Telangana and Seemandhra
New States, SEEMANDHRA
and TELANGANA (consisting of the
10 districts of Hyderabad, Adilabad,
Khammam, Karimnagar, Mahbubnagar,
Medak, Nalgonda, Nizamabad,
Rangareddy, and Warangal)
SEEMANDHRA has the remaining
The Congress party’s decision in favour of the
bifurcation of Andhra Pradesh to create Telangana is a
demand pending for the last five decades.
When a separate Andhra State was carved out of
Madras Presidency in 1953 on a linguistic basis, there
was a demand for a separate Telangana State
comprising the Telugu-speaking areas of Hyderabad
The Congress wanted to settle the statehood issue
once and for all.
The central government will help the Seemandhra
region to build a new capital but is unlikely to change
the status of Hyderabad or make it a Union Territory
as it would create more problem in Telangana region.
The Union Cabinet had decided that Hyderabad will
be joint capital of the two states for 10 years.
During its deliberations, the G o M will elicit response
from ministries of Water Resources, Power, Finance,
Road Transport and a few others on issues
concerning division of assets, sources said.
Why Telangana? allegations
Now, there is no integration - linguistic or
Created Identity Crisis for people in
Lack of respect, acceptance or at least
tolerance for language and culture of
Telangana, instead, they hate without reason
Undue and continuous Diversion of
Resources –water, funds, employment
Discrimination against – in education
facilities, irrigation, employment etc.
It is called a -Democratic wish
Because 99 per cent people in Telangana
wanted it. They have a legitimate right to ask
for Telangana state.
Parliamentary Democracy accommodates
demand for autonomy by separate state.
Integrity is not affected by dividing a Telugu
speaking state into two .
Living together depends on mutual consent,
Telangana is not consenting to live with
Andhra. There should be a social contract.
--- Separate Andhra demand was
Even if all Andhras unanimously wish unity
cannot stand because Telangana does not
There is no unanimity among Andhras on
Rayalaseema too does not want to go
Separate Andhra demand was growing
---People voted for it
1971 people voted for Telangana by electing 11
of 13 seats to Parliament
2004 people of both Telangana and Andhra
voted out TDP Government which went with
manifesto of United State, gave a positive
verdict for Telangana by electing Congress TRS
with huge margin.
More than 33% People in Telangana in 2009. it is
not possible to separate Telangana vote because
every party including Prajarajyam supported
---Parties Stated it
All opposition parties agreed to it on Dec.7,
2009 when CM Rosaiah convened a meet.
Congress Legislature Party did not oppose
Telangana and had authorized Mrs Sonia
Gandhi to decide.
Dec 9 Declaration of Telangana was based on
these factual support and political backing for
Telangana, officially in Parliament also.
---Not a small state
Separation of Telangana from not so
integrated Andhra Pradesh is just a
segregation and not destruction of
It is switching back to pre-1956
identifiable, pre-existing, viable state,
which is not new.
Telangana will not be a small state. This
demand does not depend upon the
advocacy for small states.
Preamble, DPSP, Articles 37, 41 and 14 together
impose an obligation on state to accord equal
protection to citizens. Telangana is treated
unequal and needs this protection.
Article 16(3): Parliament alone can prescribe
residential qualification for jobs under the
government of „a State‟ or a local or other
authority within „a State”.
Exception is an attempt to reconcile the
conflicting claims of equality based on concept of
single citizenship and justifiable local demands for
About 45% of the forest area in Andhra Pradesh state
is located in Telangana, spread across five districts.
Around 20% of the coal deposits of India are found in
Telangana. The Singareni Collieries Company
excavates coal for industrial purposes and for fuelling
power generating plants. The power generated here
supplies the entire south India. There are limestone
deposits in the area, which are exploited by cement
factories. Telangana has deposits of bauxite and
---Guarantee from C A
Guarantee from Constituent Assembly:
"the Constitution Assembly while
guaranteeing fundamental rights in the
matter of employment under the State,
took notice of this vast disparity in the
development of various States and felt it
imperative to continue that protection in
the matter of employment afforded on
the basis of residence within the State
and made provision under Article 35 (b)
of the Constitution for the continuance
of those laws."
---Judicial justification to sons of soil
In D.P. Joshi v Madhya Bharath AIR 1955 SC
334 exemption from capitation fee to native
students (with 5 yrs of residence) was
In Jayanthilal v Saurashtra (AIR 1976 Sau 54)
a rule granting free education in government
schools only to persons who were residents
within jurisdiction of the old Limbdi State
merged in Saurashtra, or who owned
immovable property in that state was upheld
as the property could be acquired by outside
---No opportunities for Telangana?
