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					“Loss of Control, Avoidance, Recognition and Recovery”




               Captain John M. Cox, FRAeS
                          CEO
                Safety Operating Systems
                                                  1
Fatalities 2000-09




                     Flight International



                                            2
   Fatalities Per Million Departures


1990-94: 1.32 serious accidents/million deps.
1995-99: 1.06
2000-04: 0.58
2005-09: 0.55




                                                3
                                    Rate of Fatal Accidents
                                                   Rate of Fatal Accidents
                              1.4
                                     1.32

                              1.2

                                                1.06
                               1
Rate per million departures




                              0.8



                              0.6                          0.580000000000001

                                                                                    0.55
                              0.4



                              0.2



                               0
                                      1990-94    1995-99                  2000-04          2005-09




                                                                                                     4
CAST/ICAO Accident Taxonomy
             CFIT Decreasing
• 1997 – 2006 – 20 of 89 accidents CFIT or 22.5%

• 1998 – 2007 – 18 of 90 accidents CFIT or 20%

• 1999 – 2008 – 17 of 91accidents CFIT or 18.7%
   Loss Of Control Continues As The
    Number 1 Cause Of Accidents
• 1997 - 2006 – 19 of 89 accidents LOC-I or 21.3%

• 1998 - 2007 – 22 of 90 accidents LOC-I or 24.4%

• 1999 - 2008 – 22 of 91 accidents LOC-I or 24.2%

• Trend is not improving
                 CFIT vs. LOC-I
                       CFIT vs. LOC-I
25




20




15

                                                      CFIT
                                                      LOC-I
10




 5




 0
     1997-2006           1998-2007        1999-2008
                   Commercial Jet Fleet

                                                             8
                          CFIT vs. LOC-I
                                  CFIT vs. LOC-I
30%



                                                   24%
25%
      23%                   22%


20%
        21%                 20%
                                                    19%

15%                                                                   LOC-I
                                                                      CFIT


10%




5%




0%
              1997-2006            1998-2007              1999-2008

                            Commercial Jet Fleet

                                                                             9
Results of Business Jet Data Review
• 35 accidents

• 14 would have been helped with Upset
  Training

• 6 might have been helped with Upset Training

• Avoidance – Recognition - Recovery

                                             10
Breakdown of LOC-I Training Need
                         LOC-I Accidents


                      Recovery

                                    Training would not help



     Avoidance and Recognition




                                                              11
                          Threat
• Stall is leading cause of LOC-I
  – NTSB Study 20 LOC-I accidents 1986-1996


• Veillette Aviation Week May 2009
  – 29 LOC-I accidents
     • 13 of 29 on takeoff – usually not recoverable
     • 16 approach and landing
        – 6 circling approach



                                                       12
Loss Of Control Accident
         Causes




   Upset Recovery Training Aid rev1
   Critical Skills




Avoidance!
                     14
                Critical Skills
• Recognition
  – What is happening?
  – Am I stalled?
  – Avoidance of upset
• Recovery
  – Before the upset
     • Stall
  – After the upset
     • Stall
Colgan 3407
            Control Column




                 Pitch




           Angle of Attack




Colgan 3407 – NTSB DFDR Plots
Control Wheel




   Roll
LOC-I C-5 Near Loss




This is the most terrifying video I have seen

                                                19
Upset Recovery Training
  History • Causes • Solutions
Baseline Knowledge




  Pilots today are not aerodynamicists
            Baseline Knowledge
• Past assumptions were WRONG
• Many pilot do not know needed aerodynamics
• Most have not seen a transport fully stalled
     • Simulators do not accurately replicate this portion of
       the envelope
• Power out recovery techniques may not work
     • High altitude
     • High drag
        – Full stall

