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New Horizons CLC of South Florida
Glen Victor
Module 1:
Review of ITSM & ITIL
• Course Agenda
• Course Design
• Introductions
• Review of ITIL
• ITIL Review
• ITIL V2 Books Review
• Why ITIL for Service Management
• Complementary Guidance
• Qualification Scheme
• Exin Accredited
• More Complementary Material
Course Agenda
• Introductions
• Review of IT Service Management (ITSM) and IT
  Infrastructure Library (ITIL)
• ITIL v3, a look at the Lifecycle
 •   Service Lifecycle Approach
 •   Service Strategy
 •   Service Design
 •   Service Transition
 •   Service Operations
 •   Continual Service Improvement
• Where do you work?
• What is your Title and Key Responsibilities?
• What is your IT experience?
• What is your Service Management experience?
• What expectations do you have for this class?
Course Design
• Coverage of Service Lifecycle strategy within ITIL v3
  •   Lecture
  •   Simulation Case Study
  •   Practice Exams
  •   Foundations Certification Exam (Optional)
Review of ITIL
• Conceived in Mid 1980’s
  • Centralized  distributed computing
  • Geographically distributed resources
  • Led to inconsistent process delivery & support
• OGC: UK Office of Government Commerce
  • CCTA (Central Computer and Telecommunications Agency)
• Evolution
  • V1: 30 Titles
  • V2: 7  9 Titles
     • SM broke into Service Support & Service Delivery
  • V3: 5 titles
• Standard for Service Management
• Best Practice across many industries
• itSMF (IT Service Management Forum)
ITIL v2 Books Review

            2001: v2                        2007: v3
 SAM & Security Mgt Added Later   Mostly used for Service Desks
Why ITIL for Service Management?
• Best Practices
• Non-Proprietary/Non-Prescriptive
• Guidance, not regulations                                     Examples:
                                                          Just In Time Delivery
• Innovative                                              Automatic Updates
                                                          Web Design
                                                          UN Best Practices
                                                          Can you name any?

                                         Good Practices
                        Best Practices    Lead to Best
                        Lead to Good       Practices
Complementary Guidance
Commonly known frameworks and
standards that have synergy with ITIL:

• COBIT                • Project Management
• ISO/IEC 20000        • CMMI
• ISO/IEC 15504        • 6 Sigma
• ISO/IEC 19770:2006   • Other ITSM
• Management of Risk     Publications
• MOF                  • ITIL Live
Microsoft Operations Framework
        Similarities                        Differences
Process, People &                    MOF                     ITIL
Technology (PPT)
Strategy, Tactics &      Plan, Deliver & Operate   SS, SD, ST, SO,
Operations (STO)                                   Continual Improvement
Separations of Duties    Customer Service          SR/s & Req for Change
Deming’s Plan-Do-        Structured Organization   Best Practices
Check-Act (PDCA)
Can be used in Full or   Microsoft                 Vendor neutral
Price                    Free                      Cost
Six Sigma
• Developed by Bill Smith at Motorola in 1986
• Manufacturing  Business Processes
• Measure, Analyze, Control & Improve
• Voice of the Customer (VoC)
  • Customer Surveys
• Methodology to Identify, Reduce & Eliminate process
  variance or poor performance
Qualification Scheme

                      Lifecycle           Processes & Roles

• 16.25 Hrs of Classroom Instruction • Passing Score: 65%
• Exam: 60 Min; 40 questions         • Multiple Choice
Foundations Certificate Target Group
• Individuals who require a basic understanding of the ITIL
  framework and how it may be used to enhance the quality
  of IT service management within an organization.

