Hard Bright Gold ORIMA schloetter de by ixieshaofang

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									Hard Bright Gold
ORIMA B
Hard Bright Gold ORIMA B is a weak acid electrolyte for the deposition of 24 carat bright
gold coatings. The coatings have a thickness of approx. 4 µm and a hardness of
120 - 180 HV0.05. Hard Bright Gold ORIMA B is easy to maintain and is suitable for technical
and decorative application as well, since it deposits constant gold coatings over the entire
current density range. Hard Bright Gold ORIMA B is supplied as a ready-to-use solution
(upon request without gold). Depending on its intended purpose three variants are available.

Hard Bright Gold ORIMA B can be applied for rack as well as for barrel application and for
printed circuit boards (PCBs). Hard Bright Gold ORIMA B-D with a lower gold content is used
if decorative thin gold coatings are required.


The information in this data sheet is based on laboratory as well as practical experience.
Figures quoted for operating limits and replenishment quantities are for guidance. Actual
values necessary will depend on the components being plated (material and geometry), their
application and plating plant conditions.




Important:
Please read this instruction carefully prior to the use of the process and carefully follow all the
parameters that have a direct influence on the operation. We reserve the right to make technical
changes. In the interest of safety, please pay attention to the hazard warnings on the labels of the
containers. The minimum shelf life of the products is included on the labels and is also available in the
appropriate Quality Assurance (QA03).
The current IMDS number of the layer deposited from the process is available on the internet at
www.schloetter.com/downloads.
For the storage of chemical products the TRGS 510 must be followed.
If the additives used in this process contain a SVHC-substance, then this will be
specified in the corresponding Material Safety Data Sheet, section 15.


BATH 07020-E                                 Page 1 of 10                              Issue 09.01.2012

             Dr.-Ing. Max Schlötter      Tel. +49(0)7331-205-0                   Certified Quality Company
             GmbH & Co. KG               Fax +49(0)7331-205-123                  according to
             Talgraben 30                info@schloetter.com                     DIN EN ISO 9001: 2008
             73312 Geislingen/Steige     w w w.schloetter.com                    DIN EN ISO 14001: 2004
             Germany
1.0   TECHNICAL INFORMATION AND EQUIPMENT REQUIREMENTS
 Tank:                                   polypropylene, PVC or other qualified plastics, tanks made
                                         of glass are also suitable
 Local/Exhaust Ventilation:              recommended
 Part/Electrolyte agitation:             a) usual parts:
                                         parallel to the anodes at a rate of 1.5 - 2.5 m/min;
                                         stroke length approx. 50 - 80 mm;
                                         Variant D requires additional air agitation with oil-free air

                                         b) PCBs:
                                         from and to the anodes at a rate of 0.5 - 0.8 m/min;
                                         stroke length approx. 30 mm
 Filtration:                             in larger plants continuous filtration with 1 - 2 turnovers per
                                         hour
 Anodes:                                 platinized titanium
 Heating/Cooling:                        porcelain or PTFE coated immersion heaters


2.0   MAKE-UP AND OPERATING CONDITIONS

2.1   Product names

2.1.1 Technical application
           List of products required for Hard Bright Gold ORIMA B-Static electrolyte
Product name                                              Article no. (AN)                       SG
ORIMA B-Static electrolyte with 8.5 g/l gold                  071001                             1.11
ORIMA B-Static electrolyte without gold                       071000                             1.11
ORIMA B Agent                                                 070002                              --
Brightener ORIMA B                                            070001                             1.12
Gold Bath Additive G (see point 4.5)                          070701                             0.79
Orthophosphoric acid, (85 %) p.a.
                                                          supplied by user*                      1.71
(see point 2.2 and 4.3)
Potassium hydroxide p.a. (see point 4.3)                  supplied by user*                        --
Activated Carbon; our service department and
field service will be pleased to provide you with
detailed information on suitable activated                        --                               --
carbon and carbon filter cartridges.
(see point 3.1 and 4.5)
* Product quality specifications recommended by us can be found on the internet at
  www.schloetter.com/downloads.