Hyderabad State was one among the
several other Princely States of India.
Earlier, there were no adequate Educational
facilities afforded to the People of the State,
in the result, there were very few
opportunities available to the people of the
Region to enter public service in competition
with others from outside the State.
Another contributing factor in this behalf was the
use of Urdu, which was not the language of nearly
ninety per cent of the people, as the Official
Language in the entire administration of Hyderabad
state. Similar conditions prevailed in a few other
States as well. So much so, that these people were
not in a position to compete with others in the matter
of employment even in their own State, if no
protection was afforded to them in this behalf on the
basis of residence within that State (extracted from
judgment of Madhava Reddy J of AP High Court)
Telangana is on an elevated plateau. Godavari and
Krishna, flow through the area, but most of the land
is arid. Northern Telangana gets between 900 to
1500mm rainfall per year from the southwest
Various soil types abound here, including chalks, red
sandy soils, dubbas, deep red loamy soils, and very
deep b.c. soils that facilitate planting mangoes,
oranges and flowers.
Telangana is a semi-arid area within Andhra Pradesh
and has a predominantly hot and dry climate.
Summers start in March, and peak in May with
average high temperatures in the 42 °C (108 °F)
range. The monsoon arrives in June and lasts until
September with about 755 mm (29.7-inch) of
precipitation. A dry, mild winter starts in late November
and lasts until early February. With little humidity and
average temperatures in the 22–23 °C (72–73 °F)
range, this is the most comfortable time of the year.
Andhra Assembly Resolutions
Andhra Assembly Resolution dated 25th
November 1955 para 3 stated:
“…they would have due reservation in
respect of appointments and on par with
their population and that we have
absolutely no objection to concede to
them their due share in other respects
Another Resolution on February 1, 1956
essentially said that “we would not touch
your 1/3 share in employment”.
Due share in employment to Telangana
No Telugu exam as qualifying exam for T
Deputy Chief Minister to Telangana
Telangana Regional Development Council
TRC on the lines of autonomy council
with devolution of powers and funds.
Clearance by TRC for purchase of lands in
Telangana (each is breached)
Mulki: Reservation for sons of soil
Domiciliary qualifications were felt
needed in princely States where there
was no all round development.
Mulki Rules existed in Nizam and 13
other similar dominions in pre-
Independence era. Ambedkar suggested a
uniform law made by Parliament to
protect the interests of natives.
Mulki rules were truncated from 15 to 12
Public Employment Act
Public Employment (Requirement as to
Residence) Act, 1957, The Preamble reads: "An
Act to make in pursuance of clause (3) of Article
16 of the Constitution special provisions for
requirement as to residence in regard to certain
classes of public employment in certain areas and
to repeal existing laws prescribing any such
PE Act made a provision for five years for
residential rules of a similar character for three
Union Territories and the Telangana Region as
per Section 2 from 1959.
On 21st January 1969 GO Ms 36 was
passed assuring relieving of non-Mulkies
from Mulki posts and filling them with or
waiting till the qualified Mulki candidates
come up. All those relieved non-Mulkies
have to be accommodated in their
respective regions. This GO Ms 36 was
challenged in AP High Court as
Injustice by AP High Court
AP High Court held GO 36 unconstitutional.
quashed by 4:1 majority.
Indira Gandhi Govt responded with 8 point
formula and then 5 point formula to reserve
posts for domiciles in Telangana.
Justice by SC (five JJ) upheld the validity of
safeguards to Telangana by GoMs 36, totally
agreeing with dissent of one judge in AP HC
(Madhav Reddy, only one belonging to
Telangana) 1973 SC 827
Justice by SC, denied by Andhra
Justice by SC (five JJ) upheld the validity of
safeguards to Telangana by GoMs 36,
totally agreeing with dissent of one judge
in AP HC, 1973 SC 827
Not to allow the benefit of this judgment,
Andhras agitated for separate Andhra,
which led to removal of safeguards.
Constitution is amended to dilute the
safeguards, Art. 371 was altered and
371D is added
Regional Committees - Article 371
Art. 371 has provided for the constitution of the
Telangana Regional Committee. The Constitution
(Seventh Amendment) Act, 1956, substituted new
371 for the old.
