology on man in the future?
Listen to the tape and answer the following questions
*Finish it in ten minutes *You may begin with the sentences: A. If I could afford a car, I will buy one without hesitation because……. B. Even if I could afford a car, I may not actually want to drive one because…... *State your viewpoints to the other students in your group.
For students: The merits and demerits of cars. Some scientists and engineers come up with the idea of a “smart car”. Let’s have a look at what “smart car” is.
1.The invention of cars 2.Some famous brands of cars. 3.Automobile industry.
The invention of cars
The first self-propelled car was built by Nicolas Cugnot in 1769 which could attain speeds of up to 6 kms/hour. In 1771 he again designed another steam-driven engine which ran so fast that it rammed into a wall, recording the world’s first accident.
Some famous brands of cars
General Motors Ford Motor Company DaimlerChrysler （戴姆勒-克莱斯勒） Toyota Mercedes-Benz
General Motors (GM) has steered around
competitors to remain the world's #1 maker of cars and trucks, with brands such as Buick, Cadillac, Chevrolet, GMC, Pontiac, Saab, Saturn, and Oldsmobile (which is being discontinued).
Ford Motor Company
Ford Motor Company
offers a wealth of variety to the automotive consumer. Vehicle Brands Ford Lincoln Mercury Mazda
Volvo Jaguar Land Rover Aston Martin
DaimlerChryslers’ passenger car brands include
Maybach, Mercedes-Benz, Chrysler, Jeep®, Dodge and smart. Commercial vehicle brands include Mercedes-Benz, Freightliner, Sterling, Western Star and Setra..
is a world famous brand of cars. The company is in Japan.
brand has stood for more than 100 years. It is a German company.
Party I (P1~P3)
1.Words and Expressions (1).Turn sth. into/become a reality eg. Working at home and communicating with fellow workers via their PCs has become a reality for some. (2).lucarative:producing much money；profitable eg: Many ex-army officers have found lucrative jobs in private security firms. (3).Presently: at the present time, now; after a short time; soon eg: We presently have no planes to expand our business overseas, but that may well change in the future.
Party I (P1~P3)
1.Words and Expressions (1) Turn sth. into/become a reality e.g. Working at home and communicating with fellow workers via their PCs has become a reality for some. (2) lucurative: producing much money； profitable e.g.: Many ex-army officers have found lucrative jobs in private security firms.
Party I (P1~P3)
1.Words and Expressions (3) Presently: at the present time, now; after a short time; soon e.g.: We presently have no planes to expand our business overseas, but that may well change in the future. (4) manufacture: make goods on a large scale using machinery e.g.: Britain now manufactures approximately 40 percent of Europe’s desktop computers
2. Main Idea: New technology will have a dramatic impact on cars and highways in the 21st century. 3. How to distinguish opinions and factual statements. 4. Answer Questions 1and 2 1) How important was the automobile industry in the twentieth century? 2) What will happen to cars and roads in the twenty-first century?
1.Words and Expressions 5) approximately: fairly correct or accurate but not completely so e.g.: Approximately $150 million is to be spent on improvements on school buildings. 6) eliminate: remove, esp. sb./sth. that is not wanted or needed；get rid of (eliminate sth.; eliminate sth. from sth.) e.g. : If you think you may be allergic to a food or drink, eliminate it from your diet.
7) vapor: a mass of tiny drops e.g.: Pure steam is a dry and invisible vapor. 8) in the air: in the earth’s atmosphere; uncertain, not yet decided e.g.: There is a peculiar smell in the air. 9) start up: begin or begin working, running, happening, etc; e.g.: Peter looked in his mirror and started up the engine.
10) alert: warn sb. That there may be danger, trouble, etc. (alert sb.; alert sb. to sth.) e.g.: Why weren’t the police alerted? 11) lane: a division of a road, street, or highway wide enough for a single line of motor vehicles e.g.: The newly-built highway have two lanes for each direction of travel.
12) prototype: the first model or design of sth. from which other forms are copied or developed e.g.: Toyota released its small-car prototype in 1947. 13) monotonous: dull and never changing or varying; constant and boring eg: In the 1970s we had a monotonous died of rice and vegetables.
14) hazard: a thing that can be dangerous or cause damage; a danger or risk e.g.: Smog developed into a major heath hazard by the 20th century 15) get/be stuck in (sth.): be unable to move or to be moved e.g.: I was stuck at home with flu. 16) satellite: an electronic that is sent into space and moves round a planet e.g.: The first artificial satellite was launched in 1957
17) They make it possible: Pay attention to the structure v+ adj. + to do (see Structure Exercise 2) 18) To within about a hundred feet: double prepositions (see Structure Exercise 1)
19) vibrate: (cause sth. to ) move rapidly and continuously backwards; shake e.g.: The whole house vibrates whenever a heavy truck passes. 20) frequency: the rate at which sth. Happens or is repeated, usu. measured over a particular period of time e.g.: My computer broke down with increasing frequency.
21) send out: transit (a signal, etc.) by radio waves e.g.: The yacht sent out a distress signal which was picked up by a passing steamer. 22) convert: change from one form or use to another (followed by into/to) e.g.: The signal will be converted into digital code.
23) correlate: have a mutual relationship or connection, in which one thing affects or depends on another (followed by with/to) e.g.: A mother’s smoking in pregnancy correlates with low birth weight in her baby.
2. Main Idea: With the aid of advanced technology, smart cars will be so designed that they can help eliminate traffic accidents, determine their own precise locations and warn of traffic jams. 3. Do Text organization Exercise 2.
Part III (P10~P13)
1. Words and Expressions 24) application: the action or an instance of putting a theory, discovery, etc. to practical use e.g.: The application of the new invention will bring great profits to the company.
