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					 International Journal of Management (IJM), ISSN 0976 – 6502(Print), ISSN 0976 - 6510(Online),
 Volume 4, Issue 5, September - October (2013)

ISSN 0976-6502 (Print)
ISSN 0976-6510 (Online)                                                            IJM
Volume 4, Issue 5, September - October (2013), pp. 139-152
© IAEME: www.iaeme.com/ijm.asp                                               ©IAEME
Journal Impact Factor (2013): 6.9071 (Calculated by GISI)


                            Deblina Saha Vashishta1* and Dr. B.Balaji2
      Research Scholar, Bharathiar University and Faculty, Imperial College of Business Studies
         Research Supervisor,Bharathiar University and Director (MBA),Sree Sastha Institute of
                           Engineering and Technology, Chennai-600123


          While the world’s largest developing markets like Brazil, Russia, India, China, Malaysia—
 still tempt the largest global retailers and show no signs of slowing down, many smaller, untapped
 markets are providing new profit frontiers, particularly for regional and specialty players.
 Undoubtedly India has also been one of the top favorite destinations for the foreign retailers and with
 the Government approving foreign direct investment in retail all the big retail giants like Wal-Mart,
 Tesco are eyeing the diverse culture of India that is going to offer them a huge opportunity. For
 Indonesia, attractive middle class, an expanding middle class, steadily growing economy (roughly 6
 percent per year), and declining debt-to-GDP ratios are enticing the global retailers. Even though the
 share of organized retail is only 4% its total retail sales in 2012 had been USD 322 billion on the
 other hand Indonesia having 30% share of organized retail had total retail sales of USD 150 billion.
 Keeping up the pace with global retailing, technology is also gaining its share of importance in the
 organized retail sector as technology is transforming the way retailers operate in developing markets.
 But at the same time the question arises are Indians and Indonesians ready to shop smartly or they
 would still prefer to stand in long ques every weekends to pay their bills or redeem their membership
 cards? Since both the countries are backed by strong cultural dimensions like collectivism,
 masculinity and uncertainty avoidance, it is important to understand whether the consumers are
 really prepared to believe in their self efficacy and accept technology innovations to enhance their
 shopping experience or they still want to be dependent on the front line service employees.
 Considering the fact that these dimensions are very important in a globalised economy and potential
 adaptation of new technology based service models is crucial for successful market entry, this
 research paper attempts to find out how the consumers perception regarding acceptance of Self
 Service Technology is influenced by the cultural dimensions of both the nations.

International Journal of Management (IJM), ISSN 0976 – 6502(Print), ISSN 0976 - 6510(Online),
Volume 4, Issue 5, September - October (2013)

Key Words: Cultural Dimensions, Customer Satisfaction, Retail Innovation, Self Service


         Global retail is finally growing and living up to its name “global” as the largest developing
markets continue to attract most leading retailers. With consumer confidence improving and
purchasing power increasing global retailers continue to expand their hold in the developing markets.
In the past five years, U.S.-based Wal-Mart, France-based Carrefour, U.K.-based Tesco, and
Germany-based Metro Group saw their revenues in developing countries grow 2.5 times faster than
revenues in their home markets. Shoppers' expectations and behaviours are evolving, driven by both
the economic climate and increased access to information through technology. Consumers are more
connected than ever to brands, merchandise, and their fellow shoppers. The proliferation of channels
and media outlets for retailer-consumer interactions has forced retailers to approach international
expansion from a multi-channel perspective. Even in developing markets, people are increasingly
willing to purchase online. Growth in e-commerce and mobile commerce outpaces physical retail in
nearly every market, demonstrating that the Internet is both a viable complement to bricks-and-
mortar operations and a pure-play channel for market entry. But Consumer behavior in market place
cannot be considered as an independent activity but they are closely associated with cultural
dimensions, values and social relationships. With the trend of globalization culture has become an
indispensable part of marketplace. People of each country possess a distinct ‘‘national character’’
(Clark, 1990). Countries are a source of a considerable amount of common mental programming of
their citizens (Hofstede, 1991). Core values of any country shape its national culture. As culture
varies country to country, a close insight about country-specific culture and core values is almost
essential for a smooth sailing in any country market. At the same time the globalised era is
introducing the concept of self service technology into the retail settings which encourages
consumers actively to co-produce the service independent of frontline service employees’
involvement (Meuter et al., 2000, 2005) and results in improvements to retailers’ productivity and
service quality (Lee et al., 2009;Weijters et al., 2007). Despite the acceleration of its availability
being beneficial to retail stores (Lee et al., 2009), the use of SST has met with limited success in
retail settings (Dabholkar et al., 2003; Weijters et al., 2007). The primary cause of such disappointing
results is the retailers’ lack of understanding regarding consumer’s perceptions associated with the
usage of SST, such as satisfaction (Weijterset al., 2007). Consumer satisfaction is recognized as an
adequate measure of service quality and which leads to the continuation of relationships with service
providers (Rust and Chung, 2006) as well as dominating SST success (Chen et al., 2009). Latest
technological innovations do add convenience and style to shopping experience but at the same time
it is very essential to understand the consumer mindsets in depth that governs the success or failure
of such innovations as the mindset is primarily driven by one’s culture and social values.