(i) Not withstanding any thing in this Constitution, the
President may by order made with respect to the
state of Andhra Pradesh provide for the constitution
and functions of regional committees of the
Legislative Assembly of State,
New 371 for the old.
…. for the modifications to be made in the
rules of business of the Government and in
the rules of procedure of the Legislative
Assembly of the State and for any special
responsibility of the Governor in order to
secure the proper functioning of the
regional committees. (This clause is
omitted by 32nd Amendment 1973 w e f
Before removed, Andhra Rulers breached
the mandate. Neither constituted Regional
Committees nor gave powers
Pursuant to Six Point Formula agreed
upon by various political leaders of the
State, by Constitution 32nd Amendment
Act, the Parliament introduced Article
371D for the State of Andhra Pradesh
with the object to ensure equitable
opportunities in the matter of Public
Employment for persons coming from
various parts of the State,
Employment Order 1975
President issued the order known as
Andhra Pradesh Public Employment
(Organisation of Local Cadres and
Regulation of Direct Recruitment), Order
1975, Para 3 provides for organisation of
371D: Safeguards for Telangana
Reduced & Diluted
Special Provisions with respect to the State of
Andhra Pradesh, inserted by the Constitution
(Thirty-second Amendment) Act 1973 wef
1.7.1974. Gives powers to the President to make
different provisions for various parts of state for
people belonging to different parts of state in the
matter of public employment and in the matter of
Telangana special provisions are removed and
residence based reservations are made for
different regions. Regional Committee for T is
removed. Safeguards available for Telangana
gained by 1969 agitation were removed by
counter agitation by Andhras.
President‟s order GO 674 1975
Constitution was amended in 1973
changing 371-D pertaining to public
employment in AP, authorizing the
President to make special provisions.
President issued order with GO Ms No
674 on 18-10-1975 outlining the
modalities for the implementation of 6
Go Ms 675
AP Public Employment Order made
Presidential Order not applicable to the
posts above the rank of LDC in
Government offices with state-wide
jurisdiction such as secretariat etc.
In Andhra and Rayalaseema zones (I to IV)
the quota for non-locals were filled by
locals of that region. (violations in
Violation of Presidential order
AP Govt invented a new zone “free zone”
designating as Zone VII where non-locals
could be appointed. Not in tune with 6
In respect of the posts above LDC the
„principle of fair share” proportionate to
the region wise population has to be
followed. But not followed.
Principle of Fair share
According to the statement of TNGOs to
the Officers Committee in 1983-84,
around 58 thousand non-locals were
appointed in posts reserved for local
NTR Govt. appointed an enquiry
committee to study violations of 6points,
with Jaya Bharath Reddy, Kamalnadhan,
GO Ms 610
The committee appointed by NTR
pointed out lapses and departures from
six point formula and suggested
The Govt. issued GO Ms No 610 on
30.12.1985. It ordered repatriation of
employees from different regions to their
own, action against bogus registrations in
Amendment to Presidential Order
In 2000 the Presidential Order was
amended by an order of Ministry of
These amendment were given effect to
with retrospective effect from 1.1. 1994,
legitimizing all lapses in direct recruitment
and allocation. This is impact of lobbying
of Andhra to pre-empt any litigation.
Mr Girglani was appointed to reexamine
the lapses in implementation of 610 GO
Hyderabad is not Free Zone!
Andhra Pradesh HC Full Bench (S.B. Sinha,
C.J., S.R. Nayak and Goda Raghuram, JJ.) in
G Anantha Reddy v APAT,
MANU/AP/0734/2001, said: no separate
cadre has been organized for the City of
Hyderabad within the meaning of
paragraph 3(6) of the Presidential Order.
Nuti Rammohanrao argued same
Full Bench AP HC
They (Inspectors of police) do not fall within
the provisions of para 14 of the Presidential
The transfers from and to the establishments
and units of Hyderabad City Police therefore
fall within the parameters of para 5(2)(c) to (d).
• A person once allotted to one zone and attached
to his post must be said to be belonging to the
same zone and he has no right to come to any
other cadre, which is not organized one.
• Conclusion (c) No recruitment to the post of a
police officer as defined in Section 3(b) of
Hyderabad City Police Act 1348 Fasli has been
made and there is thus factually no incumbent of
the post of police officer under para 14(f) of the
Clause (10) of Article 371-D: provides
that the provisions of the Article and of
any order made by the president
thereunder shall have effect
notwithstanding anything in any other
provision of the Constitution or any
other law for the time being in force.