• IT professionals who are working within an organization
  that has adopted and adapted ITIL who need to be
  informed about and thereafter contribute to an ongoing
  service improvement program.
This Course is EXIN accredited:
• Independent exams in IT, based
  on standards and best practices        International certification
                                              for IT Standards
• Worldwide recognition, in over 125
  countries                            •ISO/IEC 20000:SQM
• 40 years of experience, involving    •MOF
  experts                              •ASL
• High quality, web-based              •BiSL
• Partner with The APM Group
  Limited (APMG) who won the
  rights to administer the ITIL
  accreditation, certification and
  examination needs for the OGC
More Complementary Material
• Pocket Guides                            • Quick Wins
  • itSMF (updated May 2009)                  • Details of potential quick wins and
  • Foundation Handbook                         benefits that can be obtained from the
                                                adoption of ITIL practices
• Standards Alignment with ISO
                                           • Qualifications
• Knowledge and Skills
                                              • A set of qualifications based around the
  • information on the experience and
                                                core publications and their use within
    knowledge needed to exploit (and
                                                the industry
    gained through) ITIL
                                           • Templates
• Case Studies
                                           • Study Aids
• Scalability
                                             • Additional guides that can be used by
  • How to scale service management
                                               students studying ITIL, particularly on
    implementation for specific
                                               accredited training courses
    organizations, such as very small or
    very large businesses update service: • Specialty Topics
    a web-based service providing regular    • Specific areas of interest, such as
    updates                                    outsourcing
Benefits of ITIL
• Alignment with business needs. ITIL becomes an asset to the business when IT can proactively
  recommend solutions as a response to one or more business needs. The IT Strategy Group recommended
  in Service Strategy and the implementation of Service Portfolio Management gives IT the opportunity to
  understand the business’ current and future needs and develop service offerings that can address them.
• Negotiated achievable service levels. Business and IT become true partners when they can agree upon
  realistic service levels that deliver the necessary value at an acceptable cost.
• Predictable, consistent processes. Customer expectations can beset and are easier to meet with through
  the use of predictable processes that are consistently used. As well, good practice processes are
  foundational and can assist in laying the groundwork to meet regulatory compliance requirements.
• Efficiency in service delivery. Well-defined processes with clearly documented accountability for each
  activity as recommended through the use of a RACI matrix can significantly increase the efficiency of
  processes. In conjunction with the evaluation of efficiency metrics that indicate the time required to perform
  each activity, service delivery tasks can be optimized.
• Measurable, improvable services and processes. The adage that you can’t manage what you cannot
  measure rings true here. Consistent, repeatable processes can be measured and therefore can be better
  tuned for accurate delivery and overall effectiveness. For example, presume that a critical success factor
  for incident management is to reduce the time to restore service. When predictable, consistent processes
  are used key performance indicators such as Mean Time To Restore Service can be captured to determine
  whether this KPI is trending in a positive or negative direction so that the appropriate adjustments can be
  made. Additionally, under ITIL guidelines, services are designed to be measurable. With the proper metrics
  and monitoring in place, IT organizations can monitor SLAs and make improvements as necessary.
• A common language – terms are defined.
Module 2: Lifecycle
•   Overview of ITIL Key Concepts
•   Five Core Books
•   Lifecycle: Terms of Interest
•   Capabilities and Resources
•   Value Creation
•   Lifecycle: Five Phases
•   Benefits of ITIL to the IT Provider
•   Benefits of ITIL to the Customer
•   RACI and Organizational Structure
•   Governance
•   Continual Service Improvement
•   Process Model
•   The 4 P’s of Design
•   Review Questions
Overview of ITIL Key Concepts
• ITIL (IT Infrastructure Library) provides a framework of
  Best Practice guidance for IT Service Management and
  since its creation, ITIL has grown to become the most
  widely accepted approach to IT Service Management in
  the world.
• A Framework for IT governance
5 Core Books
Service Management Lifecycle Phases
• Service Strategy                                    • Service validation and testing
  • Understanding who the IT customers are            • Transition planning (Release 
  • The service offerings that are required to          Production)
    meet the customers’ needs                            • Users
  • The IT capabilities and resource that are            • Support personnel
    required to develop these offerings                  • Production environment
  • The requirements for executing successfully
  • Cost of delivery is consistent with the value   • Service Operation
    delivered.                                        • Delivers the service
                                                         • Overall day-to-day health
• Service Design                                         • Manage disruptions
  • Assures new and change services are                     •   Rapid restoration
    designed effectively                                    •   Determine the root cause
  • Technology and architecture                             •   Detect trends
                                                            •   Handle daily routine end user requests
  • Processes required to manage services                   •   Manage service access
  • Service management systems and tools
     • Monitor and support                          • Continual Service Improvement
     • Measuring service levels                       • Measure and improve efficiency &
• Service Transition                                     • Service levels
  • The design is built, tested and moved into           • Technology
    production                                           • Processes
  • Manage changes
  • Control assets and configuration items
Terms of Interest
• Service Management
• Service
• Service Owner
• Process
• Process Owner
• Function
• Capability
• Resource
• Service Asset
Continual Service Improvement
Business Service Examples
• Telecommunications             •   Requisitioning         • Service Desk
   •   Telephone                 •   Purchase orders          • Shrink wrapped
   •   Pager                     •   Warehouse                • Incidents & Service Requests
   •   Voice mail                •   Inventory control      • Remote Access
   •   Intranet paging           •   Reporting                • VPN
• Resource Scheduling            •   Dispensing?              • Remote Desktop
   • Conference rooms         • Human Resources               • Tokens
   • Equipment                   • Payroll                  • End User Tech
   • Training rooms              • Job Postings               •   Install Hw/Sw
• Finance/Accounting             • Benefits                   •   Move Hw
   •   General ledger            • Professional               •   Change Sw
   •   Accounting functions        Development/Education      •   Network Access (Physical)
   •   Decision support          • Time & Attendance          •   Mobile devices
   •   Reporting                 • Staff Scheduling           •   Disposal
   •   Budgeting                 • Performance Management     •   Lifecycle
   •   Revenue                • System Access (Security)
• Travel                      • Grant, Request, biometric
   • Meeting Requests         • IT Training
   • Expense Reports             • Desktop
• Procurement/Supply Chain       • System
Technology Service Examples
•   Network                                   •   Database                                    •   Application Development (Design,
     • Data transport – Network equipment:         • Database installation                        Development, Documentation)
        switches/routers                           • Database tuning                          •   Incident management
     • Data transport – Network equipment          • Database backup/restore                  •   Consulting (Internal Software
     • Data transport – Network equipment          • Database account management                  Evaluations)
     • Network monitoring                          • Database schema changes                  •   Implementation coordination
     • Network management                          • Database consulting                      •   Money Transfers
     • Secure access to external and internal      • Database management                      •   Report Development (Crystal Reports,
        resources                                                                                 batch, etc.)
                                                   • Database monitoring
     • Secure access to and from Internet                                                     •   Web Development and Administration
                                                   • Research
     • Data transport - wired network                                                         •   GIS Development and Administration
                                              •   Server
        installation                                                                          •   Web Content Management
                                                   • Account management
     • Data transport - wired network                                                         •   Research
        maintenance                                • Server management
                                                                                              •   Application Monitoring
     • Data transport - wired network              • Server monitoring
                                                                                              •   Application Management (maintenance,
        decommissioning                            • SAN Enterprise Storage Area                  patch management)
     • Data transport - wireless network              management
                                                                                              •   Training (early life support)
        installation                               • SAN Enterprise Storage Area
                                                      configuration                           •   Access Database Development
     • Data transport - wireless network                                                      •   Testing
        maintenance                                • Internet Security and Connection
                                                      service                                 •   Requirements Gathering
     • Data transport - wireless network
        decommissioning                            • Active Directory management              •   Forms Development
     • Cable Head In - Maintenance and             • Server provisioning
        Repair                                     • Infrastructure application maintenance
     • Cable Head In – Administration
     • Cable Relocates (Physical)
     • Cable TV Fiber Setup/Teardown          •   Applications Development
• Service Strategy                                     • 3.9 Knowledge Manager
   • 1.1 IT Steering Group (ISG)                       • 3.10 Test Manager
   • 1.2 Financial Manager                          • Service Operation
   • 1.3 Service Portfolio Manager                     •   4.1 1st Level Support
• Service Design                                       •   4.2 2nd Level Support
   •   2.1 Service Catalogue Manager                   •   4.3 3rd Level Support
   •   2.2 Service Level Manager                       •   4.4 Major Incident Team
   •   2.3 Service Owner                               •   4.5 Incident Manager
   •   2.4 Service Design Manager                      •   4.6 Problem Manager
   •   2.5 Applications Analyst/ Architect             •   4.7 Service Request Fulfillment Group
   •   2.6 Technical Analyst/ Architect                •   4.8 Access Manager
   •   2.7 Risk Manager                                •   4.9 IT Operations Manager
   •   2.8 Capacity Manager                            •   4.10 IT Operator
   •   2.9 Availability Manager                        •   4.11 IT Facilities Manager
   •   2.10 IT Service Continuity Manager           • Continual Service Improvement
   •   2.11 IT Security Manager                        • 5.1 CSI Manager
   •   2.12 Compliance Manager                         • 5.2 Process Manager
   •   2.13 IT Architect                               • 5.3 Process Owner
   •   2.14 Supplier Manager                        • Outside the IT organization
• Service Transition                                   • 6.1 User
   •   3.1 Change Manager                              • 6.2 Customer
   •   3.2 Change Advisory Board (CAB)
   •   3.3 Change Owner
   •   3.4 Emergency Change Advisory Board (ECAB)
   •   3.5 Project Manager
   •   3.6 Application Developer
   •   3.7 Release Manager
   •   3.8 Configuration Manager
Lifecycle: Terms of Interest
• Service Management: a set of specialized
 organizational capabilities for providing value to customers in
 the form of services
  • Processes, methods, functions & roles, activities for service provider to use
• Services : Is a means of delivering value to customers by
 facilitating outcomes customers want to achieve without the
 ownership of specific costs and risks
     • SQL, IM, Desktop, HelpDesk, Email