2.1 Role of Culture, Cultural Dimensions in Consumer Behaviour
        Hofstede (2001) refers to culture as ‘‘the collective programming of the mind which
distinguishes the members of one group or category of people from another’’. Culture refers to a set
of values, ideas, artifacts and other meaningful symbols that help individuals to communicate,
interpret and evaluate as members of society. It is a normally homogeneous system of collectively
shared meanings, way of life and common set of values shared by a member of society. Culture
comprises the shared values, assumptions, understandings and goals that are learned from one
generation, imposed by the current generation, and passed on to succeeding generations (Deresky,

International Journal of Management (IJM), ISSN 0976 – 6502(Print), ISSN 0976 - 6510(Online),
Volume 4, Issue 5, September - October (2013)

2003). It governs how we wish to be treated and how we treat others; how we communicate,
negotiate process information and make decisions (Scarborough, 2000). Due to rapid globalization,
though we are fast absorbing concept of ‘‘no-border’’ world, yet cultural factors moderate many
aspects of consumer’s buying behaviour. There is a growing interest in cultural differences of
countries and understanding the cultural context of consumer behaviour in a globalized marketplace
(Maheswaran and Sharon, 2000). It is true that in the market place, consumer’s perception of an
inexperienced new technology is based upon its abilities to satisfy needs on which culture and values
have a great impact. Over the past decades, due to aggressive competition in the retail business
environment, a company’s success largely depended on the satisfied customers who are willing to
experiment with the latest innovation in the shopping experience (Siu and Cheung, 2001; Srinivasan
et al., 2002). Researchers suggested that creating a positive retail store environment plays a critical
role in satisfying customers and maintaining their loyalty to the store in foreign markets (Chang and
Tu, 2005). Much research also showed that certain retail store attributes influence store choice and
patronage behaviour (Baker et al., 2002; Hu and Jasper, 2006; Pan and Zinkham, 2006; Sherman et
al., 1997; Sirgy et al., 2000).
         Zhang, Beatty, and Walsh (2008) reviewed twenty service research journals and discovered
forty articles that focus on cross-cultural customer service research. The most popular categorization
of cultural dimensions is the framework proposed by Hofstede (1980) which includes individualism
versus collectivism, masculinity versus femininity, high power of distance versus low power of
distance, and high uncertainty avoidance versus low uncertainty avoidance. Prior studies show that
individualism and uncertainty avoidance are important to consumer acceptance of innovations in
different cultures (Lim, Leung, Sia, & Lee, 2004). Individualism defines cultures where there are
loose ties between individuals and there is a greater propensity for people to take care of themselves
and their close family with low levels of concern for the rest of society. Collectivism defines cultures
where people are integrated into cohesive groups and have strong loyalties to the group. People in
individualistic cultures are encouraged to make their own choices whereas people in collective
cultures are more willing to conform to the norms of the group (Erumban, & Jong, 2006). Members
of individualist cultures feel free to express their own views and act accordingly and are therefore
more willing to innovate and adopt new ideas (Erumban, & Jong, 2006). Further, an individualistic
culture, where people tend to follow their own motives are more innovative than people from
collectivistic cultures and are more likely to accept self-service checkout implementations.
Uncertainty avoidance varies across counties and is measured using a scale defining low or high
uncertainty avoidance. The main characteristic of uncertainty avoidance is the orientation of society
members toward the new and the unknown. According to Hofstede (1980), uncertainty avoidance is
related to the degree by which members of a society feel uncomfortable with uncertainty and
ambiguity. Therefore, people from cultures with low levels of uncertainty avoidance are more
tolerant toward risk and are more willing to try new things. According to Yeniyurt and Townsend
(2003) uncertainty avoidance has a negative effect on the acceptance rates of new products.
Therefore uncertainty avoidance is related to consumer willingness to adopt new technologies such
as self-service technologies in retailing.