                                                                22
               Angle Of Attack
Angle of attack (AOA, α, Greek letter alpha)
is a term used in aerodynamics to describe the
angle between the chord line of an airfoil and
the vector representing the relative motion
between the airfoil and the air. It can be
described as the angle between where the
chord line of the airfoil is pointing and where
the airfoil is going.
                                              Wikipedia
                  Basic Aerodynamics


Different
Wings
Different
Stall                                                Wild ride
Characteristics




                                   Aerodynamics for Naval Aviators
Basic Aerodynamics

                                                                     Lift




                                                                         Drag




 How many pilots really understand this?
                                       Aerodynamics for Naval Aviators
                   Basic Aerodynamics

                                        At 40,000 feet
Thrust available                        only 30% thrust
vs.                                     is available

Altitude




                                    Aerodynamics for Naval Aviators
           Basic Aerodynamics
• As coefficient of lift increases so does drag

• There is high drag coefficient at critical angle
  of attack – stall

• Powering out of a stall may not be an option
         Basic Aerodynamics
• At stall there is high drag – wing and
  fuselage

• At cruise altitude there is limited thrust
  available

• Recovery at cruise altitude is different
  than at 10,000 feet
            Stall Characteristics
•   Jets are unstable when stalled
•   Jets will roll when stalled
•   Ailerons are not effective when stalled
•   Angle of Attack must be reduced to regain
    control
        It May NOT Be Possible to
      Power Out Of A Stall At Cruise
                Altitude

• Reduce Angle of Attack

• Accelerate

• Recover to NORMAL flight
  – Monitor “G” loading in recovery
          New Stall Procedure
• Airbus and Boeing have recently changed stall
  recovery procedure
  – Reduce angle of attack – Nose down
  – Wings level
  – Thrust Increase
  – Speed brakes retracted
  – Return to normal flight

    There will be some altitude loss
                                              31
Power vs. Pitch




                                                32
            Courtesy of Captain Dave Carbaugh
                        CAA UK
   3 The standard stall recovery technique should therefore
  always emphasise the requirement to reduce the angle of
 attack so as to ensure the prompt return of the wing to full
     controllability. The reduction in angle of attack (and
consequential height loss) will be minimal when the approach
   to the stall is recognised early, and the correct recovery
                 action is initiated without delay.

  NOTE: Any manufacturer’s recommended stall recovery
    techniques must always be followed, and will take
  precedence over the technique described above should
             there be any conflicting advice.
                                                        33
  Zero Altitude Loss Stall Training
          Power Out Only




IS NOT THE RIGHT WAY

                                      34
                                        Wait a Minute!
                                     What if I Am Not Stalled?
                                • We Can’t Just Push Indiscriminately!!!
                                                  Pitch (+up)
                                                                       + 90o



           FAA envelope
Normal flightUpset Definition
                                                                       + 50o


                                                                       + 30o
                                                                       + 25o
                     Roll (Left)                                       + 10
                                                                            o
                                                                                                                  Roll (Right)
                              180o     135o   90o                                       90o       135o           180o
                                                                       - 10o




                                                                       - 50o




                                                                       - 90o

                                                             Pitch (-down)



                                                    4.9 %       FAA Upset Definition (45 AOB, +25 & -10 Pitch)

                                                    87.5 %      PUSH-Valid Region

                                                    12.5 %      PUSH-Possibly-Valid Region (20% Chance? ~ 2.5%)
                                                                                                                  Courtesy of APS
Simulator Aerodynamic Model




                        David R. Gingras
                        John N. Ralston
Boeing Study




               37
Boeing Study




               38
Boeing Study




               39
When It Goes Right




                     40
           Fly By Wire Aircraft
• Some people have said that FBW technology
  can eliminate LOC-I
  – Always respect and follow manufacturers
    guidance
     • Follow SOPs
• Pilots usually train in conventional aircraft
• Often Pilots transition to conventional aircraft
• Pilots need more extensive LOC-I training
How Does This Turn Out?




It is a matter of the
    RIGHT training

				
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posted:11/8/2013
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