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Exam 2 Review Anxiety, Somatoform, Dissociative, Mood, Eating, and Sleep Disorders Anxiety Disorders Fear vs. Anxiety o Immediate vs. anticipated threat Triple vulnerability o Generalized biological vulnerability • Diathesis o Generalized psychological vulnerability • Beliefs/perceptions o Specific psychological vulnerability • Learning/modeling Anxiety Disorders Generalized Anxiety Disorder o Excessive apprehension and worry o “Moving Target” Treatment o Benzodiazepines o Antidepressants o Cognitive-behavioral treatments • Exposure to worry process • Gradual Exposure • Fear Hierarchy Anxiety Disorders Panic DO o Unexpected intense fear o Heart palpitations, chest pain, dizziness, shortness of breath o Thoughts: “I’m going to die” or “something is horribly wrong” Specific Phobias o Extreme and irrational fear of a specific object or situation o Recognizes fears as unreasonable o Avoidance Social Phobia o Extreme and irrational fear/shyness o Social/performance situations o Avoidance or distressed endurance o Separation Anxiety Disorder Anxiety Disorders Post-traumatic Stress Disorder o Trauma exposure o Extreme fear, helplessness, or horror o Continued re-experiencing • (e.g., memories, nightmares, flashbacks) o Avoidance o Emotional numbing Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder o Obsessions • IntrusiveThoughts, images, or urges • Attempts to resist or eliminate o Compulsions • Thoughts or actions • Provide relief Somatoform Disorders Preoccupation with health or appearance o Physical complaints o No identifiable medical condition Hypochondriasis o Anxiety or fear of having a disease o Focus on bodily symptoms o Little benefit from medical reassurance o Strong disease conviction Somatization Disorder o Long history of physical complaints o Concern about symptoms , not meaning o Symptoms = identity Somatoform Disorders Pain Disorders o Pain in one or more areas o Significant impairment o Etiology may be physical o Maintained by psychological factors Conversion Disorder o Physical malfunctioning • Paralysis • Blindness • Difficulty Speaking o Lack physical or organic pathology Somatoform Disorders Malingering o Intentionally produced symptoms o Clear benefit o No precipitating stressful event Factitious Disorder o Intentional production of symptoms o Motivation to assume the “sick role” o No external incentives (money etc.) Factitious Disorder by Proxy o Also known as: Munchausen by Proxy; Medical Child Abuse o Parent creates perception that child is ill o Extreme, repeated medical treatments Somatoform Disorders Body Dysmorphic Disorder o Preoccupation with imagined defect in appearance • “Deformity” not perceived by others Dissociative Disorders Severe alterations or detachments o Normal perceptual experiences Depersonalization o Detached from sense of personal reality Derealization o Loosing sense of external world Dissociative Disorders Types o Depersonalization Disorder o Dissociative Amnesia o Dissociative Fugue o Dissociative Trance Disorder o Dissociative Identity Disorder Dissociative Identity Disorder o Abuse History o Treatment addresses trauma history and reintegrating “alters” Mood Disorders Mood = Long lasting emotional state Affect = physical manifestation of mood Major Depressive Episode o Name Symptoms… Manic Episode o Name Symptoms… Hypomanic Episode o What’s the difference between manic and hypomanic? Dysthymic Disorder Double Depression Biplolar Disorder Bipolar I Disorder o Usually alternating major depressive and manic episodes o Can be single manic episode only Bipolar II Disorder o Alternating major depressive and hypomanic episodes Cyclothymia o Alternating hypomanic and depressive episodes • Less severe • Persists longer o How is this different from Bipolar II? • Insufficient symptoms to meet criteria for Manic Episode or Major Depressive Episode Eating Disorders Bulimia Nervosa o Binge eating o Compensatory behaviors o Can be any weight but generally with 10% of normal Anorexia Nervosa o “Overly-successful” weight loss o 15% below expected weight o Intense fears of gaining weight Binge Eating Disorder o Binge eating but no compensatory behavior o Feeling out of control when eating Sleep Disorders Dyssomnias o Insomnia o Hypersomnia o Narcolepsy o Circadian Rhythm disorder o Breathing-related sleep disorders Parasomnias o Nightmare Disorder o Night Terror Disorder o Sleep Walking
"Anxiety_ Somatoform_ Dissociative_ Mood_ Eating_ and Sleep Disorders"