BATH 07020-E                                      Page 2 of 10                           Issue 09.01.2012

               Dr.-Ing. Max Schlötter          Tel. +49(0)7331-205-0                Certified Quality Company
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               Talgraben 30                    info@schloetter.com                  DIN EN ISO 9001: 2008
               73312 Geislingen/Steige         w w w.schloetter.com                 DIN EN ISO 14001: 2004
               Germany
2.1.2 Barrel plating
          List of products required for Hard Bright Gold ORIMA B-Barrel application
Product name                                              Article no. (AN)             SG
ORIMA B-Barrel electrolyte with 4.25 g/l gold                 071101                   1.11
ORIMA B Agent                                                 070002                    --
Brightener ORIMA B                                            070001                   1.12
Gold Bath Additive G (see point 4.5)                          070701                   0.79
Orthophosphoric acid, (85 %) p.a.
                                                         supplied by user*             1.71
(see point 2.2 and 4.3)
Potassium hydroxide p.a. (see point 4.3)                 supplied by user*               --
Activated Carbon; our service department and
field service will be pleased to provide you with
detailed information on suitable activated                        --                     --
carbon and carbon filter cartridges.
(see point 3.1 and 4.5)
* Product quality specifications recommended by us can be found on the internet at
  www.schloetter.com/downloads.

2.1.3 Decorative gold-plating
                    List of products required for Hard Bright Gold ORIMA B-D
Product name                                                Article no. (AN)           SG
ORIMA B-D with 1.7 g/l gold                                     071201                 1.08
ORIMA B-D without gold                                          071200                 1.08
ORIMA B Agent                                                   070002                  --
Brightener ORIMA B                                              070001                 1.12
Gold Bath Additive G (see point 4.5)                            070701                 0.79
Orthophosphoric acid, (85 %) p.a.
                                                            supplied by user*          1.71
(see point 2.2 and 4.3)
Potassium hydroxide p.a. (see point 4.3)                    supplied by user*            --
Activated Carbon; our service department and
field service will be pleased to provide you with
detailed information on suitable activated                          --                   --
carbon and carbon filter cartridges.
(see point 3.1 and 4.5)
* Product quality specifications recommended by us can be found on the internet at
  www.schloetter.com/downloads.

2.2   Requirements for a 100 litre bath
Three different variants are available according to the respective purpose. All three versions
are delivered as ready-to-use solutions.




BATH 07020-E                             Page 3 of 10                           Issue 09.01.2012

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           Germany
2.3   Make-up sequence for a 100 litre bath
On special request the electrolytes are delivered without gold. Gold Potassium Cyanide must
be added according to the following table:
             Electrolyte                                             Addition
ORIMA B-Static electrolyte                          12.5 g/l Gold Potassium Cyanide, (68.2 %)
ORIMA B-D                                            2.5 g/l Gold Potassium Cyanide, (68.2 %)

Please note, that all tanks and equipment to be used should be thoroughly cleaned prior to
use. New unused tanks, filtration equipment etc. or tanks and equipment that have been
used with other electrolytes, should be leached out for 24 hours with 1-vol.% phosphoric acid
at approx. 35 °C before use.

2.4   Concentrations and operating conditions

2.4.1 Static electrolyte (technical application)

                                                      Range        Optimum
 Gold content                                           --           8.5           g/l
 Electrolyte density                               1.08 - 1.20        --           g/cm³
 Operating temperature                               25 - 40          32           °C
 Cathodic current density                           0.6 - 2          1.1           A/dm²
 Anodic current density                                     max. 1                 A/dm²
 pH range                                           3.9 - 4.5        4.2
 Plating rate
                                                              approx. 0.25         µm/min.
 (at 1.0 A/dm² and 32 °C)
 Hardness                                                120 - 180 HV0.05          kp/mm²
                                                              > 99.5               % Au
 The gold coating contains:
                                                               < 0.5               % Co
 Electrical resistivity of the gold deposit:
                                    at 0 °C                       4.9              µΩ/cm
                                    at 50 °C                      5.6              µΩ/cm




BATH 07020-E                                   Page 4 of 10                       Issue 09.01.2012