• Service Owner: Person responsible to the customer for
 initiation, transition and ongoing maintenance and support of a
 particular service
  • Key Task
• Process: set of coordinated activities combining and implementing
 resources and capabilities in order to produce an outcome, which
 creates value for an external customer or stakeholder
Continual Service Improvement
Capabilities & Resources
       Capabilities            Resources
Management            Financial Capital
Organization          Infrastructure
Processes             Applications
Knowledge             Information
People                People
Value Creation
5 Phases
• Strategy
  • Working with the business to plan appropriately for both Long and Short
    term service needs
• Design
  • Planning and architecting services that fall within the business’s strategy
• Transition
  • Moving planned business initiatives to live status
  • Retiring old services no longer of value to the business
  • Improving services to keep the business at or above required competitive
• Operation
  • Manage the services currently utilized by the business
• Continual Service Improvement
  • Implemented as part of every process
Benefits of ITIL to the IT Provider
• Service Management Best Practices
• Lifecycle Approach
  • Better management of services
• Better Integration among
  • Business services
  • IT Services
  • IT Functions
• Focus on Value of Service
Benefits of ITIL Whitepaper

• From a business perspective, the adoption of ITIL practices by IT service providers – whether in-
  house providers or external suppliers – ensures many benefits, including:
   •   IT services which align better with business priorities and objectives, meaning that the business achieves more in terms of its strategic
   •   Known and manageable IT costs, ensuring the business better plans its finances
   •   Increased business productivity, efficiency and effectiveness, because IT services are more reliable and work better for the business
   •   Financial savings from improved resource management and reduced rework
   •   More effective change management, enabling the business to keep pace with change and drive business change to its advantage
   •   Improved user and customer satisfaction with IT
   •   Improved end-customer perception and brand image.
• Real organizations have benefited from ITIL practices in a number of ways – for example:
   •   A nationwide retail organization made savings in excess of £600,000 per annum by adopting service strategy practices for its financial
   •   An organization identified that most of the cost of delivering IT support came from resolving customer issues. By adopting ITIL
       approaches to knowledge-based information and self-help, it was able to reduce costs of support by over 75% while at the same time
       increasing user satisfaction with the service, and improving user productivity.
   •   A medium-sized IT service organization invested e2.6m in a two-year program to improve its IT service management. It recouped the
       investment within the first year, and achieved annual savings of e3.5m mainly through rationalizing unused and under-used resources
       (people, software licenses, IT hardware etc). It also reduced IT incident resolution times and improved customer satisfaction by over
   •   A large multinational company made annual savings of £5m by introducing ITIL service design practices to its IT supplier management

                                                  From whitepaper: “Executive Briefing: The Benefits of ITIL” by Maggie Kneller, Independent Consultant
Benefits of ITIL to the Customer
• Focus on Business Needs
• Services Aligned to Business Activity
• Services Designed to Meet Business Requirements
RACI and Organizational Structure
• RACI Model
 • Responsible
   • What needs to be done and by whom
 • Accountable
   • Who are the owners of the results
 • Consult
   • Who has ability to assist, guide?
 • Inform
   • Who needs/desires to know
Typical Steps in RACI Process
• Identify all Processes
• Identify all Roles
• Fill in chart, identifying RACI for each Process
RACI Example
                        Enterprise Governance

  Corporate Governance                          Business Governance
      Ie. Conformance                               Ie Performance

     Accountability                               Value Creation
      Assurance                                 Resource Utilization
IT Governance