2.2 Self Service Technology and Customer Satisfaction
        Meuter et al. (2000) adopted the Critical Incident Technique (CIT) to identify several sources
of consumer satisfaction. Additionally, other significant sources of satisfaction with specific SSTs
are recognized in the literature, including general perceptual variables, such as perceived usefulness,
optimism, and innovation (Chen et al., 2009), process convenience and service outcome (Makarem et
al., 2009), trust in the SST (Johnson et al., 2008; Collier and Sherrell, 2010), sense of control
(Marzocchi and Zammit, 2006), speed of transaction and exploration (Collier and Sherrell, 2010),
perceived waiting time (Weijter et al., 2007), and other determinants, such as flow experience (Ding

International Journal of Management (IJM), ISSN 0976 – 6502(Print), ISSN 0976 - 6510(Online),
Volume 4, Issue 5, September - October (2013)

et al., 2010), and types of self-service channel (Buell et al., 2011). Among these, only a few take
account of SST employed in retail stores (e.g. Marzocchi and Zammit, 2006; Weijter et al., 2007).
Moreover, although these studies provide some initial understanding, they do not sufficiently address
how SST affects consumer satisfaction based on well-developed theoretical grounds, expect for the
studies of Johnson et al. (2008), Chen et al. (2009) and Ding et al. (2010). In addition, little attention
is paid to the ways in which consumer satisfaction may impact on consequence behaviour, such as
future intention (e.g. Chen et al., 2009).
         Retail self service technologies are characterized by the use of information and
communications technologies to replace the labour of service clerks. The customers themselves are
playing the role of service employees with the assistance of new information systems and electronic
retail service applications. The business processes are changing from one where the retailer serves all
customers to one where the customers serve themselves. SSTs are technological interfaces that allow
customers to perform the entire service on their own, without direct assistance from service
employees (Meuter, Ostrom, Roundtree, & Bitner, 2000). SSTs are used in various industries. A
large number of research papers have analyzed the efficacy of SSTs in banking and tourist industries.
These SSTs are classified into different types. For example, SSTs include automated teller machines
(ATMs), automated hotel checkout, banking by telephone and services over the Internet (Meuter et
al., 2000). Retailing as a labour intensive business has a huge potential for SSTs. One of the SSTs
that is widely implemented in retail stores is the self-scan checkout which is used to replace the
checkout clerk. These checkout stations have customers scan the barcodes of their products, pay for
the products and put them into bags on their own, without help of service employees (Schliewe &
Pezoldt, 2010). This important retailing technology decreases the number of employees and thus the
costs of operations. Technological innovations in retailing also yield strong consumer advantages
(e.g. speed, accuracy, economy) over retailing services not based on SSTs (Zeithaml & Gilly, 1987).

2.3 Self Service Technology Acceptance Factors
        According to a review of SSTs literature published over a ten year period, there are over 60
publications related to SSTs acceptance. The review shows that there are 29 different self-service
factors that influence the adoption of SSTs (Kelly Lawlor, & Mulvey, 2010). Personal characteristics
have been identified as important psychological determinants of technology acceptance. These
characteristics include constructs like social pressure, self-efficacy and technology anxiety (Eastin,
2002; Meuter et al., 2003; Meuter et al., 2005; Nysveen et al., Schliewe & Pezoldt, 2010). Social
pressure or subjective norms are defined as the degree to which an individual believes that people
who are important to themselves influence their actions to do something (Fishbein & Ajzen, 1975).
        The perceived self-efficacy relates people’s beliefs to their capabilities to produce given
activities (Bandura, 1977). There is a positive relationship between self-efficacy and technology
acceptance and therefore customers with higher self-efficacy are expected to have more confidence
in their ability to use SSTs (Schliewe & Pezoldt, 2010). Technology anxiety is related to the level of
anxiety of an individual, or level of comfort with decision to use a new technology (Igbaria &
Parasuraman, 1989).