25) be poised to : be ready to take action at any moment e.g. : It is reported that US forces are poised to attack Iraq. 26) highway: a main road that links towns and cities e.g.: Traffic along major highways in some cities is monitored by remote cameras, radar, or sensors in the roadway.
27) mount：fix (sth.) in position for use, display or study; put (sth.) into place on a support e.g.: Some automobiles were designed with a transmission mounted on the rear axle
28) Magnetic：having the properties of a magnet e.g.: Rubber is not magnetic. 29) Take control of: control e.g.: The new government has take the control of his company.
30) bunch: group together (both active and passive) e.g.: The runners were still bunched together on the track. 31) incorporate: make (sth.) part of a whole e.g.: His newly published book incorporates his earlier essay.
32). as well as: too e.g.: She wanted to produce the and play and to direct it as well. 33).decrease: become or make sth. smaller or fewer e.g.: A single solar cooker can save a ton of firewood per year and decreases carbon dioxide emissions.
34) Pollution：the process of polluting or the state of being polluted e.g.: One of the greatest challenges caused by air pollution is global warming. 35) expansion: the process of becoming greater in size, extent, or importance e.g.: Under heat the mental undergoes considerable expansion.
2.Main Idea: GPS and “telematics” will make it possible to build smart highways, which will benefit us in more than one way.
Complete the following, using the words or phrases in brackets. Make additions or changes where necessary. 1) Expanded use of computer technology, development of stronger and lighter materials, and research ______ control will produce better, and “smarter” automobiles. In the 1980s the notion that
a car would “talk” to its drivers was science fiction” by the 1990s it ______, more or less. ______ automobile companies such as GM and Nissan ______ launch new advertising campaigns for their smart cars. (become a reality, pollution, be poised to, presently) 2) Sounds are produced by objects ______ in the air at a rate that the ear can detect. This rate is called _______ and is measured in hertz or vibration per second. (frequency, vibrate)
3) Reflective devices are more visible at night and used in some locations to mark ______ and other significant places on the road. What’s more, automated vehicle-control technologies ________ under development to improve ______ safety. These devices ______ in the vehicle and can ______ driver to an _______ impending (即将发生 的) _______ or, in an emergency, override (不顾) the actions of the drivers. (mount, highway, hazard, lane, alert, presently)
1) in/into pollution , had become a reality , Presently, are poised to , 2) that vibrate, frequency 3) are presently, highway, are mounted, alert a, hazard
automobile industry is one of the most important industries in the world, affecting not only the economy but also the cultures of the world. It provides jobs ______ (1) millions of people, generates billions of dollars in worldwide revenues, and provides the basis for a multitude of related service and support industries. Automobiles revolutionized transportation
in the 20th century, changing forever the _______ (2) people live, travel, and do business. The automobiles has _______ (3) people to travel and transport goods _______ (4) and faster, and has opened up new market opportunities for business and commerce. The auto industry has also _______ (5) the overall costs of
transportation ______ (6)using methods such as mass production (making large _______ (7) of a product within a short period of time), mass marketing (selling products nationally rather than _______ (8), and globalization(全球化）of production (assembling products with parts made ______ (9). A century later, _______ (10) automakers and auto
buyers expanding globally, auto-making became the world’s largest _______ (11) activity, with more than 53 million new vehicles built each year worldwide. ______ (12) a result of easier and faster transportation, the United States and world economies have become dependent _____ (13)the mobility has allowed remote
populations to interact with one another, ________ (15) has increased commerce. The transportation of goods to consumers and consumers to goods has become n industry in ______ （16）。 However automobile has also caused some _______(17), such as air pollution, congested traffic, _______ (18) increasesd highway fatalities. __________ (19),
the automobile industry is _______ (20) to be an important source of employment for millions of people worldwide.
1.for 2.way 3. enabled 4.father 5.decreased/reduced 6.by 7.quantities 8.locally 9.worldwide 10. with 11.manufacturing 12.As 13.on/upon 14.provide 15.which 16.itself 17. problems/hazards 18.and 19.nevertheless 20. continuing
Translate the following passage into English, using the words and phrases given below. eliminate as well satellite hazard application pollution manufacture 汽车在二十世纪改变了世界，尤其是在美国或和 其他工业国家。汽车确实岁我们大有用处，但也带 来了一些危害，比如声音污染，空气污染以及公路 死亡事故。据报道汽车事故被列为全世界导致
死伤的主要原因之一。可庆幸的是，现代发明家们 正在重新发明汽车。新的推进系统（propulsion system), 燃料，设计以及制造汽车的手段在过去的 十年中得到迅速发展。例如，通过使用卫星辅助的 全球定位系统，汽车里的计算机能给汽车精确定位; 随着遥感器的应用，只能汽车能噢爱出不少汽车事 故。
Automobiles changed the world during the 20th century, particularly in the United States and other industrialized nations. They are indeed of great use to us, but they have brought some hazards as well, such as noise and air pollution, and highway fatalities. It is reported that automobile accidents rank among the leading causes of death or injury
throughout the world. Fortunately modern innovators are reinventing the automobile. New propulsion systems, fuels, designs, and means of manufacturing cars have all developed rapidly in the past decade. For example, by using the satellite-aided global positioning system (GPS), a computer in the automobile can locate the vehicle’s precise position, and with the application of sensors, smart cars can eliminate most cars accidents.
Keys for Text B
Comprehension Check: 1.A 2.c 3.c 4.d 5.b 6.b Language Practice 1.introdution 2.outlines 3.diverse 4. feasible 5.in cooperation with 6. assembly 7.At the start of 8. implications 9.perceive
10.realistic 12.by means of 14.implemented 16. permanent 18. equivalent 20. en route
11.appropriate 13.component 15. thereby 17.exposure 19. matures