 IT Governance is the
  responsibility of the
Board of Directors and
Executive Management
IT Governance
IT Governance
Process Model
• Measureable
• Deliver specific Results
• Customers/Stakeholders
  expectations must be met
• Respond to event or
Process Model
The 4 P’s of Design
People, Process, Products, Partners

Process by Lifecycle
Process by Lifecycle (SS)
Process by Lifecycle (SD)
Process by Lifecycle (ST)
Process by Lifecycle (SO)
Process by Lifecycle (CSI)
Service Lifecycle Stages
Sample Questions
Module 3: Service Strategy
•   Service Strategy
•   Service Strategy Key Concepts
•   Strategy Key Activities
•   Strategy Terms of Interest
•   Utility and Warranty = Value
•   Service Provider Types
•   Service Strategy Processes
•   Financial Management
•   Service Value
•   Service Justification: Business Case
•   Service Portfolio Management
•   Demand Management
•   Demand and Capacity
•   Review Questions
Service Strategy
• ITSM Starting Point
• Explore Business Needs,
• Align IT Strategies to
  Business Strategies
• Focus on Services
  as “Value” to business
• Source Appropriately

        How do you become “not optional”? – William D Green, CEO Accenture
Service Strategy Key Concepts

• Business Service
• Who, What, When
  Where & How
 • Who are the
 • What are the Services,
   Infrastructure, ROI/VOI
 • When will they be delivered
 • Where will they be delivered
 • How to implement, operate,
   feedback to improve
Strategy Key Activities
• Define the Market
  • Competition and Marketspace
• Develop the Offerings
  • Service Value (Assets, Networks, Creation & Capture)
• Develop Strategic Assets
  • Technical, Business, Informal/Formal
  • ITIL
• Prepare for Execution
  • Securing Financial Management
  • Integrate into Service Portfolio Management
Strategy Terms of Interest
• Warranty
   • Usability of a service
   • Is it user-friendly?
   • “Fit for Use”
• Utility
   • Functionality of a service
   • It does what it was designed to do
   • “Fit for Purpose”
• Open-loop Systems
   • Perform activity regardless of environment conditions, ie Backup scheduled
• Closed-loop Systems
   • Monitor environment and respond to changes, ie load balancing
• Trigger
   • Event that launches a process, ie a call to the Service Desk begins Incident
     Management Activities
   • Used for Closed-Loop Systems
Open-Looped vs. Closed-Looped

Capacity Management via over/under provisioning
Load Balancer detecting congestion/failure and redirecting traffic
Warranty & Utility = Service Value
Service Models
Service Provider Types

• Type I
  • Internal
• Type II
  • Shared Services (Internal)
• Type III
  • External Provider
Service Provider Decision Matrix
    From/To   Type I            Type II           Type III

Type I           Functional      Disaggregation      Outsourcing

Type II         Aggregation        Corporate         Outsourcing

Type III         Insourcing        Insourcing        Value Net
Choosing Provider Type
• Does the activity require assets that are highly specialized?
  • Will those assets be idle or obsolete if that activity is no longer performed?
    (If yes, then disaggregate.)
• How frequently is the activity performed within a period or business
  • Is it infrequent or sporadic? (If yes then disaggregate.)
• How complex is the activity?
  • Is it simple and routine?
  • Is it stable over time with few changes? (If yes, then disaggregate.)
• Is it hard to define good performance? (If yes, then aggregate.)
• Is it hard to measure good performance? (If yes, then aggregate.)
• Is it tightly coupled with other activities or assets in the business?
  • Would separating it increase complexity and cause problems of
    coordination? (If yes, then aggregate.)
Service Strategy Processes
• Financial Management
• Service Portfolio Management
• Demand Management
Financial Management
• Service Valuation
  • ROI (and VOI)
• Funding (Budgeting)
• Accounting
• Chargeback
Elements of Financial Management
• Service Valuation
• Demand Modeling
• Service Portfolio Management
• Service Provisioning Optimization
• Planning Confidence
• Service Investment Analysis
• Accounting
• Compliance
Business case structure
• Introduction
  • Presents the business objectives addressed by the service
• Methods and assumptions
  • Defines the boundaries of the business case, such as time period,
    whose costs and whose benefits
• Business impacts
  • The financial and non-financial business case results
• Risks and contingencies
  • The probability that alternative results will emerge
• Recommendations
  • Specific actions recommended.
Service Portfolio Management
• The Provider’s collection of Services available to the
  • Services defined in terms of business value
  • Repository detailing information about the services throughout the
  • Means for comparing service competitiveness
    • Why should a customer buy from this provider?
    • What is a fair rate for the service?
    • What are the strengths, weaknesses, priorities, risks?
Service Portfolio
Management Methods
Service Portfolio 1
Service Portfolio 2
Demand Management
Demand and Capacity
User Profiles
User Profile    Applicable Patterns of Business Activity (PBA)                           PBA Code

Senior          Moderate travel-domestic and overseas; highly sensitive information;     45F
executive       zero latency on service requests; high need for technical assistance;    45A
(UP1)           need to be highly available to the business                              35D
Highly mobile   Extensive travel-domestic and overseas; sensitive information; low       45A
executive       latency on service requests; moderate need for technical assistance;     35D
(UP2)           high customer contact; need to be highly available to customers          22A
Office-based    Office-based administrative staff; low travel-domestic; medium latency   22A
staff           on service requests; low need for technical assistance; full-featured    14B
(UP3)           desktop needs; moderate customer contact; high volume of                 3A
                paperwork; need to be highly productive during work hours
Payment         Business system; high volume; transaction-based; high security           12F
processing      needs; low latency on service requests; low seasonal variation;
system          mailing of documents by postal service; automatic customer
(UP4)           notification; under regulatory compliance; need for low unit costs;
                need to be highly secure and transparent (audit control)
Customer        Business process; moderate volume; transaction-based; moderate           24G
assistance      security needs; very low latency on service requests; medium             10G
process         seasonal variation; mailing of replacement parts by express;
(UP5)           automatic customer notification; need to be highly responsive to
Module 4: Service Design
•   Service Design
•   Service Design Key Concepts
•   Service Design Terms of Interest
•   Business Change Process
•   Design Management
•   5 Aspects of Service Design
•   4 P’s
•   Design Constraints
•   Service Design Processes
•   Service Catalog Management
•   Service level Management
•   Availability Management
•   Capacity Management
•   IT Service Continuity Management
•   Information Security Management
•   Supplier Management
Service Design
• Design of Services to meet
  Business Needs
• Design of Processes to
  maximize Service
• Design of Measurements
  and Metrics to assist in
  Service Management and
Service Design Quote
• The common mistake that people make when trying to
  design something completely foolproof is to underestimate
  the ingenuity of complete fools