2.4 Cultural Dimensions of India
        Indian consumers represent a typical Asian culture with a newly industrialised economy
characterised by collectivism, masculinity and medium uncertainty avoidance. India is actually very
masculine in terms of visual display of success and power. In masculine countries the focus is on
success and achievements, validated by material gains and the society is driven by competition,
achievement and success. India has a medium low preference for avoiding uncertainty. In India there
is acceptance of imperfection; nothing has to be perfect nor has to go exactly as planned. India is
traditionally a patient country where tolerance for the unexpected is high. At the same time here is a

International Journal of Management (IJM), ISSN 0976 – 6502(Print), ISSN 0976 - 6510(Online),
Volume 4, Issue 5, September - October (2013)

high preference for belonging to a larger social framework in which individuals are expected to act in
accordance to the greater good of one’s defined in-group(s). In such situations, the actions of the
individual are influenced by various concepts such as the opinion of one’s family, extended family,
neighbors, work group and other such wider social networks that one has some affiliation toward.
Hence Indians display clear collectivist traits. From all this it is quite evident that Indians have a
medium level of technology anxiety and medium level of self efficacy. At the same time group
opinions will most likely influence the adoption of new retail innovations such as SSTs. So as far as
adoption of new products and service technology are concerned , if the group or the society approves
the product or the service then individual consumers will follow the group and there will be
ubiquitous acceptance.

2.5 Cultural Dimensions of Indonesia
         The deep drivers of Indonesian culture are again collectivism, low masculinity and medium
low preference for avoiding uncertainty. Indonesia is a highly collectivist society. This means there
is a high preference for a strongly defined social framework in which individuals are expected to
conform to the ideals of the society and the in-groups to which they belong. One place this is visible
clearly is in the aspect of the Family in the role of relationships. For example, In Indonesia, if one
wishes to marry, it is important to meet a woman’s family because the family is so important to her.
It is inappropriate to court a woman and formalize the relationship without informing the parents of
the girl first. Indonesian children are committed to their parents, as are the parents committed to
them all their growing lives. Their desire is to make their parents' life easier. There is a desire to take
care of parents and give them support in their old age. There is an Asian saying that is accepted in
Indonesia, "You can get another wife or husband but not another mother or father". This family
loyalty is also apparent in the fact that Indonesian families keep elders (such as grandparents) at
home instead of sending them to any institution.
         Indonesia is less Masculine than some other Asian countries like Japan, China and India. In
Indonesia status and visible symbols of success are important but it is not always material gain that
brings motivation. Often it is the position that a person holds which is more important to them
because of an Indonesian concept called “gengsi” – loosely translated to be, “outward appearances”.
It is important that the “gengsi” be strongly maintained thereby projecting a different outward
appearance aimed at impressing and creating the aura of status. Indonesia has a medium low
preference for avoiding uncertainty. This means that there is a strong preference in Indonesia toward
the Javanese culture of separation of internal self from external self. This also means that
maintaining work place and relationship harmony is very important in Indonesia, and no one wishes
to be the transmitter of bad or negative news or feedback. Perhaps one very key phrase in Indonesia
that describes how this works is “Asal Bapak Senang” (Keep the Boss Happy). From all these
dimensions it can be inferred that compared to Indians the Indonesians have less technology anxiety
and medium level of self efficacy. But as they value the social well being concept, group opinions
will most likely influence the adoption of new retail innovations such as SSTs.


 i) To develop a comprehensive framework for customer satisfaction with self service technology
     influenced by cultural dimensions of Indian and Indonesian consumers.
 ii) To explore the influence of the major cultural dimensions on SST acceptance in Indian and
     Indonesian retail settings.

International Journal of Management (IJM), ISSN 0976 – 6502(Print), ISSN 0976 - 6510(Online),
Volume 4, Issue 5, September - October (2013)

Hence the following hypotheses have been formulated:

 H1: Collectivist culture will negatively influence the possibility of SST acceptance.

 H2: Collectivist culture will negatively influence the consumer perception regarding customer
     satisfaction with SST.

 H3: Low degree of uncertainty avoidance will positively influence possibility of SST

 H4: Low degree of uncertainty avoidance will positively influence consumer perception
     regarding customer satisfaction with SST.

 H5: High level of masculinity will positively influence possibility of SST acceptance.

 H6: High level of masculinity will positively influence consumer perception regarding customer
     satisfaction with SST.

 H7: Acceptance of SST will positively influence the perception regarding customer satisfaction
     with SST.