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            Talgraben 30                info@schloetter.com                  DIN EN ISO 9001: 2008
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            Germany
2.4.2 Barrel electrolyte (barrel plating)
                                                  Range           Optimum
 Gold content                                       --                4.25      g/l
 Electrolyte density                          1.08 - 1.20               --      g/cm³
 Operating temperature                          25 - 40                32       °C
 Cathodic current density                      0.2 - 0.5               0.4      A/dm²
 Anodic current density                                  max. 1                 A/dm²
 pH range                                      3.9 - 4.5               4.2
 Plating rate (at 0.4 A/dm² and 32 °C)                     0.05                 µm/min.
 Hardness                                            120 - 180 HV0.05           kp/mm²
                                                          > 99.5                % Au
 The gold coating contains:
                                                           < 0.5                % Co
 Specific electrical resistivity of the
 gold deposit:
                                  at 0 °C                     4.9               µΩ/cm
                                  at 50 °C                    5.6               µΩ/cm

2.4.3 Variant D (decorative gold-plating)

                                                  Range           Optimum
 Gold content                                       --                1.7       g/l
 Electrolyte density                          1.07 - 1.16              --       g/cm³
 Operating temperature                          25 - 40               32        °C
 Cathodic current density                      0.3 - 1.0              0.5       A/dm²
 Anodic current density                                  max. 1                 A/dm²
 pH range                                      3.9 - 4.5              4.2
 Plating rate (at 1.0 A/dm² and 32 °C)                     0.06                 µm/min.
 Hardness                                            120 - 180 HV0.05           kp/mm²
                                                          > 99.5                % Au
 The gold coating contains:
                                                           < 0.5                % Co
 Specific electrical resistivity of the
 gold deposit:
                                  at 0 °C                      4.9              µΩ/cm
                                  at 50 °C                     5.6              µΩ/cm

2.5   Consumption and replenishment per Ah
                                            Static            Barrel      Variant D
                                         electrolyte        electrolyte
Gold Potassium Cyanide                       3.9                2.2          2.2           g
Brightener ORIMA B                           3.0                2.0          1.4           ml




BATH 07020-E                                 Page 5 of 10                      Issue 09.01.2012

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            Germany
3.0   PROCESS SEQUENCE

3.1   Pre-treatment
A clean surface is essential to obtain good plating results. In most cases an intermediate
nickel layer should be plated prior to gold plating and then immediately further processed
wet-to-wet without intermediate storage of the parts. Nickel Bath NORMA (BATH 04000-E)
is especially recommended for plating of intermediate layers on electronic components. The
operating data sheet is provided upon request. As a precautionary measure, continuous
filtration of the nickel electrolyte with activated carbon or carbon filter cartridges is
recommended. Our service department and field service will be pleased to provide you
detailed information on suitable activated carbon and carbon filter cartridges.

If high demands are made on the adhesion of the gold coating, especially if thick layers are
deposited, the following gold pre-plating procedure is recommended. In that case, the parts
that have been just nickel-plated or plated with other intermediate layers are rinsed in water
and will then be pre-plated in a gold electrolyte at a current density of up to 1 A/dm² for about
10 to 20 seconds at room temperature. See point 3.2 for detailed information.

3.2   Pre-gold plating
                                             Make-up
 Electrolyte for pre-gold-plating     60 g/l potassium citrate
                                      40 g/l citric acid
                                       3 g/l gold potassium cyanide

                        Concentrations and operating conditions
                                        Range                  Optimum
 Gold content                                                      2                    g/l
 Operating temperature              20 - 30                       25                    °C
                           Barrel:     0.5                         --                   A/dm²
 Cathodic current density
                           Rack:       1.0                         --                   A/dm²
 pH range                            4 - 5                        --
 Treatment time                     15 - 30                        --                   sec.

The pH value must be monitored and corrected with potassium hydroxide or citric acid to
pH 4 - 5 if necessary. The pre-plated parts are immediately transferred in the Hard Bright
Gold ORIMA B electrolyte without intermediate rinsing. If in exceptional cases a promt further
treatment of the nickel plated parts is not possible or accidentally a passivation occurs due to
brief anodic poling for example, the nickel layer must be re-activated (see point 3.3) prior to
pre-plating in the above mentioned gold solution (see point 3.1).




BATH 07020-E                               Page 6 of 10                         Issue 09.01.2012

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            Germany
3.3   Reactivation
                                             Make-up
 Electrolyte (Ni-Strike)        250 g/l nickel chloride
                                60 ml/l hydrochloric acid, conc.

                         Concentrations and operating conditions
                                         Range                  Optimum
 Electrolyte temperature               20 - 30                     25                  °C
 Cathodic current density               2 - 3                      --                  A/dm²
 Treatment time                        30 - 60                      --                 sec.