                                         --Douglas Adams
Service Design Key Concepts
• The Main purpose of Service Design stage is the design
  of new or changed services for introduction into the live
Service Design Terms of Interest
• Service Provider
• Service Level Agreement
• Operational Level Agreement
• Contract
• Service Design Package
• Availability
• Supplier
Operational Level Agreement
•   Support Service Description
•   Scope of Agreement
•   Service Hours
•   Service Targets
•   Contact Points & Escalation
•   Service Desk & Incident Response Times & Responsibilities
•   Problem response times and Responsibilities
•   Change Management
•   Release Management
•   Configuration Management
•   Information Security Management
•   Availability Management
•   Service Continuity Management
•   Capacity Management
•   Service Level Management
•   Supplier Management
Business Change Process
Role of Project Team
Design Management
5 Aspects of Service Design
• Design of Service Solutions
• Design of Service Management Systems & Tools
 • Especially the Service Portfolio
• Design of Technology Architectures and Management
• Design of Processes
• Design of Measurement methods and Metrics of the
Design of Service Solution
• Focus on Business Needs
• Designed to meet Functional Requirements
• Development of Resources and Capabilities
Design of Service Portfolio
Service Portfolio Content
• Service Name                   • SLR references
• Service Description            • Supporting Services
• Service Status                 • Supporting Resources
• Classification & Criticality   • OLAs, Contract &
• Applications used                agreements
• Data used                      • Costs
• Business processes             • Metrics
• Business owners
• Business Users
• IT owners
• Email                          • Supporting Apps
  • Calendaring                • Data Protection
  • Conference Room              • BU
• Printing & Scanning            • DR
• Security (via CCTV)            • Clustering
  • Fire                       • Bus Continuity
  • Physical                   • Content Mgt/Collaboration
    • Access
          • Iprotect
                               • Db
  • Logical                      • Tuning
    • Encryption                 • Hosting
    • Access                     • Admin
• Telecommunication            • App Support / Admin
  • Phone                      • Policy & Guidelines
    • Landlines                  • Risk Assessment
    • Mobile
                                 • Governance
  • Fax                          • Compliance
• File Storage & Maintenance   • Records Management
• Desktop Maintenance
Design of Technology Architectures and
Management Systems
Architectural Relationships
Design of Process
Design of Measurement Methods and
Metrics of Service
Design Constraints
Service Design Processes
• Service Catalog Management
• Availability Management
• Capacity Management
• IT Continuity Management
• Service Level Management
Service Catalog Management
• Dependent on Service Portfolio
• Details of all LIVE and APPROVED-FOR-LIVE services
• 2 versions
 • Business Service Catalog
 • Technical Service Catalog
Service Design
The Big Picture
Service Catalog
Service Level Management
• Design SLA framework
• Gather, Document SLR’s
• Monitor Performance against SLA’s
• Produce appropriate reports
• Conduct Reviews (could lead to SIP)
• Manage contacts and relationships

            “Agree, Monitor, Report, Review”
Scope of SLM
• Service Level Agreements
• Service Level Requirements
• Availability Targets
• Operational Level Agreements
• Contracts
• Reporting and Reviewing
• Service Improvement
SLA Structures
• Service-based SLA                    • Customer
  • Covers 1 service and all             • All SLM issues to 1 customer
    customers                          • Service
  • Common service levels for all        • All SLM issues for 1 service to 1
    customers                              customer

• Customer-based SLA
  • Covers 1 customer group and
    all services
  • Customer prefers this
    • Only 1 signature
• Multi-level SLA
  • Corporate
    • All customers and all services
Availability Management
• Produce Availability Plan
• Provide Guidelines on Availability Issues
• Ensure Availability Targets
• Assist on Availability Incidents and Problems
• Assess Change Plans
• Proactive Improvements of Availability
Availability Management Responsibilities
Availability Management Key
• Service Availability
• Component Availability
• Reliability
• Maintainability
Availability Management Process
• Monitor using events, alarms, escalation and scripts for
  • Availability
    • MTBF: Mean Time between Failure
    • Uptime
  • Reliability
    • MTBSI: Mean Time between Service Incident
    • Average Reliability
  • Maintainability
    • MTTR: Mean Time between Repair/Replace/Recovery/Resolve
    • MTRS: Mean Time between Restore Service
    • Downtime
Availability Management Calculations
Availability Management
Calculation Example
• A situation where a 24x7 service has been running for a
  period of 5,020 hours with only 2 breaks
  • 1x 6 hours
  • 1x 14 hours