Therefore, the Presidential Order prevails
over any other law existing or made in
Presidential order prevails
Presidential Order prevails over any provision
of the Constitution or any other law for the
time being in force. In this Constitutional
position, while the provisions of the Act 1985
are plenary within that sphere would
nevertheless require to be construed in
harmony with the provisions of the Presidential
Order. The liability of a member of the police
force to be transferred to any part of the State
and the concomitant power of the State
Government to so effect a transfer is thus
subject to the limitations enjoined in the
Presidential Order. (Transfer is challenged)
Grave Injustice by Supreme Court
SC gives primacy to Hyderabad Police Act
over and above the Presidential Order,
which was issued after two agitations of the
When validity of treating Hyderabad is
challenged, SC validated because it is treated
as Free Zone, saying “in capital all eligible
officers should get opportunity”.
SC judged this against the constitutional
provision under 371D.
SC visualize a separate zone
We, however, visualize that the State as a
whole may consist of five or six divisions,
the twin cities including the cantonment
being constituted into a separate division.
-GS Singhwi, J
What is the basis for it?
Contradictory stand of state
State Government and Commissioner of
Police presented consistent stand that
Hyderabad City Police has been treated
as free zone and the vacancies in City
Police are notified separately.
At the end state changed the stand and
said there was no free zone. “Contrary
stand taken by the State afterwards
is inexplicable and is liable to be
discarded”, said SC.
Dubious role of state in SC
State argued: Exclusion clause contained in
paragraph 14(f) could operate only if a separate
cadre had been carved out for Hyderabad City
and submitted that in the absence of any
recruitment having been made for Hyderabad
City Police, the Full Bench rightly treated the
Inspectors of Police working in Hyderabad City
Police establishment as belonging to Zone VI in
the zonal cadre. (SC observed this as strange
change of stand by state)
SC held: ….for the sake of convenience, was
described as Zone VII or free zone” (in the
advertisements, 1985, 1991,1994) and because
appointments were made by commissioner of
SC judgment is based on advertisements, and
support of state in its counters, though it was
Who represented state in SC served the
interests of Andhra, and court ignored the spirit
behind safeguards and validated wrongful
Socio-economic backdrop ignored
The Supreme Court (Kami Reddy v. State
of A.P. AIR1988SC1626 )observed that
reasonableness or otherwise of the
restrictions imposed by the Regulation
has to be tested with reference to socio-
economic landscape in the backdrop of
which the Regulation was made.
Supreme Court totally ignored it in
SABOTAGE [?] BY
Rajsekhar Reddy‟s sabotage
Besides blocking the Union‟s promise to
form Telangana, Chief Minister Rajsekhar
Reddy deliberately chose non-state
Advocate to represent State, who did not
bring relevant issues before SC to give a
wrong judgment on Hyderabad free zone
Without proper study of the problem
Supreme Court gave baseless judgment.
Strong Andhra lobbyists & strategic CM
misled SC to do injustice to Telangana
1. Clever Andhra leaders, both Congress
and TDP diverted resources,
2. Telangana ministers of those parties
remained mute spectators, they lacked in
3. Corrupt Bureaucracy who also support
corrupt Andhra political leaders
4. Telangana bureaucrats – less in number
and very few with commitment, some
saleable, or silent suffering minority in every
…Rivers hijacked(?) from Telangana
Constitution provided redress to
Interstate river water disputes
But, No mechanism for intra-state river
water allocation, or resolution, left totally
to executive discretion which favoured
Andhra at cost of Telangana for decades.
No solution for deprivation of Telangana
by diversion of rivers, within AP under the
WHY SHOULD PEOPLE
Why people should suffer?
Ultimately people are victimized by both
Andhra and Telangana leaders.
Why should they suffer because of these
Why not their identity as distinct state as
before 1956 is restored?
It is not going to be a small state, a fairly
big state, viable and resourceful.
…Hyderabad for who?
Hyderabad as a capital is not viable for many
distant districts in AP.
Concentration of so called development in
Hyderabad not benefitted Telangana, even in
generating employment for them.
Hyderabad alone should not be center of
development among 23 districts
There should be decentralization, by creating
another capital separately
…Telangana insecure in capital
Real minority in Hyderabad is Telangana
people. Old city drives Hindus out, new
city is dominated by Andhras. Andhra
houses in Hyderabad prohibited Telangana
tenants, now in this atmosphere.