Then, the parts are rinsed in water and as described above, pre-plated in the gold solution
followed by final plating in Hard Bright Gold ORIMA B.


4.0   MAINTENANCE AND FUNCTION OF THE INDIVIDUAL BATH COMPONENTS

4.1   Gold- and gold additive content
Hard Bright Gold ORIMA B is operated with insoluble anodes. Therefore loss of gold due to
plating out must be replenished in continuous intervals with gold potassium cyanide.
Statistically calculated consumption values of brightener and gold potassium cyanide, see
point 2.5. Please note, that due to different current efficiencies of the
ORIMA B-applications accordingly different consumption figures per ampere-hours
throughput are given.

4.2   Specific gravity (SG) of the electrolyte
The SG for Hard Bright Gold ORIMA B should be between 11 and 24 °Be
(1.083 - 1.2), and the SG for Variant B-D should range between 10 and 20 °Be
(1.075 - 1.161). The SG should not fall below the recommended minimum value since this
would result in decreasing bright throwing power. The SG of the electrolyte is adjusted by the
addition of ORIMA B Agent. An addition of 15 g/l ORIMA B Agent increases the specific
gravity of the electrolyte by approx. 1 °Be.

4.3   pH value
The pH should range between 3.9 and 4.5 and should be monitored on a regular basis with a
pH meter. pH values > 4.5 decreases the brightness in the low current density range and pH
values < 3 result in cracking of the gold cyanide complex. Then gold starts to precipitate and
re-dissolves again if the pH is immediately raised, but after extended periods re-dissolution is
almost impossible.
Newly made-up solutions are operated at pH 3.9 for 1 or 2 days and then the pH is adjusted
to its optimum value 4.2. Corrections are made with orthophosphoric acid p.a. or potassium
hydroxide p.a.




BATH 07020-E                               Page 7 of 10                        Issue 09.01.2012

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            Germany
4.4   Anodes
Platinized titanium anodes are recommended. Expanded metal with a platinum layer of
2.5 µm has been proven to be the best. The anodic current density should range between
0.3 - 1 A/dm².

4.5   Impurities
Impurities should be avoided in regard to the high asset of gold electrolytes. Generally,
organic foreign substances disturb in the electrolyte and can by experience eliminated in
most cases by activated carbon treatment. A thorough filtration with approx. 1 - 4 g/l
activated carbon filtration is recommended when
•   either the colour of the gold deposits differs from optimum
•   if the cathodic current density decreases noticeable
•   if brownish spots appear on the bright gold surface after extended storage periods
•   if the gold deposits turn brittle
Foreign ions of heavy metals and especially iron cause brittle gold coatings as well. Special
care must be taken to avoid any iron contamination in the electrolyte. The upper limit for iron
is 60 to 80 mg/l. The electrolyte must be disposed if the iron concentration is > 80 mg/l, since
at a deposition of 1 µm gold, cracks and brittleness occur. It must be ensured, that the
electrolyte will never be contaminated with iron. If rubber-lined iron tanks are used, the lining
must be controlled on a regular basis. An electrolyte contaminated with iron cannot be
corrected any more.
If rubber-lined iron tanks are used, the lining must be controlled on a regular basis since iron
contamination in the electrolyte cannot be corrected. This is the major reason why we reject
stainless steel anodes.

Mould may form if Hard Bright Gold ORIMA B is not used over a longer period of time.
Although this will only occur in exceptional cases, precautionary 1 ml/l of
Gold Bath Additive G should be added to electrolytes which are not used permanently to
prevent from mould formation. This additive prevents from mould-cultures. The same amount
of Gold Bath Additive G must be added to all post-positioned static rinse tanks. If mould has
already occurred, 2 - 4 g/l of activated carbon must be stirred in and filtrated prior to the
addition of Gold Bath Additive G.