• Availability = (5,020-(6+14))/5,020 x 100 = 99.6%
• Reliability (MTBSI)= 5,020/2 = 2,510 Hours
• Reliability (MTBF) = 5,020 – (6+14) / 2 = 2,500
• Maintainability (MTRS) (6+14) /2 = 10 Hours
Vital Business Functions
• High Availability
  • Masks effects of failure
• Fault Tolerance:
  • Service, component or CI to operate correctly after failure of
    component part
• Continuous Operations
  • Eliminate planned downtime
  • CIs may be down, but not service
• Continuous availability
  • No planned downtime
• Impact by user minutes lost
  • Duration of downtime x no. of users impacted
• Impact by business transaction
  • No. of transactions that could NOT be processed during downtime
Availability Activities & Methods
• Identify Vital Business     • Unavailability Analysis
  Functions                   • Plan & Design for
• Component Failure Impact      new/changed services
  Analysis                      • Redundancy
• Modeling                      • High Availability
• SPOF                        • Monitor, Measure, Analyze,
• Fault Tree Analysis           Report, Review on
                                Component Availability
• Management_of_Risk
                              • Expanded Incident Lifecycle
• Testing & Maintenance
                              • Service Failure Analysis
• Produce Projected Service     (SFA)
  Outage Document
Capacity Management
• Business Capacity Management
• Service Capacity Management
• Component Capacity Management
• Capacity Management Information System
• Capacity Plan
Capacity Management Responsibilities
• Capacity Plan
• Guidance and Assistance on Capacity-related issues
• Ensure Capacity Targets
• Ensure Proactive Improvements
Capacity Management
• Provides information on current and planned resource
  utilization of individual components to enable organization
  to decide, with confidence:
  • Which components to upgrade
    • More memory, faster storage/processors, more bandwidth
  • When to upgrade
    • Not too early (over capacity)
    • Not too late (bottlenecks)
  • How much upgrade will cost
Capacity Management IS
Continuity Management
• Service Continuity Plans
• Business Impact Analysis
• Guidance on Continuity and Recovery
• Ensure Continuity and Recovery Measures in Place
• Assess Impact of Change on Continuity Plans
• Ensure Proactive Measures
• Negotiate with Suppliers for Continuity Needs
ITSCM Lifecycle
• Policy Setting
• Terms of Reference and Scope
• Allocate Resources
• Define Project organization and control structure
• Agree Project and quality plans
Risk Profile Example
Information Security Management
• IT Information Security Policy (ISP)
• Ensure Security Requirements
• Document & Implement Security Controls
• Manage Supplier Access to Systems
• Manage Security Breaches and Security-related incidents
• Proactive Improvements of Security
• Integrate Security Aspects within other ITSM processes
5 Elements of Security Framework
Information Security Key Concepts
• Passwords (Access Management)
• Email
• Virus Control
• Encryption
• Remote Access
• Information Security Management System
Supplier Management
• Supplier Policy
• Obtain Value from Suppliers
• Ensure Supplier Contracts are Business-aligned
• Manage Supplier Relationships and Performance
• Negotiate Supplier Contracts and Manage them through
  their Lifecycle
• Supplier and Contract Database
Supplier Management Components
Supplier Management
Partner Relationships
• Strategic alignment
• Integration
• Information Flow
• Mutual Trust
• Shared Risk/Reward
• Openness
• Collective Responsibility
Supplier Management
Partner Relationship Example
 Supplier Categorization
• Strategic
  • Partnering relationships
  • Senior Management
• Tactical
  • Commercial Activities
  • Middle Management
• Operational
  • ISP, CoLo
  • Junior Level
• Commodity
  • Paper, Printer consumables
The Supplier and Contract Db
Service Transition
• Service Transition
• Service Transition Key Concepts
• Service Transition Terms of Interest
• Service Transition Processes
• Change Management
• Assets & Configuration Management
• Knowledge Management
• Release & Deployment Management
• Transition Planning & Support
• Validation and Testing
• Evaluation
Service Transition
• Enable Effective Business
• Manage Change & Risk
• Guide New IT Service into
 • Ensure Service Quality
 • Minimize adverse impact of
Service Transition Purposes
• Plan & Manage resources required to package, build, test and
  deploy a release into production
• Evaluate service capability and risk profile prior to new or
  changed service is release or deployed
• Provide good-quality knowledge and information so Release &
  Deployment Management can expedite effective decisions
  through test environment and into production
• Provide efficient repeatable build and installation mechanisms
  to deploy releases to test and production environments and
  rebuild/restore if necessary
• Goals
  • Set Customer Expectations as to the use and performance
  • Reduce variations
  • Reduce Known Errors
• Objectives
  • Meet predicted cost, quality and time estimates
Service Transition Key Concepts
Service Transition Terms of Interest
• Service Knowledge Management System
• Configuration Item
• Configuration management System
• Definitive Media Library
• Change
 • Normal, Standard, Emergency
• Seven R’s of Change Management
• Release Unit
• Release Policy
Service Transition Processes
• Complete Lifecycle
  • Change Management
  • Asset & Configuration management
  • Knowledge Management
• Within ST
  •   Transition Planning and Support
  •   Release and Deployment Management
  •   Service Testing and Validation
  •   Evaluation
Change Management
• Focus on Changes to assets and Cis across whole
• Change Activities
 •   Planning and Controlling Changes
 •   Change & Release Scheduling
 •   Communications
 •   Change Decisions and Authorizations
 •   Measurement & Reporting
Change Scope
Change Management
Roles & Resources
• Request for Change
• Change Advisory Board (CAB)
• Emergency Change Advisory Board (ECAB)
• Schedule of Change (SC)
• Projected Service Outage Document (PSO)
• Post Implementation Review (PIR)
Example Types of Request
Type of Change                    Doc work Proc     SS   S   ST   SO   CSI
RFC Service Portfolios            Service Change    X
-New item                         Management
-Predicted Scope, Bus Case,
-Service Pipeline
RFC to Service or Service         Service Change    X    X   X    X    X
Definition                        Management
-Existing or planned attributes
-Impacts SD
-Service Improvement
Project Change Proposal           Project Change         X   X         X
-Business Change                  Management
-No Impact on Service             Procedure
User Access Request               User Access                     X
Operational Activity              Local Procedure                 X
Tuning                            PreAuthorized
Normal Change
Standard Change
7 Rs of Change
• Who RAISED the Change?
• What is the Reason for the Change?
• What is the Return required from the Change?
• What are the Risks involved in the Change?
• What Resources are required to deliver the change?
• Who is Responsible for the Build, test and Implementation
  of the Change?
• What is the Relationship between this change and other
Change Impact & Risk Matrix
Asset & Configuration Management
• Asset Management Focus:
 • Service Assets during Service Lifecycle
• Configuration Management Focus:
 • Manage Logical Model of Infrastructure
 • Show how Assets and Components interrelate
Asset and Configuration Management
Key Components
• Configuration Items
• Configuration Management Systems
  • Configuration Management Databases
• Definitive Media Library
• Configuration Baseline
• Configuration Model
Configuration Model
Asset Management
• Manage / Details
  •   Inventory of Assets
  •   Owner / Responsible party for Asset
  •   Lifecycle steps form Acquisition to Disposal
  •   Financial Information
Configuration Management Information
• Logical Model of the IT Infrastructure
• Data from multiple sources or federated CMDBs
• References Definitive Media Libraries, Spares Store and
  Asset Stores (staging area)
Knowledge Management
• Service Knowledge Management System (SKMS)