Telangana is insecure in Andhra
…Asking for Autonomy
Demand for self rule and autonomy is
genuine and democratic.
Autonomous council is better answer to
separatist demands, eg. J & K and North-
Decentralization is federal character, and
essential for a vast country like India.
IF TELANGANA IS
If Telangana is formed
Telugu people tolerate each other, and be
friends, with animosities disappearing
All resources of ten districts will be used
within the ten districts
Both Andhra and Telangana states will be
rich and there is a wide scope for
harmony and brotherhood among
Water can be objectively divided and
scientifically used to irrigate both states.
Water for Telangana
Telangana needs water for drinking and
irrigation which was denied so far
Water disputes are common and need to
be tackled either between AP and other
states or Andhra, Telangana and other
When two hostile countries can share
water of international rivers, it is not
impossible for two Telugu states to share
Will help decongestion of Hyderabad and
decentralization of power
Help decentralization of urbanization and
many destinations for migration
Creating more resource centers and
development centers in 23 districts.
Faith in Parliamentary democracy,
credibility for promise in parliament will
Problems of extremism and communalism
can be effectively tackled
Development is the major answer to
naxalism, and lack of it is reason.
Communalism is sponsored by
treacherous politicians, for instance, to
unseat a congress CM old city was set to
flames of riots in 1979 and recently in
2010 to bring down present CM.
To say that Maoists gain strength in
Telangana is baseless, because it is
common to big or small, combined or
To say Islamic fundamentalism in old city
will increase is meaningless because
pampering policies are the reasons for it.
It depends on objective rule of parties
and not the size of the state.
IF TELANGANA NOT
If Telangana is not formed
As each and every party, group and
profession is vertically divided and
animosities deepened, mutual distrust will
grow and might lead to several unnatural
It will caste doubts on democratic and non-
violent process and strengthen non-
democratic, violent and extremist forces.
Suppressing a demand for self rule and
autonomy will lead to separatist tendencies
and create atmosphere conducive for
Give Telangana and
Will Strengthen India
Denial of autonomy is the root cause of
Federalism believes in distribution of sovereignty
Experience shows solution for problems in
North-East, Jammu & Kashmir lie only in granting
more autonomy and decentralization
By decentralization and devolution of more
powers to viable groups, separatism can be
Giving Telangana strengthens integrity of India.
Agreements, Constitutional safeguards,
Justice by Supreme Court, Political
alliances with manifesto commitment to
Even after all the parties (except CPM)
agreed, Andhras in all parties denied
Telangana what is genuine, legitimate,
democratic and constitutional demand.
Union conceded, Andhras stopped…
“They have been struggling for more than 15 years. As
a matter of fact it a 50-year old demand and
unfortunately a large number of people in coastal
Andhra and Rayalaseema are opposing it,” Reddy
said. “the Union Government should take initiative and
build confidence of coastal Andhra and Rayalaseema
by replying to their concerns and assuring them that
justice will be done to them on the issue of the capital
city, and employment potential will be shared even
with coastal Andhra people".
"There is some opposition. There are some genuine
apprehensions about water distribution, employment
potentiality, about their future in Hyderabad," said
"This is a justified demand of the Telangana people and
we appeal to the coastal Andhra NGOs, teachers,
students and others sections of people to reconcile to
the reality and withdraw their agitation. We wish that
the Telugu people though politically divided into two
states should continue as brothers and solidarity
among them should remain unaffected," said Reddy.
Seemandhra is a term now used to refer to the
combined regions of Rayalaseema and Coastal
Andhra in Andhra Pradesh. The term came into wide
use during the Telangana movement, as a way to
refer to the parts of Andhra Pradesh that would
remain after the separation of Telegana.
Seemandhra corresponds to the area of Andhra
State which existed in between 1953 and 1956, and
was merged with the Telangana region to form
current state of Andhra Pradesh in 1956.
The ruling congress party announced its intention to
carve Telangana out of Andhra Pradesh as the 29th
state of India.
Hyderabad will be the common capital of Telangana
and Seemandhra for 10 years.
At present Hyderabad would not be contiguous with
Seemandhra. There is a proposal for Seemandhra
which could resolve the issue of Hyderabad as a
permanent common capital: that if the Nalgonda district
goes to Seemandhra, then this would enable Hyderabad to be a
border city of Telangana and Seemandhra.