4.6   Filtration, part- and electrolyte agitation
The electrolyte must be continuously filtrated (in circulation) with 1 - 2 turnovers per hour in
order to avoid the existence of suspended particles in the electrolyte. Work piece movement
should be parallel to the anodes at a rate of 1.5 - 2.5 m/min and a stroke length of approx.
50 - 80 mm for all common parts. Work piece movement from and to the anodes at a rate of
0.5 - 0.8 m/min and a stroke length of 30 mm is recommended for printed circuit boards.
When plating in barrels sufficient electrolyte exchange between the solution inside the barrel
and the surrounding electrolyte outside must be ensured. If this is not possible due to very
small barrel openings, the pressure pipe of the filter equipment must be placed inside the
barrel. In addition to part agitation, the electrolyte should be re-circulated by air agitation with
oil-free air due to the low gold content when plating with ORIMA B-D. All equipment used
with ORIMA B must be resistant towards the electrolyte solution.




BATH 07020-E                               Page 8 of 10                            Issue 09.01.2012

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            Germany
5.0   TROUBLE SHOOTING

5.1   Fault finding chart

 Fault                                Cause                            Correction
 • slightly hazy veils in the         • lack of Brightener ORIMA B     • add 1 - 2 ml/l of
   average current density                                               Brightener ORIMA B
   range
 • colour of the gold deposit         • organic contamination          • add 4 g/l of activated
   differs from optimum                                                  carbon and filtrate
                                      • foreign metal contamination    • correction impossible
 • moderate brightness in the         • pH value is too high           • lower with phosphoric
   low current density range                                             acid
 • poor throwing power                • specific gravity of the        • analyse specific gravity
                                        electrolyte is too low           and adjust
 • yellowish sediments in the         • as a result of a too low pH    • increase the pH value
   electrolyte                          value is the destruction of      with potassium
                                        the gold cyanide complex         hydroxide, immediately
 • brittle gold coatings              • organic contamination          • add 4 g/l of activated
                                                                         carbon and filtrate
                                      • contamination with iron or     • correction impossible
                                        other foreign metals
 • mould formation                    • electrolyte isn’t used for a   • add 2 g/l of activated
                                        longer period of time            carbon and filtrate;
                                                                         add 1 ml/l of Gold Bath
                                                                         Additive G




BATH 07020-E                                  Page 9 of 10                          Issue 09.01.2012

            Dr.-Ing. Max Schlötter         Tel. +49(0)7331-205-0              Certified Quality Company
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            Talgraben 30                   info@schloetter.com                DIN EN ISO 9001: 2008
            73312 Geislingen/Steige        w w w.schloetter.com               DIN EN ISO 14001: 2004
            Germany
6.0     EFFLUENT
Legal regulations must be observed for disposal of the Hard Bright Gold ORIMA B. Different
regulations normally apply for the additives and the ready-made electrolyte. Please refer to
section 13 of the appropriate Material Safety Data Sheet for disposal code and
recommendations.

The following detoxification sequence is only considered to be an aid:

Basically, precious metal electrolytes should have a subsequent static- respectively drag-out
rinse. For gold electrolytes it’s worth to install a subsequent anion exchanger to obtain a
complete gold recovery and for a complete reconditioning of the concentrates.


7.0     SAFETY
Reasonable care is required when handling chemical products. Only personnel specially
trained on working with chemicals should be deployed with their handling.

EC Material Safety Data Sheets must be made available to all personnel dealing with the
chemicals to ensure they have all required information about product composition, hazards
identification, first-aid measures, handling and storage, exposure controls, toxicological and
ecological information, etc. It is required to ensure the supply and use of suitable protective
clothing and -equipment.




The user must verify the designated purpose of the electrolyte. Previous experience has shown that not all metal
surfaces are suitable for a trouble-free electroplating.

The above mentioned data are made according to our best knowledge. Consistent operation of the working solution requires appropriate
maintenance. Hard Bright Gold ORIMA B is a process of Dr.-Ing. Max Schlötter GmbH & Co KG. It can only be operated with the
products described in this technical data sheet. Use of other chemicals (also partly) will impair quality and invalidates our service- and
quality commitments (quality assurance).




BATH 07020-E                                               Page 10 of 10                                          Issue 09.01.2012

                 Dr.-Ing. Max Schlötter                 Tel. +49(0)7331-205-0                              Certified Quality Company
                 GmbH & Co. KG                          Fax +49(0)7331-205-123                             according to
                 Talgraben 30                           info@schloetter.com                                DIN EN ISO 9001: 2008
                 73312 Geislingen/Steige                w w w.schloetter.com                               DIN EN ISO 14001: 2004
                 Germany

								
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