   Right Information to the right people at the right time
Knowledge Sharing
Release and Deployment Management
• Deliver Change faster, at lower cost, with reduced risk
• Assure the changed or new service supports the business
  and its customers
• Ensure consistency in implementing changes
• Ensure traceability
Release and Deployment Activities
• Planning
• Preparation
• Build and test
• Service and Pilots
• Plan and Prepare for Deployment
• Transfer. Deploy/ Retire
• Verify
• Early Life Support
• Review and Close Deployment
• Review and Close Transition
Transition Planning and Support
• Determine Capacity and Resources
• Support transition teams
• Ensure integrity of Assets
Validation and Testing
• Validation
  • Is the change fit for purpose (Utility)?
  • Is the change fit for use (Warranty)?
• Testing
  • Is the change going to achieve its intended result (Utility)?
  • Is the change going to work without adverse effects (Warranty)
• Determines a means of answering these two questions
 • What was the expected result?
 • Did the change succeed?
Module 6: Service Operations
• Service Operation
• Service Operation Key Concepts
• Service Operation Terms of Interest
• Service Operations Processes
• Incident Management
• Problem Management
• Event Management
• Request Fulfillment
• Access Management
• Service Operations Function
Service Operations
• Manage Day to Day
 • Operations
• Provide Value to Customer
 • Communication
 • Support
Service Operation Key Concepts
• Services that are operational
• Services that are utilized
• Technology used to deliver services
  • And processes
• People
Service Operations
• An interesting daily dichotomy
  • Services vs. Components (External vs. Internal)
• Manage the customer desires and needs (external) while
  working with an ever changing IT architecture (internal).
  • Stability vs. Responsive
• Attempt to keep the environment stable while at the same
  time being responsive to user needs
  • Quality vs. Cost
• Managing expectations within a finite budget
  • Reactive vs. Proactive
• Balance hard to achieve if environment routinely
  undergoes massive change
Service Dichotomies
Service Operation Terms of Interest
• Incident
• Alert
• Event
• Service Request
• Problem
• Known Error
• Workaround
• Impact, Urgency, Priority
Service Operation Processes
• Incident Management
• Problem Management
• Event Management
• Access Management
• Request Fulfillment
Incident Management
• Restore Service as Soon as Possible
• Standard Incident Model
 • Assist in speedy Incident Management
• Major Incident Management
 • Problem Management may be asked to assist
Incident Management Workflow
Information Needed
• Unique reference number               • Call-back method (telephone, mail,
• Incident categorization (often          etc.)
  broken down into between two          • Description of symptoms
  and four levels of sub-categories)    • Incident status (active, waiting,
• Incident urgency                        closed, etc.)
• Incident impact                       • Related CI
• Incident prioritization               • Support group/person to which
• Date/time recorded                      the incident is allocated
• Name/ID of the person and/or          • Related problem/Known Error
  group recording the incident          • Activities undertaken to resolve
• Method of notification (telephone,      the incident
  automatic, e-mail, in person, etc.)   • Resolution date and time
• Name/department/phone/location        • Closure category
  of user                               • Closure date and time.
Incident Level Matrices
                                     High   Medium           Low
                   High               1       2               3
 Urgency       Medium                 2       3               4
                   Low                3       4               5