        The survey instrument was developed based on a cross cultural survey designed by Schliewe
& Pezoldt (2010). Table1 shows the 21 measurement instruments or variables considered for the
survey. Seven point Likert Scale was used for the respondents to state their level of agreement with
the series of statements stated in Table1 (7-strongly agree to 1-strongly disagree). The survey
consists of three sections including the demographics, cultural dimensions influence and satisfaction
associated with self service technology.


        Data was collected by distributing a questionnaire to 300 people of 3 cities of India -Delhi,
Mumbai & Bangalore who were shopping in the retail outlets of Big Bazar, Inorbit Mall and Auchan
respectively. The choice of participants was based on Convenience Sampling and the survey was
conducted in the months of March and April 2013. For Indonesia 300 consumers were surveyed in
the cities of Jakarta and Bandung who were shopping in Carrefour, Lotte Mart and Hero
supermarket. Again the choice of participants was based on Convenience Sampling and the survey
was conducted in the month of January 2013.

       Structural Equation Modeling and Confirmatory Factor Analysis have been used for the
multivariate analysis with the application of SPSS and SPSS AMOS 19.

International Journal of Management (IJM), ISSN 0976 – 6502(Print), ISSN 0976 - 6510(Online),
Volume 4, Issue 5, September - October (2013)

                        Table 1: Measurement Items Used For Survey

  Constructs                                 Measurement Items

 Collectivism COL1     The people who are important to me would think I should use SST
              COL2     It is expected that people like me would use SST
               COL3    People I look up to would expect me to use SST
                       Most people who are important to me would approve of using SST for
               COL4    better customer satisfaction
                       People who are important to me would agree that using SST is a
               COL5    satisfying experience

 Uncertainty   UA1     I can use SST even if I had never used them before
               UA2     I can use SST even if no one had shown me how to use them
               UA3     I could use SST if I had seen someone using that before
               UA4     I feel apprehensive about using technology
               UA5     SST will make the shopping experience more satisfying

 Masculinity   MAS1 I can use SST with confidence even for the first time
               MAS2 SST is the latest technology innovation in retail and I must learn to use it
               MAS3 Smart shoppers must use SST for efficient management of time
               MAS4 I would like to be the first one to use SST in my reference group

 Self Service SST1     Use of SST enhances the overall shopping experience
              SST2     Frequent usage of SST shall reduce technology anxiety gradually
 (SST)        SST3     Use of SST shall lead to saving of time and ease of shopping

               SST4    Use of SST will decrease the dependency on frontline service employees

 Perceived    CS1      I would prefer to shop in an outlet equipped with SST
              CS2      I need not stand in the long ques in the weekends for bill payment
 with the use
 of       SST          I would recommend others also to learn using SST for better shopping
 (CS)         CS3      experience.

International Journal of Management (IJM), ISSN 0976 – 6502(Print), ISSN 0976 - 6510(Online),
Volume 4, Issue 5, September - October (2013)

                                 Table 2: Sample Characteristics

                                                 India              Indonesia
        Demographics                          Frequency       %     Frequency   %

        Male                                      144         48      138       46
        Female                                    156         52      162       54
        Total                                     300        100      300       100

        Services to be availed with SST
        Bill Paying                               176         58      100       33
        Credit Card Bonus Redemption                23        7        48       16
        Membership card points redemption           86        28       72       24
        Money refill into virtual account           15        5        80       27
        Total                                     300        100      300       100

        Working Professionals                     135         45      110       36
        Students                                    58       19.3     128       43
        Home Makers                               107        35.7      62       21
        Total                                     300        100      300       100

        Age (years)
        21-30                                       83       27.6     114       38
        31-40                                     116        38.7     109       37
        41-50                                       71       23.7      70       23
        Above 50                                    30        10       7         2
        Total                                     300        100      300       100

International Journal of Management (IJM), ISSN 0976 – 6502(Print), ISSN 0976 - 6510(Online),
Volume 4, Issue 5, September - October (2013)


First of all the reliability of the questionnaire was checked using Cronbach’s Alpha
        The Cronbach’s Alpha value of 0.897 shows very high internal consistency among the
measurement items and hence the measurement model for the research was developed.