   Priority Code                     Desc         Target Resolution
           1              Critical           1 Hour
           2              High               8 Hours
           3              Medium             24 Hours
           4              Low                48 Hours
           5              Planning           Planned
Incident Closure
• Closure Categorization
• User satisfaction survey
• Incident documentation
• Ongoing or recurring?
• Formal closure
  • Auto
  • Manual
Incident Management interfaces with
• Problem Management                   • Change Management
  • Incidents are caused by problems      • Workaround or resolution
  • Report problems to Problem            • Logged as RFC
    Management                            • PM detects and resolves incidents
• Configuration Management                  arising from failed changes
   • Assist in finding faulty equipment • Capacity Management
   • Impact assessment                     • IM provides trigger for
   • Hold information about which            performance monitoring
     categories should be assigned to      • Workarounds
     which support group                • Availability Management
   • Audit infrastructure as comparison    • Relies on IM for availability of
• SLM                                        services and improvement paths
   • Helps define measurable response • Release & Deploy Management
   • Helps identify weak services
Event Management
• Scope focused on specific events vs. general monitoring
  • Early detection – Preventative
• Basis for key automated operations
  • Detect
  • Make sense of
  • Act on
• Classifications
  • Informational
  • Warning
  • Exceptions
Request Fulfillment
• Handles non-incident requests
  • Service Requests
  • RFC’s (Standard Changes)
• Request Models
• Self-Help Opportunities
Event Management Scope
• CI
  • Constant State
       • Switches/Routers
  • Status changes
       • Updating file server
• Environmental conditions
  • Fire/smoke detection
• Sw licensing monitoring
• Security Intrusion
• Normal Activity
  • Application usage
  • Server Performance
Access Management
• Access Rights
 •   Verification of Legitimacy of requests
 •   Monitoring Identity Status
 •   Logging and Tracking access
 •   Granting/Removing/Restricting
     • Privileges predetermined (Availability & Security
• Physical Access control NOT within scope
 • Facilities
Value to Business
• Maintain Confidentiality of Information
• Reduces errors by unskilled users
• Audit services to trace abuses
• Revoke access when needed
• Regulatory compliance (SOX, HIPAA)
Requesting Access
• Standard Request
• Request for Change
• Service Request
• Pre-Authorized Script
  • Filling form to download application
Service Operation Functions
• Service Desk
• Technical Management
• Application Management
• IT Operations
Service Desk
• Single Point of Contact for User Community
• Manages Incidents and Service Requests
  •   First level support
  •   Escalate as agreed
  •   Keeps users informed
  •   Closes
• Conducts Satisfaction Surveys
• Communicates with Users
• Update CMS
Service Desk Organizational Structures
• Local Service Desk
• Centralized Service Desk
• Virtual Service Desk
 • May be structured as “Follow the Sun” Service Desk
 Local Service Desk
• Reasons for having
  Local desk when call
  volumes don’t justify it
 • Language, Cultural,
 • Time zones
 • Specialized group
 • Specialized services
 • VIP/critical user status
Centralized Service Desk
• Advantages
   • Costs are reduced.
   • Resources are optimized.
   • Management is simplified.
• Disadvantages
   • Users are spread across
     several geographical
     locations, with different
     languages, products and
   • Maintenance services need
     to be delivered on site.
Virtual Service Desk
• Knowledge is centralized.
• Unnecessary duplication
  is avoided, with the
  consequent cost savings.
• A "local service" can be
  offered without incurring
  extra costs.
• The quality of service is
  uniform and consistent.
Service Desk Metrics
•   First Line Resolution Rate
•   Average time to resolve an incident
•   Average time to escalate incident
•   Average cost of handling an incident
    • Specific to Service Desk
• Percentage of user updates as agreed by SLA
• Average time to review and close a resolved call
• Average number of calls per day and per week
Technical Management
• Custodian of Technical Knowledge
• Provides the Resources to support the ITSM Lifecycle
  •   Starts in SS
  •   Expands in SD
  •   Executed in SO
  •   Ongoing in CSI
• Activities
  • Documentation of skills (current and future)
  • Design training
      • Defined in SD, executed in SO
  • Recruiting/contracting people with skills
  • Define standards used in Design of new Architectures (SO/SD)
  • Design Performance Standards
Application Management
• Assists in application sizing and workload forecasts
• Assists in identifying ongoing operational costs of
• Assists in determining support skills required
• Assists in determining costs of customization
• Assists in determining to build or buy
• Assists in data access requirements
Application Management Lifecycle
IT Operations Management
• Operations Control
  •   Console Management
  •   Job Scheduling
  •   Back-up and Restore
  •   Print & Output Management
  •   Maintenance Activities
• Facilities Management
  • IT Environment
      • Ie Data Center
Continual Service Improvement
• Continual Service Improvement
• Continual Service Improvement Key Concepts
• Continual Service Improvement Key Terms
• Continual Service Improvement Activities
• Constant Improvement: Deming
• Seven Steps of Improvement
• CSI Model
• Role of Measurements
• Focus on Business Needs
• Methods & Techniques of Continual Service Improvement
Continual Service Improvement
• Continual Re-
  Alignment of IT to meet
• Improve Services
• Assist/Guide growth &
  maturity of Service
 • Manage, Analyze,
Continual Service Improvement
Key Concepts
• Main Areas
  • Overall Health of ITSM
  • Continual alignment of Service Portfolio to Business Needs
  • Maturity of IT Processes
• Guiding principles
  • You cannot manage what you cannot control
  • You cannot control what you cannot measure
  • You cannot measure what you cannot define
Continual Service Improvement
Key Terms
• Baseline
• 7 Steps of Improvement
• CSI Model
• Metrics
 • Technology
 • Process
 • Service
Continual Service Improvement Activities
Key Activities                                                         Key Roles
Collect data and analyze trends compared to baselines, targets, SLAs   CSI Manager, Service
and benchmarks. This would include output from services and service    Manager, Service Owner, IT
management processes                                                   Process Owner
Set targets for improvement in efficiency and cost effectiveness       CSI Manager, Service
throughout the entire service lifecycle                                Manager
Set targets for improvements in service quality and resource           CSI Manager, Service
Utilization                                                            Manager, Service Owner,
                                                                       Business Process
Consider new business and security requirements                        CSI Manager, Service
                                                                       Manager, Business Process
Consider new external drivers such as regulatory requirements          CSI Manager, Service
                                                                       Business Process Owner
Create a plan and implement improvements                               CSI Manager, Service
                                                                       Service Owner, Process
Provide a means for staff members to recommend improvement             CSI Manager, Service
opportunities                                                          Manager
Constant Improvement: Deming
7 Steps of Improvement
CSI Model
Role of Measurements
Focus on Business Needs
Methods & Techniques of CSI
•   Assessments
•   Gap Analysis
•   Balanced Scorecard
•   SWOT
•   Deming Cycle
    •   Plan
    •   Do
    •   Check
    •   Act
Demand and Capacity
Pattern of Business Activity (PBA)

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