                                   Table 3: Reliability Statistics
                       Cronbach's Alpha    Cronbach's Alpha        N of Items
                                               Based on
                                          Standardized Items

                              .897                  .900                21

iii)   Measurement Model Fit

      For Indian Consumers The measurement model indicated an acceptable model fit of the data
(χ2= 416.089, df=179, p<0.001; χ2 /df= 2.325; CFI= 0.913; TLI=0.90; IFI=0.92; NFI=0.86; PNFI=
0.732; PCFI= 0.80 and RMSEA= .051)
      For Indonesian consumers the measurement model indicated an acceptable model fit of the
data (χ2= 470.089, df=179, p<0.001; χ2 /df= 2.625; CFI= 0.90; TLI=0.88; IFI=0.90; NFI=0.84;
PNFI= 0.712; PCFI= 0.78 and RMSEA= .053)

Reliability and Validity

     The Cronbach’s Alpha for the measurement instrument came out as 0.897 which is acceptable
and shows the instrument is reliable. We further proved the reliability of the scale with the score of
Composite Reliability (CR) and Average Variance Extracted (AVE) of all the factors along with SST
acceptance and perceived customer satisfaction with SST (Fornell and Larcker, 1981; Hair et al.,
2006), which is shown in table 4.
     Composite reliability (CR) of all the latent variables is greater than the acceptable limit of 0.70
(Carmines and Zeller, 1988). The average variance extracted for all the factors is greater than 0.5,
which is acceptable (Fornell and Larcker, 1981).

Discriminant Validity

        Table 6 shows the discriminant validity of the constructs. Diagonal elements in the
correlation matrix of constructs are the square root of the AVE values. Fornell and Larcker (1981)
state that discriminant validity can be assessed by comparing the average variance extracted (AVE)
with the corresponding inter-construct squared correlation estimates
        From table 5 it is evident that the square root of the AVE values of all the latent constructs
are greater than the interconstruct correlations which supports the discriminant validity of the

International Journal of Management (IJM), ISSN 0976 – 6502(Print), ISSN 0976 - 6510(Online),
Volume 4, Issue 5, September - October (2013)

                 Table 4: Composite Reliability and Average Variance Extracted
                                                 INDIA                INDONESIA
      Factors                               CR         AVE          CR         AVE
      Collectivism                         0.91        0.68         0.92       0.68
      UncertaintyAvoidance                 0.93        0.73         0.91       0.64
      Masculinity                          0.87        0.65         0.88       0.62
      Self Service Technology              0.82        0.58         0.81       0.71
      Perceived Customer Satisfaction
      with use of SST                      0.89         0.6         0.87       0.69

                                 Table 5: Discriminant Validity

                                       Indian Consumers
                             COL        UA           MAS     SST      CS

                     COL     0.824

                     UA      0.771     0.854

                    MAS       0.51     0.472          0.8

                     SST     0.579     0.415         0.562   0.76

                      CS     0.456     0.421         0.423   0.507   0.774

                             COL        UA           MAS     SST      CS

                     COL     0.810

                     UA      0.641     0.824

                    MAS       0.41     0.523         0.735

                     SST     0.422     0.475         0.586   0.78

                      CS     0.487     0.481         0.493   0.470   0.702

i)     Structural Model & Hypotheses Testing
       Structural equation modeling was used to estimate the parameters of the structural model.
Goodness of fit statistics of the structural model were acceptable,
For Indian consumers :(χ2= 270, df =179, p<0.001; χ2 / df= 1.51 (<2); CFI= 0.95; TLI=0.95;
IFI=0.95; NFI=0.87; PNFI= 0.73; PCFI= 0.81 and RMSEA= .051).
For Indonesian consumers: :(χ2= 277, df =179, p<0.001; χ2 / df= 1.55 (<2); CFI= 0.92; TLI=0.90;
IFI=0.91; NFI=0.85; PNFI= 0.75; PCFI= 0.80 and RMSEA= .05).

International Journal of Management (IJM), ISSN 0976 – 6502(Print), ISSN 0976 - 6510(Online),
Volume 4, Issue 5, September - October (2013)

Results of Hypotheses Testing

                                                   INDIA                              INDONESIA

                                        Standardised                       Standardised
                         Hypothesised                    p                                 p
     Hypothesis                             Path                 Results       Path                Results
                            Paths                      Value                              Value
                                        Coeffecients                       Coeffecients

 H1:     Collectivist
 culture/SST             COL=>SST          0.501          ***    Accept       0.078        ***     Accept

 H2:      Collectivist
                          COL=>CS          0.606       0.061     Accept       0.897       0.321    Accept
 satisfaction    with

 H3: Medium Low
 UA/        SST           UA=>SST         -0.149       0.172     Reject       0.586        0.38    Accept

 H4: Medium Low
                          UA=>CS           0.172       0.367     Reject       0.679        ***     Accept
 Satisfaction with

 H5: Masculinity/
                         MAS=>SST          0.377          ***    Accept       0.786        ***     Accept
 SST acceptance

 H6: Masculinity/
                          MAS=>CS          0.121          0.01   Accept       0.354       0.021    Accept
 Satisfaction with

 H7:             SST
 acceptance         /
 Customer                 SST=>CS          0.325       0.004     Accept       0.467       0.001    Accept
 Satisfaction    with

 Notes: :*Implies significant at p<.05; ** Implies significant at p<.01; *** Implies significant at p<.001;
 NS Implies "not significant"

For Indian Consumers

        The hypotheses testing results indicate that though collectivist culture will have a negative
influence on the acceptance of SST ( c=0.501 at p<0.001), that doesn’t imply that it affect their
perceptions regarding the customer satisfaction associated with the usage of SST.
        Medium low uncertainty avoidance will not influence the SST acceptance positively because
certain degree of uncertainty avoidance will actually let the Indians be happy with the conventional
methods only and they are not ready to experiment with the latest technology so easily due to
technology anxiety and apprehensions (c=-0.149 at p<0.05). But again due to uncertainty

International Journal of Management (IJM), ISSN 0976 – 6502(Print), ISSN 0976 - 6510(Online),
Volume 4, Issue 5, September - October (2013)

avoidance Indian consumers do not deny regarding their perceptions about customer satisfaction with
SST as they are very much aware of the positive aspects of using SST. Hence medium low
uncertainty avoidance positively influence the customer satisfaction perception regarding usage of
SST (c=0.172 at p<0.05). High on masculine dimensions Indians would definitely like to show off
their latest technology and technological experience , hence on that grounds it has positive influence
on SST acceptance (c=0.377 at p<0.001) and on customer satisfaction with SST (c=0.121 at p<0.01).
Acceptance of SST will positively influence the perception regarding customer satisfaction with SST
(c=0.325 at p<0.01).

Indonesian Consumers

       For Indonesian consumers also highly collectivist nature will adversely influence on their
acceptance of SST and also their perception regarding customer satisfaction associated with SST.
Low uncertainty avoidance will also help them develop positive attitude towards SST acceptance and
develop a positive perception regarding customer satisfaction associated with SST. Indonesia ranks
low on masculinity and hence it is not very easy for them accept any new technology due to
technology anxiety and their reserved nature. Acceptance of SST will positively influence the
perception regarding customer satisfaction with SST.


        Due to high level of social pressure it is very essential on the parts of retailers to build a
positive social opinion regarding the benefits of such technological innovation. With the Government
of India approving FDI in retail, Indians are now ready to shop at some of the largest global retailer’s
outlet but at the same they must upgrade themselves to become the smart shoppers. One should not
undermine the self efficacy factor due to social pressure or some anxiety. Consumers are buying
handsets loaded with latest technology but at the same time when they are asked to use the
technology in public they have a hesitant reaction. Indonesian consumers are increasingly opening
their wallets, sustaining the country's solid economic growth and the student community is the key
driver behind the technology led retail revolution in this south east nation. According to the results,
Indian consumers are definitely in a cultural dilemma regarding the acceptance of self service
technologies in the retail settings. On one hand due to high masculinity they would like to adapt
themselves according to various upgraded technology requirements but at the same time they are the
people who would give preference to the social approval more than self. Also Indians are ready to
compromise with any situation hence they don’t mind shopping in the conventional way even though
they feel that using SST will enhance their shopping experience. Indonesians on the other hand being
highly collectivist and low masculine in nature are also somewhat not very open towards SST but at
the same time the young population is taking the stride driven by low uncertainty avoidance to take
on the latest technological innovations.


        This research considered the overall consumer’s perception and acceptance level towards self
service technology. Future research shall focus on different age groups wherein it is expected that the
youth segment might give priority to their self efficacy instead of the social pressure and on the other
hand the baby boomers or GenX consumers might have a sceptical notion for the same

International Journal of Management (IJM), ISSN 0976 – 6502(Print), ISSN 0976 - 6510(Online),
Volume 4, Issue 5, September - October (2013)

                                 Figure 1: The Structural Model


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